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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 350373 matches for " W. J.; "
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The 1964 Wellington Study of Beatlemania Revisited  [PDF]
A. J. W. Taylor
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.515190
Abstract: In June 1964, an Honours class in clinical psychology set out to objectify the major parameters of crowd and audience reaction to the Beatles’ during the group’s three-day visit to Wellington, New Zealand. Advance publicity had warned of the “mass-hysteria” to be expected at the sight, sound and lyrics of the four lads from Liverpool. Adolescents anticipated their arrival eagerly, while the authorities were disparaging and somewhat fearful of the breakdown in law and order that might occur. The findings were published in Britain in 1966, taken a little further in the United States in1968, and the original published once more in Britain in 1992 by special request to encourage more psychologists to undertake research off campus. When writers from those countries mentioned the study recently near the 50th anniversary of the Beatles’ visit, it seemed interesting to review the accretion of similar studies that might have occurred. Sadly, the outcome showed that psychologists had not taken mass-audience research any further. Hence it was thought appropriate to lift the Wellington study from obscurity, in the hope of inspiring the next generation to make amends.
Implementation of Acoustic Analogies in OpenFOAM for Computation of Sound Fields  [PDF]
J. Schmalz, W. Kowalczyk
Open Journal of Acoustics (OJA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oja.2015.52004
Abstract: In this work the turbulence based acoustic sources and the corresponding wave propagation of fluctuating flow values in incompressible fluid flows are considered. Lighthill’s and Curle’s acoustic analogies are implemented in the open source computational fluid dynamics framework OpenFOAM. The main objective of this work is to visualize and localize the dominated sound sources and the resulting values of fluctuating pressure values within the computation domain representing the acoustical near field. This is all done on one mesh and during the iterative computation of the transient fluid flow. Finally the flow field and acoustical results of different simulation cases are presented and the properties of the shown method are discussed.
Increases in Lorentz Factor with Dielectric Thickness  [PDF]
J. W. McPherson
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2016.62018
Abstract: For many years, a Lorentz factor of L = 1/3 has been used to describe the local electric field in thin amorphous dielectrics. However, the exact meaning of thin has been unclear. The local electric field Eloc modeling presented in this work indicates that L = 1/3 is indeed valid for very thin solid dielectrics (tdiel ≤ 20 monolayers) but significant deviations from L = 1/3 start to occur for thicker dielectrics. For example, L ≈ 2/3 for dielectric thicknesses of tdiel = 50 monolayers and increases to L ≈ 1 for dielectric thicknesses tdiel > 200 monolayers. The increase in L with tdiel means that the local electric fields are significantly higher in thicker dielectrics and explains why the breakdown strength Ebd of solid polar dielectrics generally reduces with dielectric thickness tdiel. For example, Ebd for SiO2 reduces from approximately Ebd ≈ 25 MV/cm at tdiel = 2 nm to Ebd ≈ 10 MV/cm at tdiel = 50 nm. However, while Ebd for SiO2 reduces with tdiel, all SiO2 thicknesses are found to breakdown at approximately the same local electric field (Eloc)bd ≈ 40 MV/cm. This corresponds to a coordination bond strength of 2.7 eV for the silicon-ion to transition from four-fold to three-fold coordination in the \"\"tetrahedral structure.
Nature’s Particulate Matter with and without Charge and Travelling  [PDF]
Bob W. N. J. Ursem
Open Journal of Biophysics (OJBIPHY) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojbiphy.2016.63008
Abstract: Natures and anthropogenic particulates can travel long distances on wind flows, but negative electrical charge due to friction can increase dispersion. Models for calculations of distance travelling of biological particulate matter with and without charge are never been calculated in a theoretical approach. Nor do we realize the fact that we can calculate actual distances if we take the charge on particles in account. Particles that travel through the air encounter friction. Friction can be described in two ways; either in a smooth constant way through the air with its viscous forces, or in a turbulent chaotic eddies and vortices and other flow instabilities. In case of only viscous forces are to be concerned, it can be described as a lower Reynolds number than one, while in all other setting it always must be described by Reynolds numbers larger than or equal to one. This article describes the calculated effects on particles, either in a low Reynolds number and thus as a Navier-Stokes equation or Stokes’ Law or, in case of non-laminar and complex forces in an equal or higher Reynolds number according to the third Law of Newton. In addition some striking examples of particle travelling are given with evidence of natural particulate matter long distance dispersion.
On the Mechanism of CDOs behind the Current Financial Crisis and Mathematical Modeling with Levy Distributions  [PDF]
H.W. Du, J.L. Wu, W. Yang
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2010.22018
Abstract: This paper aims to reveal the mechanism of Collateralized Debt Obligations (CDOs) and how CDOs extend the current global financial crisis. We first introduce the concept of CDOs and give a brief account of the de-velopment of CDOs. We then explicate the mechanism of CDOs within a concrete example with mortgage deals and we outline the evolution of the current financial crisis. Based on our overview of pricing CDOs in various existing random models, we propose an idea of modeling the random phenomenon with the feature of heavy tail dependence for possible implements towards a new random modeling for CDOs.
Teaching and Knowing beyond the Water Cycle: What Does It Mean to Be Water Literate?  [PDF]
Alison J. Sammel, Dena W. McMartin
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.510097
Abstract: Water is an extraordinary thing: it is the key to the chemistry of life. If it wasn’t for water’s unique properties, such as its abilities to dissolve other substances, life could not exist on our planet. Indeed, life was thought to have started in water and currently more than half of the plant and animal species live in water. On land, plants and animals need water for their existence, as the ability of water to disassemble and rearrange other molecules is essential to all daily actions. As humans, our bodies consist of about 80% water when we are babies, to around 60% - 65% as adults. The human brain is about 85% water. Even though this simple polar molecule is one of the most prized possessions in the universe, what do people know about water? What does it mean to be water literate? In this paper, we explore what it means to be water literate in the fields of engineering and in science education. We will compare this theoretical understanding with what engineering and science education students actually know about water. We finish with recommendations to increase student’s literacy in water.

