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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 84831 matches for " W Kerry Mummery "
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Qualitative and quantitative research into the development and feasibility of a video-tailored physical activity intervention
Corneel Vandelanotte, W Kerry Mummery
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-70
Abstract: Five focus groups (n = 30), aimed at males and females, aged between 35 and 60 years, that do not meet the physical activity recommendation, were conducted to allow in-depth discussion of various elements related to the development of an online video-tailored intervention. In addition, a series of questions were delivered to a random sample (n = 1261) of Australians, using CATI survey technology, to gain more information and add a quantitative assessment of feasibility related to the development of the intervention. Focus group data was transcribed, and summarised using Nvivo software. Descriptive and frequency data of the survey was obtained using SPSS 18.0.Nearly all of the focus group participants supported the concept of a video-tailored intervention and 35.8% of survey participants indicated that they would prefer a video-based over a text-based intervention. Participants with a slow internet-connection displayed a lower preference for video-based advice (31.9%); however less than 20% of the survey sample indicated that downloading videos would be slow. The majority of focus group and survey participants did not support the idea of using mobile phones to receive this kind of intervention and indicated that video-tailored messages should be shorter than 5 minutes. Video-delivery of content is very rich in information, which increases the challenge to appropriately tailor content to participant characteristics; focus-group outcomes indicated a large diversity in participant preferences. 52.4% of survey participants indicated that the videos should be convincing and motivating.These results provide valuable information to develop an innovative video-tailored physical activity intervention. The results support the feasibility of such intervention, both in terms of users being ready to participate in it, as well as from a point of view whereby current internet infrastructure is able to cope with the demands of downloading videos. Though promising, a number of specif
Perceived environment and physical activity: a meta-analysis of selected environmental characteristics
Mitch J Duncan, John C Spence, W Kerry Mummery
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-2-11
Abstract: Published studies were identified from electronic databases and searches of personal files. Studies were examined to determine the environmental constructs most frequently studied. Included studies (N = 16) examined at least one identified construct and determined associations between perceived environmental constructs and PA using logistic regression. Data were analyzed separately for crude and adjusted ORs using general-variance based fixed effect models.No significant associations emerged between environmental characteristics and PA using crude OR. The perceived presence of PA facilities (OR 1.20, 95% 1.06–1.34), sidewalks (OR 1.23, 95% 1.13–1.32), shops and services (OR 1.30, 95% 1.14–1.46) and perceiving traffic not to be a problem (OR 1.22, 95% 1.08–1.37) were positively associated with activity using adjusted ORs. Variance in PA accounted for by significant associations ranged from 4% (heavy traffic not a problem) to 7% (presence of shops and services).Results of the meta-analysis support the relevance of perceived environmental characteristics for understanding population PA. These results should encourage the use of comprehensive ecological models that incorporate variables beyond basic demographic information.The burden of disease attributable to physical inactivity is estimated at $377 million in Australia [1], $2.1 billion in Canada [2] and $24 billion in the U.S. [3], and continues to rise as large majorities of populations remain insufficiently active for health benefits. Research relating to the determinants of physical activity and inactivity has previously focused on determinants at the individual level, largely neglecting physical environments as influences of PA [4]. It is now acknowledged that environments that people build and inhabit provide potential opportunities and barriers to engaging in physically active lifestyles [5,6]. Furthermore, suburban sprawl and the way neighborhoods are designed are related to the physical health and bodyweight
Examination of program exposure across intervention delivery modes: face-to-face versus internet
Rebekah M Steele, W Kerry Mummery, Trudy Dwyer
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-4-7
Abstract: Baseline and immediately post-intervention survey data, and exposure rates from participants that commenced the RT were included (n = 192). Exposure was defined as either face-to-face attendance, website usage, or a combination of both for the internet-mediated group. Characteristics of participants who were exposed to at least 75% of the program material were explored. Descriptive analysis and logistical regression were used to examine differences between groups for program exposure.All groups showed decrease in program exposure over time. Differences were also observed (χ2 = 10.37, p < 0.05), between intervention groups. The internet-mediated (OR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.13–5.1) and internet-only (OR = 2.96, 95% CI 1.38–6.3) groups were more likely to have been exposed to at least 75% of the program compared to the face-to-face group. Participants with high physical activity self-efficacy were 1.82 (95% CI 1.15–2.88) times more likely to have been exposed to 75% of the program, and those allocated to the face-to-face group were less likely to have attended 75% of the face-to-face sessions if they were classified as obese (OR = 0.21 95% CI 0.04–0.96).These results suggest that the internet groups were as effective as the face-to-face delivery mode in engaging participants in the program material. However, different delivery methods may be more useful to different sub-populations. It is important to explore which target groups that internet-based programs are best suited, in order to increase their impact.Current epidemiological evidence suggests that approximately 60% of the global population do not participate in sufficient physical activity for health benefit [1], defined as participating in 30-minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity (of least 10-minute bouts) on 5 or more days of the week [2]. Inactivity is associated with many chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease and some cancers [3-7]. Therefore, developing
Examining Physical Activity Service Provision to Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) Communities in Australia: A Qualitative Evaluation
Cristina M. Caperchione, Gregory S. Kolt, W. Kerry Mummery
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062777
