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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 84350 matches for " W Ergete "
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The effects of Moringa stenopetala on blood parameters and histopathology of liver and kidney in mice
D Ghebreselassie, Y Mekonnen, G Gebru, W Ergete, K Huruy
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Moringa stenopetala and related species are commonly used in folk medicine for various human diseases such as antimalarial, antihypertensive, antidiabetic and as antispasmodic. Objective: The aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of M. stenopetala on blood parameters, and histopathology of liver and kidney in experimental mice. Methods: Fresh leaves of M. stenopetala were collected from Arbaminch area, Southwest Ethiopia, in November 2005. The leaves were dried and extracted with water. Three month-old Swiss albino male mice, which were kept under uniform laboratory conditions, were randomly divided into four groups (one group of controls and three experimental). (The control group was orally given 0.5 ml of distilled water, and groups II, III and IV were given the aqueous leaf extract of M. stenopetala using intragastric tube to achieve the required doses of 600, 750 and 900 mg/kg body weight, respectively once a day at 24 hours intervals for six weeks and then sacrificed). Blood sample was collected from each mouse and examined for hematological and biochemical parameters. Liver and kidney were removed, stained and examined for histopathological profiles. The effects of treatment with aqueous extract of M. stenopetala on hematological, biochemical and histopathology features were compared with control group following standard procedures. Results: Mice treated with 900 mg/kg of the extract per kg of body weight showed a significant increase in body weight compared to the controls (P=0.014). Neither a significant change in the weight nor in histopathology of liver and kidney were observed in the animals treated with aqueous extract of M. stenopetala compared to those of the controls. Serum glucose level (P=0.034) and serum cholesterol level (P=0.016) decreased significantly after six weeks treatment. Conclusion: The aqueous leaf extract of M. stenopetala is shown to increase body weight and reduce serum glucose and cholesterol level in mice. This indicates nutritional and medicinal values, but we cannot yet recommend its therapeutic use before more and complete studies are done.
The Effect of Clerodendrum Myricoides Aqueous Extract on Blood, Liver and Kidney Tissues of Mice
H Kebede, M Afework, E Makonnen, W Ergete, K Urga
Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science , 2011,
Abstract: Clerodendrum myricoides is a plant traditionally used for its medicinal value in many parts of the world including Ethiopia. Several human defects are treated in different regions of Ethiopia using the roots, leaves, twigs, fruits and root barks of Clerodendrum myricoides species. The objective of the present study is to investigate the effect of the aqueous extract of Clerodendrum myricoides root on different tissue of mice in chronic administration. The root of the plant were collected in Bale area, Ethiopia dried and crushed into powder and soaked in water to yield aqueous extract. The extract was then administered to mice at doses of 100 and 400mg/kg bw/day for six weeks and 1134mg/kg bw/day (LD50) once. The 400mg/kg bw/day and LD50 treated mice showed hypoactivity (abnormally diminished activity), grooming, prostration (submissively prone position), piloroerection (elevation of hairs) and irritation, while 100mg/kg bw/day treated mice showed no behavioral changes. The dose of 100mg/kg bw/day produced significant weight gain, while 400mg/kg bw/day produced significant weight lost in chronic administration. The extract increased only urea at the dose of 100mg/kg bw/day, whereas it increases most hematological and biochemical parameters at 400mg/kg bw/day. The extract, however did not show significant change in platelet, HGB and MCHC value at both doses. Several histopathological changes in liver and kidney were also observed at both doses of the extract. There were inflammation and hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes at both doses. The LD50 of the extract produced hemorrhages and congestion in the glomeruli of the kidney.