Soil Depth and Changes in Dry Mass and Competitive Intensity of Two C4 Grasses  [PDF]
J. K. Bush, O. W. Van Auken
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.51018

The presence of grassland biomes and species cannot be predicted by examining bottom up causes such as precipitation and temperature. Top down causes including herbivory and fire seem to be major controlling aspects with other factors secondary. We examined soil depth and competitive ability of two North American C4 grasses in a greenhouse experiment. Changes in dry mass were determined and competitive intensity was calculated for both species. Species were grown separately or together in pots 30, 90, or 180 cm deep. When grown in monoculture, Schizachyrium scoparium total and belowground dry mass increased from the 30 to 90 cm depth, with no further significant increase from 90 to 180 cm. Aboveground dry mass did not increase significantly with depth. Total dry mass of Buchloe dactyloides increased significantly with depth when grown in monoculture. Aboveground dry mass increased from 30 to 90 cm depth but not from 90 to 180 cm. Belowground dry mass of B. dactyloides did not increase significantly with depth. In 180 cm pots, 53% of S. scoparium root dry mass was in the top 30 cm; 74% of B. dactyloides root dry mass was in the top 30 cm. Roots of B. dactyloides were not found deeper than 90 cm. Aboveground dry mass of S. scoparium was not different in mixture or monoculture at any depth. Buchloe dactyloides aboveground dry mass in mixture was significantly lower than monoculture at the 30 cm depth, but not at 90 or 180 cm. The greatest competitive intensity was in the shallow soil pots. Soil depth

The experience of caring for a dying client with intellectual disabilities. A qualitative study with direct-caregivers  [PDF]
Hanneke J. W. Bulsink, Jean Jacques Georges
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2013.38078