Abstract: Strong evidence exists for the role of physical activity in preventing and managing a range of chronic health conditions. A particular challenge in promoting physical activity as a health strategy exists in culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) groups, as such groups demonstrate high risk for a range of non-communicable diseases. The aim of this research was to examine the perspective of multicultural health service providers for CALD groups with respect to the physical activity services/initiatives on offer, access barriers to these services, and ideas for future service delivery in this area. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 multicultural health service providers across the capital cities of the three most populous states in Australia (New South Wales, Queensland, and Victoria), and thematic content analysis was used to examine the data. Findings indicated that the majority of physical activity initiatives were associated with organizations offering other social services for CALD communities but were greatly restrained by resources. As well, it was found that most services were not designed by taking into account specific cultural requirements for CALD communities or their cultural expectations. Common barriers identified to service uptake were classified as socio-cultural (e.g., gender, language, context of health) and environmental (e.g., transportation) in nature. These findings should be utilized when planning future physical activity and health promotion initiatives for increasing CALD participation. In particular, programs need to be culturally tailored to the specific expectations of CALD groups, addressing cultural safety and sensitivity, and should be in partnership with other organizations to extend the reach and capacity.
The development of an internet-based outpatient cardiac rehabilitation intervention: a Delphi study
Corneel Vandelanotte, Trudy Dwyer, Anetta Van Itallie, Christine Hanley, W Kerry Mummery
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2261-10-27
Abstract: A three-round Delphi study among cardiac rehabilitation experts was conducted. In the first round, 43 experts outlined opinions they had on the development of an online ORC platform into an open-ended electronic questionnaire. In the second round, 42 experts completed a structured (five-point scale) electronic questionnaire based on first round results, in which they scored items on their relevance. In the third round, the same experts were asked to re-rate the same items after feedback was given about the group median relevance score to establish a level of consensus.After the third round, high consensus was reached in 120 of 162 (74%) questionnaire items, of which 93 (57% of 162 items) also had high relevance according to the experts. The results indicate that experts strongly agreed on desired website content, data obtained from the patient, and level of interaction with patients that should be part of an Internet-based OCR intervention.The high rates of consensus and relevance observed among cardiac rehabilitation experts are an indication that they perceived the development and implementation of an Internet-based ORC intervention as feasible, and as a valuable alternative to face-to-face programs. In many ways the experts indicated that an Internet-based ORC program should mimic a traditional face-to-face program, and emphasize the crucial role of the cardiac rehabilitation manager who interacts with patients from a distance. The present study revealed practical insights into how Internet OCR interventions should be designed and opens the door for the development of such an intervention to be subsequently examined in a longitudinal and experimental study.In developed countries cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to be the leading cause for mortality and morbidity in men and women and reducing its burden remains an important public health priority [1,2]. Controlling the CVD epidemic requires a multifaceted strategy targeting recognised modifiable risk factors
Meta-analysis of internet-delivered interventions to increase physical activity levels
Cally A Davies, John C Spence, Corneel Vandelanotte, Cristina M Caperchione, W Kerry Mummery
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-9-52
Abstract:
Physical activity behaviours of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) women living in Australia: A qualitative study of socio-cultural influences
Cristina M Caperchione, Gregory S Kolt, Rebeka Tennent, W Mummery
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-26
Abstract: Twelve focus group sessions were undertaken with CALD women (N = 110) from Bosnian, Arabic speaking, Filipino and Sudanese communities in three regions: New South Wales, Victoria, and Queensland. In a semi-structured, open table discussion, participants were encouraged to share their opinions, perceptions and beliefs regarding socio-cultural influences on their physical activity behaviours. Common and ethnic-specific themes emerged from the discussions.Common themes included: knowledge of physical activity, differing physical activity levels, and the effects of psychological and socio-cultural factors, environmental factors, and perceptions of ill-health and injury, on physical activity behaviours. Ethnic-specific themes indicated that post-war trauma, religious beliefs and obligations, socio-economic status, social isolation and the acceptance of traditional cultural activities, greatly influenced the physical activity behaviours of Bosnian, Arabic speaking, Filipino and Sudanese women living in communities throughout Australia.This study demonstrates that attitudes and understandings of health and wellbeing are complex, and have a strong socio-cultural influence. The findings of the present study can be used not only to inform further health promotion initiatives, but also as a platform for further research with consumers of these services and with those who deliver such services.Australia has witnessed a rapid increase in migration over the past 10 years, with annual migrant numbers doubling as a proportion of the total population [1]. With the diversity of this growing population Australia faces a number of population health challenges. Close examination of epidemiological data reveals particular burdens of disease in women from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) communities now living throughout Australia [2]. Moreover, there is a consensus among western countries, including Australia, New Zealand, United Kingdom, United States and Canada, that signif
Pricing and Hedging Derivative Securities with Unknown Local Volatilities
Kerry W. Fendick
Quantitative Finance , 2013,
Abstract: A common assumption in financial engineering is that the market price for any derivative coincides with an objectively defined risk-neutral price - a plausible assumption only if traders collectively possess objective knowledge about the price dynamics of the underlying security over short time scales. Here we assume that traders have an objective knowledge about the underlying security's price trajectories only for large time scales. We show that avoidance of arbitrage that is still feasible uniquely determines the prices of options with large expiration times, and we derive limit theorems useful for estimation of model parameters and present-value analysis of derivative portfolios.
