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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 93642 matches for " W. Clay Smith "
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Activation of Phospholipase C Mimics the Phase Shifting Effects of Light on Melatonin Rhythms in Retinal Photoreceptors
Susan Semple-Rowland, Irina Madorsky, Susan Bolch, Jonathan Berry, W. Clay Smith
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083378
Abstract: Many aspects of retinal photoreceptor function and physiology are regulated by the circadian clocks in these cells. It is well established that light is the primary stimulus that entrains these clocks; yet, the biochemical cascade(s) mediating light’s effects on these clocks remains unknown. This deficiency represents a significant gap in our fundamental understanding of photoreceptor signaling cascades and their functions. In this study, we utilized re-aggregated spheroid cultures prepared from embryonic chick retina to determine if activation of phospholipase C in photoreceptors in the absence of light can phase shift the melatonin secretion rhythms of these cells in a manner similar to that induced by light. We show that spheroid cultures rhythmically secrete melatonin and that these melatonin rhythms can be dynamically phase shifted by exposing the cultures to an appropriately timed light pulse. Importantly, we show that activation of phospholipase C using m-3M3FBS in the absence of light induces a phase delay in photoreceptor melatonin rhythms that mirrors that induced by light. The implication of this finding is that the light signaling cascade that entrains photoreceptor melatonin rhythms involves activation of phospholipase C.
Relationships among Health and Spiritual Beliefs, Religious Practices, and Congregational Support in Individuals with Cancer  [PDF]
Clay M. Anderson, Marian L. Smith, Dong Yoon, Brick Johnstone
Open Journal of Medical Psychology (OJMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2012.14012
Abstract: To assess relationships among physical health, mental health, spiritual experiences, religious practices, and perceived congregational support for individuals with cancer. Design: A cross-sectional analysis of 56 individuals from outpatient settings (25 with cancer, 31 healthy controls). Measures: Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality (BMMRS; [1]); Medical Outcomes Scale-Short Form 36 (SF-36) General Health Perception (GHP) and General Mental Health (GMH) scales. Results: Participants with cancer reported significantly higher levels of Daily Spiritual Experiences and Religious Support on the BMMRS than the Healthy Controls. No BMMRS subscales were significantly correlated with the SF-36, although the BMMRS subscales had larger correlations with the SF-36 GMH scale (mean = 0.23; range = 0.14 - 0.37) than the GHP scale (mean = 0.16; range = 0.01 - 0.33). Conclusions: Individuals with cancer rely on spiritual beliefs and congregations support more than healthy controls. Statistical trends indicate that individuals with cancer use spiritual, religious, and congregational support factors primarily to assist them in emotion-ally coping with their disease, rather than to improve physical health.
Timing analysis techniques at large core distances for multi-TeV gamma ray astronomy
V. Stamatescu,G. P. Rowell,J. Denman,R. W. Clay,B. R. Dawson,A. G. K. Smith,T. Sudholz,G. J. Thornton,N. Wild
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2011.03.008
Abstract: We present an analysis technique that uses the timing information of Cherenkov images from extensive air showers (EAS). Our emphasis is on distant, or large core distance gamma-ray induced showers at multi-TeV energies. Specifically, combining pixel timing information with an improved direction reconstruction algorithm, leads to improvements in angular and core resolution as large as ~40% and ~30%, respectively, when compared with the same algorithm without the use of timing. Above 10 TeV, this results in an angular resolution approaching 0.05 degrees, together with a core resolution better than ~15 m. The off-axis post-cut gamma-ray acceptance is energy dependent and its full width at half maximum ranges from 4 degrees to 8 degrees. For shower directions that are up to ~6 degrees off-axis, the angular resolution achieved by using timing information is comparable, around 100 TeV, to the on-axis angular resolution. The telescope specifications and layout we describe here are geared towards energies above 10 TeV. However, the methods can in principle be applied to other energies, given suitable telescope parameters. The 5-telescope cell investigated in this study could initially pave the way for a larger array of sparsely spaced telescopes in an effort to push the collection area to >10 km2. These results highlight the potential of a `sparse array' approach in effectively opening up the energy range above 10 TeV.
Mathtype, Version 3.0
David W. Clay
International Journal of Stochastic Analysis , 1993, DOI: 10.1155/s1048953393000255
Abstract: MathType is a mathematical equation editor in the Windows 3.1 environment. It lets you build up any kind of mathematical expression by using simple point-and-click techniques and then insert them into any Windows 3.1 compatible word processor; for instance, Word Perfect 5.1/5.2 for Windows, Word 2.0 for Windows, and AMI Pro 3.0 for Windows. An expression designed by MathType can be transferred into a word processor by using standard Cut and Paste commands or by using Object Linking and Embedding techniques.