Background: Caregivers experience problems when caring for people with intellectual disabilities who are terminally ill. Aim: The aim of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of the experience of the caregiver when caring for a person with intellectual disabilities who is terminally ill and what influences this experience. Design: A qualitative research was carried out following the principles of Grounded Theory (GT) method, through fifteen interviews with caregivers in a living facility with continuous care. Results: The results show how caregivers strive to create meaningful moments for their client during the last period of his life. Since very few of the clients can clearly express their wishes and feelings, continuous observation is required of the caregivers for the interpretation of small signals of their clients. In that way, the appropriateness of their actions can be made certain. The results show that because of their involvement, caregivers are able to recognize clients’ signals. When a client is dying, the special atmosphere created on the ward contributes to coping with the situation and a positive experience. Conclusion: Direct-caregivers caring for a client with an intellectual disability who is terminally ill, experience an intense period of insecurity and also a special period meaningful when caring a dying client with intellectual disabilities. Their relationship with the client makes them to be more able to strive for client’s comfort. The results also show that some factors such as enough staff, clear and open communication with the physician and support of the manager contribute to the quality of palliative care on the ward.

Evaluation of Political News Reportage in Nigeria’s Vanguard and The Guardian Newspapers  [PDF]
Ndoma J. Brown, Israel W. Udomisor
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2015.31002
Abstract: This study was conducted to assess how political issues were treated in Nigeria’s newspapers, by assessing: the ratio of political news to the other subject matters, the readers’ interest given to political stories and the level of prominence attached to these stories by the way of placement and importance. Content analysis was used to gather data, and the study sample was derived through stratified sampling method. A total of 36 daily publications of the two newspapers were content analyzed from a pool of sample drawn through stratified random sampling technique from issues of the newspapers published within the three months period—April to June, 2013. The data from these newspapers were analyzed using independent t-test statistical technique. Findings showed that political issues were not given adequate attention in the two newspapers, and were mostly tailored towards government’s interests. The recommendations among others were that the Nigerian newspapers, in general, should render vivid and unbiased reportage of political issues, as well as scale-up political content in publications as a way of consolidating political consciousness in Nigeria.
Producing Renewable Biodiesel Fuel Using the Transesterification Process  [PDF]
T. W. Chung, Y. J. Chen
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2015.33C016

Biodiesel fuels are considered an alternative to fossil fuels. This is one of the effective means of transferring solar energy to dynamic energy via photosynthesis. It is also being considered in order to reduce the levels of carbon dioxide production worldwide. Biodiesel fuels are a renewable, biodegradable, and clean energy source. Producing enough biofuels to replace fossil fuels will bring the advantages of reduced air pollution and reduced other environmental impacts of fossil fuels. In this study, the response surface methodology (RSM) was used to design the experimental runs and to discuss the manufacturing variables on the transesterification of palm oil into fatty acid methyl ester (i.e. biodiesel fuel). The variation of the degree of effect for each variable in the transesterification process was observed. A second-order model was obtained to predict the yield of biodiesel fuel and the viscosity as a function of the reaction time, the mass fraction of catalyst in methanol and the molar ratio of methanol to plant oil. The experimental data of the yield and the viscosity of biodiesel fuels in different manufacturing variables are discussed in this study. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was also applied to discuss the main factor and interaction factor effects of the manufacturing variables on the responses of the yield of unrefined biodiesel fuels. The shortage of farmland in Taiwan is a problem that needs to be solved before mass propagation of biofuels can be accomplished. In southeastern Asia, there are many farms and most energy farm products are cultivated (e.g. palm oil or Jatropha oil). In addition to sunflowers and soybeans in Taiwan, those energy farm products are possible choices for production of biodiesel fuel in Taiwan. The cooperation between Indonesia and Taiwan on the plantation of palm or Jatropha trees in Indonesia has conducted and will be one of the possible ways to solve the problem of the shortage of energy farm products in Taiwan.

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