Correlates of pedometer use: Results from a community-based physical activity intervention trial (10,000 Steps Rockhampton)
Elizabeth G Eakin, Kerry Mummery, Marina M Reeves, Sheleigh P Lawler, Grant Schofield, Alison J Marshall, Wendy J Brown
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-4-31
Abstract: Pedometer use was promoted across all intervention strategies including: local media, pedometer loan schemes through general practice, other health professionals and libraries, direct mail posted to dog owners, walking trail signage, and workplace competitions. Data on pedometer use were collected during the 2-year follow-up telephone interviews from random population samples in Rockhampton, Australia, and a matched comparison community (Mackay). Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the independent influence of interpersonal characteristics and program exposure variables on pedometer use.Data from 2478 participants indicated that 18.1% of Rockhampton and 5.6% of Mackay participants used a pedometer in the previous 18-months. Rockhampton pedometer users (n = 222) were more likely to be female (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.23), aged 45 or older (OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.16, 2.46) and to have higher levels of education (university degree OR = 4.23, 95% CI: 1.86, 9.6). Respondents with a BMI > 30 were more likely to report using a pedometer (OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.54) than those in the healthy weight range. Compared with those in full-time paid work, respondents in 'home duties' were significantly less likely to report pedometer use (OR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.53). Exposure to individual program components, in particular seeing 10,000 Steps street signage and walking trails or visiting the website, was also significantly associated with greater pedometer use.Pedometer use varies between population subgroups, and alternate strategies need to be investigated to engage men, people with lower levels of education and those in full-time 'home duties', when using pedometers in community-based physical activity promotion initiatives.The evidence supporting the role of physical activity in the prevention and management of a wide range of chronic diseases is overwhelming [1,2]. However, while the health benefits of physical activity are well established, in Australia
Verifying cell loss requirements in high-speed communication networks
Kerry W. Fendick,Ward Whitt
International Journal of Stochastic Analysis , 1998, DOI: 10.1155/s1048953398000276
Abstract: In high-speed communication networks it is common to have requirements of very small cell loss probabilities due to buffer overflow. Losses are measured to verify that the cell loss requirements are being met, but it is not clear how to interpret such measurements. We propose methods for determining whether or not cell loss requirements are being met. A key idea is to look at the stream of losses as successive clusters of losses. Often clusters of losses, rather than individual losses, should be regarded as the important loss events . Thus we propose modeling the cell loss process by a batch Poisson stochastic process. Successive clusters of losses are assumed to arrive according to a Poisson process. Within each cluster, cell losses do not occur at a single time, but the distance between losses within a cluster should be negligible compared to the distance between clusters. Thus, for the purpose of estimating the cell loss probability, we ignore the spaces between successive cell losses in a cluster of losses. Asymptotic theory suggests that the counting process of losses initiating clusters often should be approximately a Poisson process even though the cell arrival process is not nearly Poisson. The batch Poisson model is relatively easy to test statistically and fit; e.g., the batch-size distribution and the batch arrival rate can readily be estimated from cell loss data. Since batch (cluster) sizes may be highly variable, it may be useful to focus on the number of batches instead of the number of cells in a measurement interval. We also propose a method for approximately determining the parameters of a special batch Poisson cell loss with geometric batch-size distribution from a queueing model of the buffer content. For this step, we use a reflected Brownian motion (RBM) approximation of a G/D/1/C queueing model. We also use the RBM model to estimate the input burstiness given the cell loss rate. In addition, we use the RBM model to determine whether the presence of losses should significantly affect the estimation of server utilization when both losses and utilizations are estimated from data. Overall, our analysis can serve as a basis for determining required observation intervals in order to reach conclusions with a solid statistical basis. Thus our analysis can help plan simulations as well as computer system measurements.
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