Lead, Follow, or Go Your Own Way: Empirical Evidence Against Leader-Follower Behavior in Electronic Markets
Karen Clay,Michael Smith,Eric Wolff
Computer Science , 2001,
Abstract: Low search costs in Internet markets can be used by consumers to find low prices, but can also be used by retailers to monitor competitors' prices. This price monitoring can lead to price matching, resulting in dampened price competition and higher prices in some cases. This paper analyzes price data for 316 bestselling, computer, and random book titles gathered from 32 retailers between August 1999 and January 2000. In contrast to previous studies we find no evidence of leader-follow behavior for the vast majority of retailers we study. Further, the few cases of leader-follow behavior we observe seem to be associated with managerial convenience as opposed to anti-competitive behavior. We offer a methodology that can be used by future academic researchers or government regulators to check for anti-competitive price matching behavior in future time periods or in additional product categories.
Linearizing the Observed Power Spectrum
Clay Smith,Anatoly Klypin,Michael Gross,Joel Primack,Jon Holtzman
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.1998.01561.x
Abstract: Reconstruction of the linear power spectrum from observational data provides a way to compare cosmological models to a large amount of data, as Peacock & Dodds (1994, 1996) have shown. By applying the appropriate corrections to the observational power spectrum it is possible to recover the underlying linear power spectrum for any cosmological model. Using extensive N-body simulations we demonstrate that the method is applicable to a wide range of cosmological models. However, we find that the recovery of the linear power spectrum from observations following PD94 is misleading because the corrections are model- dependent. When we apply the proper corrections for a given model to the observational power spectrum, we find that no model in our test group recovers the linear power spectrum well for the bias suggested by PD94 between Abell, Radio, Optical, and IRAS catalogs 4.5:1.9:1.3:1, with b_IRAS=1. When we allow b_IRAS to vary we find that: (i)CHDM models give very good fits to observations if optically-selected galaxies are slightly biased b_Opt=1.1 (ii) Most LCDM models give worse but acceptable fits if blue galaxies are considerably antibiased: 0.6
Bigger May Not Be Better: An Empirical Analysis of Optimal Membership Rules in Peer-To-Peer Networks
Atip Asvanund,Karen Clay,Ramayya Krishnan,Michael Smith
Computer Science , 2001,
Abstract: Peer to peer networks will become an increasingly important distribution channel for consumer information goods and may play a role in the distribution of information within corporations. Our research analyzes optimal membership rules for these networks in light of positive and negative externalities additional users impose on the network. Using a dataset gathered from the six largest OpenNap-based networks, we find that users impose a positive network externality based on the desirability of the content they provide and a negative network externality based on demands they place on the network. Further we find that the marginal value of additional users is declining and the marginal cost is increasing in the number of current users. This suggests that multiple small networks may serve user communities more efficiently than single monolithic networks and that network operators may wish to specialize in their content and restrict membership based on capacity constraints and user content desirability.
Genomic Hotspots for Adaptation: The Population Genetics of Müllerian Mimicry in Heliconius erato
Brian A. Counterman ,Felix Araujo-Perez,Heather M. Hines,Simon W. Baxter,Clay M. Morrison,Daniel P. Lindstrom,Riccardo Papa,Laura Ferguson,Mathieu Joron,Richard H. ffrench-Constant,Christopher P. Smith,Dahlia M. Nielsen,Rui Chen,Chris D. Jiggins,Robert D. Reed,Georg Halder,Jim Mallet,W. Owen McMillan
PLOS Genetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000796
Abstract: Wing pattern evolution in Heliconius butterflies provides some of the most striking examples of adaptation by natural selection. The genes controlling pattern variation are classic examples of Mendelian loci of large effect, where allelic variation causes large and discrete phenotypic changes and is responsible for both convergent and highly divergent wing pattern evolution across the genus. We characterize nucleotide variation, genotype-by-phenotype associations, linkage disequilibrium (LD), and candidate gene expression patterns across two unlinked genomic intervals that control yellow and red wing pattern variation among mimetic forms of Heliconius erato. Despite very strong natural selection on color pattern, we see neither a strong reduction in genetic diversity nor evidence for extended LD across either patterning interval. This observation highlights the extent that recombination can erase the signature of selection in natural populations and is consistent with the hypothesis that either the adaptive radiation or the alleles controlling it are quite old. However, across both patterning intervals we identified SNPs clustered in several coding regions that were strongly associated with color pattern phenotype. Interestingly, coding regions with associated SNPs were widely separated, suggesting that color pattern alleles may be composed of multiple functional sites, conforming to previous descriptions of these loci as “supergenes.” Examination of gene expression levels of genes flanking these regions in both H. erato and its co-mimic, H. melpomene, implicate a gene with high sequence similarity to a kinesin as playing a key role in modulating pattern and provides convincing evidence for parallel changes in gene regulation across co-mimetic lineages. The complex genetic architecture at these color pattern loci stands in marked contrast to the single casual mutations often identified in genetic studies of adaptation, but may be more indicative of the type of genetic changes responsible for much of the adaptive variation found in natural populations.
Triage in mass casualty situations
W Smith
Continuing Medical Education , 2012,
Abstract:
Aeromedicine — A regional approach
W Smith
Continuing Medical Education , 2004,
Abstract:
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