Acid fast bacilli in aspiration smears from tuberculous patients
Wondwossen Ergete, Alemayehu Bekele
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2000,
Abstract: Fine-Needle aspiration (FNA) has been used in the diagnosis of tuberculous adenitis or extrapulmonary tuberculosis of extranodal sites for more than ten years in the Tikur Anbessa Teaching Hospital, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Addis Ababa University. The purpose of this study was to see the correlation between the cytomorphologic diagnosis and the subsequent demonstration of acid fast bacilli in the smear and also to know the overall acid fast bacilli (AFB) positivity. A cross sectional study, involving a total of 205 consecutive patients diagnosed to have tuberculosis by cytomorphology (FNA) between mid 1996 and early 1997 were included in the study. The May-Grunwald Giemsa stained smears were classified into three categories: Epithelioid granuloma without caseous necrosis, Epithelioid granuloma with caseous necrosis, Abscess and/or Caseous necrosis. There were 131 (63.9%) cases with granuloma with caseous necrosis, 67(32.7%) cases with abscess and/or caseous necrosis , and only seven (3.4%) cases with granuloma without caseous necrosis. The AFB positivity as stained by Ziehl Neelsen stain was 99 (75.6%) in granuloma with caseous necrosis, 46(68.7%) in tuberculous abscess and/or caseous necrosis and 2(28.5%) in granuloma without necrosis. The overall acid fast positivity was 71.7%. This study confirmed that FNA alone is helpful enough in making a diagnosis of tuberculosis in most of the cases. We recommend that the evaluation of all fine needle aspiration samples from suspected cases of tuberculosis should include staining for AFB for confirmation and in particular for cases of abscess and necrosis as part a diagnostic step. However, culture of the aspirate is still required when the smears are AFB negative and cytologically equivocal whenever it is available. (Ethiopian Journal of Health Development: 2000, 14(1): 99-104)
Discordance Rate between Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology and Histopathologic Diagnosis
Wondwossen Ergete, Daniel Abebe
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2002,
Abstract: Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) of the thyroid is a low cost procedure, which can give an accurate diagnosis promptly. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of Fine needle Aspiration of the thyroid against histopathologic (gold standard) examinations done during January 1994-December 2000. Three hundred forty-four patient records were included in the study. The study revealed the sensitivity and specificity of FNA to be 67% and 84.7% respectively. The FNA was non diagnostic in 0.87% of cases, suspicious in 2% of cases and were diagnostic in 97% of cases. The False negative and False Positive rates in this study were 4.5% and 13.5% respectively. It was concluded that FNA is useful as the initial diagnostic test in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. [Ethiop.J.Health Dev. 2002;16(2):227-231]
Bauxit
. W.
Nieuwe West-Indische Gids , 1951,
Abstract:
Creation of High Energy/Intensity Bremsstrahlung by a Multi-Target and Focusing of the Scattered Electrons by Small-Angle Backscatter at a Cone Wall and a Magnetic Field—Enhancement of the Outcome of Linear Accelerators in Radiotherapy  [PDF]
W. Ulmer
International Journal of Medical Physics,Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology (IJMPCERO) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijmpcero.2013.24020
Abstract: The yield of bremsstrahlung (BS) from collisions of fast electrons (energy at least 6 MeV) with a Tungsten target can be significantly improved by exploitation of Tungsten wall scatter in a multi-layered target. A simplified version of a previously developed principle is also able to focus on small angle scattered electrons by a Tungsten wall. It is necessary that the thickness of each Tungsten layer does not exceed 0.04 mm—a thickness of 0.03 mm is suitable for accelerators in medical physics. Further focusing of electrons results from suitable magnetic fields with field strength between 0.5 Tesla and 1.2 Tesla (if the cone with multi-layered targets is rather narrow). Linear accelerators in radiation therapy only need to be focused by wall scatter without further magnetic fields (a standard case: 31 plates with 0.03 mm thickness and 1 mm distance between the plates). We considered three cases with importance in medical physics: A very small cone with an additional magnetic field for focusing (the field diameter at 90 cm depth: 6 cm), a medium cone with an optional magnetic field (field diameter at 90 cm depth: 13 cm) and a broad cone without a magnetic field (
Social Issues of Urban Road Rehabilitation  [PDF]
W. Supul
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2018.63022
Abstract:
This study highlights the social issues of an urban road confronted after the recent rehabilitation works. The study reveals that the road has facilitated faster travel with rider comfort but does not provide a very safe place for residents, children of the kindergarten and school and, walkers. The study has identified several social impacts caused by rehabilitation such as walker and resident un-comfort, inconvenience for businesses, not abating environmental pollution, absence of facilities for disable people and several more. Because the road platform is devoid of trees, the motorists, residents and pedestrians are stripped off of an array of benefits. Nor the road design has considered the comfort of walkers especially disable, elderly, sick and children by not providing a fully connected road walkway and not providing any tree shade and benches to have a rest on a hot and sunny day. The road has also not addressed environmental concerns especially the mechanisms for reduction of impacts of particle and other noxious gases emanating from motor vehicle movement on inhabitants. A method to analyze road impacts is included that serves as an aid for future rehabilitation of urban roads.
On the Origin of Mass and Angular Momentum of Stellar Objects  [PDF]
Peter C. W. Fung, K. W. Wong
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.615235
Abstract: The consequence of the 5D projection theory [1] is extended beyond the Gell-Mann Standard Model for hadrons to cover astronomical objects and galaxies. The proof of Poincare conjecture by Pe-relman’s differential geometrical techniques led us to the consequence that charged massless spinors reside in a 5D void of a galactic core, represented by either an open 5D core or a closed, time frozen, 3D × 1D space structure, embedded in massive structural stellar objects such as stars and planets. The open galactic core is obtained from Ricci Flow mapping. There exist in phase, in plane rotating massless spinors within these void cores, and are responsible for 1) the outward spiral motion of stars in the galaxy in the open core, and 2) self rotations of the massive stellar objects. It is noted that another set of eigen states pertaining to the massless charged spinor pairs rotating out of phase in 1D (out of the 5D manifold) also exist and will generate a relatively weak magnetic field out of the void core. For stars and planets, it forms the intrinsic dipole field. Due to the existence of a homogeneous 5D manifold from which we believe the universe evolves, the angular momentum arising from the rotation of the in-phase spinor pairs is proposed to be counter-balanced by the rotation of the matter in the surrounding Lorentz domain, so as to conserve net zero angular momentum. Explicit expression for this total angular momentum in terms of a number of convergent series is derived for the totally enclosed void case/core, forming in general the structure of a star or a planet. It is shown that the variables/parameters in the Lorentz space-time domain for these stellar objects involve the object’s mass M, the object’s Radius R, period of rotation P, and the 5D void radius Ro, together with the Fermi energy Ef and temperature T of the massless charged spinors residing in the void. We discovered three laws governing the relationships between Ro/R, T, Ef and the angular momentum Iω of such astronomical object of interest, from which we established two distinct regions, which we define as the First and Second Laws for the evolution of the stellar object. The Fermi energy Ef was found to be that of the electron mass, as it is the lightest massive elementary particle that could be created from pure energy in the core. In fact the mid-temperature of the transition region between the
Biopesticides and Their Role in Sustainable Agricultural Production  [PDF]
Geraldin M. W. Lengai, James W. Muthomi
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2018.66002
Abstract: Biopesticides are derivatives of plants, microorganisms and insects. Substances from plants and animals have been used to manage diseases in crops, animals and humans. Reliance on nature to heal nature is a practise for many people around the world. Use of natural products was overtaken by synthetic chemicals due to their efficacy, reliability and quick knock down effect. However, synthetic pesticides have become a health hazards for humans and environment due to their toxicity and pollution. Biopesticides are potential alternatives to synthetic pesticides. Sources of biopesticides are readily available, easily biodegradable, exhibit various modes of action, are less expensive and have low toxicity to humans and non-target organisms. Neem, pyrethrum, cotton and tobacco are known sources of botanical pesticides and have already been commercialized. Other sources of botanical pesticides include garlic, euphorbia, citrus, pepper among others. Species of Trichoderma, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Beauveria have been commercialized as microbial pesticides. Biopesticides are however faced with challenges of formulation, registration, commercialization, acceptance and adoption. This paper describes several aspects of biopesticide development, including but not limited to, their sources, production, formulation, commercialization, efficacy and role in sustainable agriculture.
Software Reuse: Developers’ Experiences and Perceptions  [PDF]
William W. Agresti
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2011.41006
Abstract: Reusing programs and other artifacts has been shown to be an effective strategy for significant reduction of development costs. This article reports on a survey of 128 developers to explore their experiences and perceptions about using other people’s code: to what extent does the “not invented here” attitude exist? The survey was structured around a novel and simple “4A” model, which is introduced in this article: for an organization to obtain any benefits from reusing code, four conditions must obtain: availability, awareness, accessibility, and acceptability. The greatest impediments to reuse were shown to be awareness of reusable code and developers’ perceptions of its acceptability for use on their new projects. For 72% of developers, the complexity of the old code was cited as a reason that the code was not reused. The survey also included developers’ suggestions for ways to take greater advantage of existing code and related artifacts.
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