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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 84543 matches for " W Alemayehu "
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Effect of Phosphorus Rates and Varieties on Grain Yield, Nutrient Uptake and Phosphorus Efficiency of Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter]  [PDF]
Alemayehu Balcha
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.53035
Abstract:

Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] is the major cereal crop in Ethiopia. Increasing tef yield requires improving soil phosphorus (P) supply and identifying P efficient varieties. An experiment was conducted at Wenago, Ethiopia, from May to August, 2011, during the main cropping season, to investigate the role of P supply in relation to grain yield, nutrient uptake (N, P, Ca and K) and P efficiency, and to investigate varietal differences for these parameters using four P rates (0, 3, 6 and 9 g/m2 P2O5) as main plots and three tef varieties (DZ-Cr-37, DZ-Cr-82, and DZ-Cr-255) as subplots in split-plot design with three replications. For respective 0, 3, 6 and 9 g/m2 P2O5, grain yield was 84, 203, 215 and 218 g/m2, total biomass 586, 897, 971 and 1016 g/m2, and harvest index 0.14, 0.23, 0.22 and 0.22. For respective variety DZ-Cr-37, DZ-Cr-82, and DZ-Cr-255, grain yield was 194, 182 and 163 g/m2, total biomass 810, 922 and 871 g/m2, and harvest index 0.24, 0.19 and 0.18. Total plant

Land Use and Land Cover Change in the Coastal Area of Watamu Mida Creek, Kenya  [PDF]
Fikir Alemayehu
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2016.64019
Abstract: Watamu Mida creek coastal areas, mainly the shoreline, the mangroves and the general environment have been changing due to the impact of land use change, shoreline erosion, human population pressure and the expansion of tourism sector. This research assesses the impact of land use change on mangrove dynamics and shoreline erosion as well as the main driving factors that cause these changes in Watamu Midacreek. This study uses old aerial photographs (1969 and 1989), current high resolution satellite images World view (2010) and ground truthing in combination with information from the local community to analyze the impact of change in land use from 1969-2010. Land use and cover types were visually interpreted, digitized and delineated using aerial photographs of 1969, 1989 and 2010 satellite images in ArcGIS.9.3.1 and ERDAS IMAGINE 2014 software. The results of the land use change between 1969 and 1989 showed a decline of scrub land, miscellaneous coastal vegetation, coastal bush, thicket with trees and mangroves, whereas new types of land use which emerged during this period were town and barren land. The greatest land use change rate observed between 1969 and 1989 was in miscellaneous coastal vegetation at 2.5%, while coastal bush experienced a significant negative change rate of 6.5%. The main land use changes observed between 1989 and 2010 were increasing coastal bush, an expansion of town and urban areas, hotels and private holiday houses. Encroachments into the mangrove forest have been observed both by local people and foreign private holiday house owners. The change in land use had an impact on shoreline changes as well. Areas mainly covered by old trees, and coastal bushes which protected the shoreline from erosion currently have been converted into very big hotels and several private holiday house complexes. The main drivers of land use change were human population growth and policy (through weakness of law enforcement). Policies and regulations which are not currently implemented need to be updated based on the current pressure-state situation, and there should be strong law enforcement and strict regulation to control any unplanned developments along the coast and in the neighboring hinterland.
Thyroid function profile, and its association to consumption of cassava and Moringa stenopetala in pregnant women  [PDF]
Alemayehu Zekewos Golla
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2013.35048
Abstract: Background: Pregnancy is associated with the change in thyroid function. Thyroid function is also affected by goitrogenic substances in some plant foods, like cassava. Aim: This study aims to assess thyroid function status and its association to consumption of foods containing goitrogenic substances. Methods: A cross sectional study was done on a total of 65 pregnant women attending Sawla Health Center, South Ethiopia. Serum samples were collected and analyzed for TSH, total T4 and total T3 by using ELISA kit. Data on consumption of foods containing were obtained from food frequency questionnaire. Results: The median TSH of the first, second and third trimesters, respectively are 2.57, 1.86 and 2.42 mIU/L, which are within the reference interval (0.30-6.20 mIU/L) of the test kit. The median total T4 values (9.8, 10.0 and 10.3 μg/dl in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively) were also within the reference interval (4.8-11.6 μg/dl) of the test kits. The median total T3 in the first (2.60 ng/ml) and third (2.35 ng/ml) trimesters were elevated, but it was within the reference interval (0.69-2.02 ng/ml) in the second trimester (1.92 ng/ml). Though statistically non-significant median TSH was increased in women grouped as cassava consumers and M. stenopetala consumers while median total T4 values were decreased in these groups. Conclusion: The study subjects have normal thyroid function as the median values of TSH and total T4 were within the reference interval of the test kit. Frequent consumption of cassava and Moringa stenopetala may affect thyroid function.
Intimate partner violence against women in western Ethiopia: prevalence, patterns, and associated factors
Sileshi G Abeya, Mesganaw F Afework, Alemayehu W Yalew
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-913
Abstract: A cross-sectional, population based household survey was conducted from January to April, 2011 using standard WHO multi-country study questionnaire. A sample of 1540 ever married/cohabited women aged 15-49 years was randomly selected from urban and rural settings of East Wollega Zone, Western Ethiopia. Data were principally analyzed using logistic regression.Lifetime and past 12 months prevalence of intimate partner violence against women showed 76.5% (95% CI: 74.4-78.6%) and 72.5% (95% CI: 70.3-74.7%), respectively. The overlap of psychological, physical, and sexual violence was 56.9%. The patterns of the three forms of violence are similar across the time periods. Rural residents (AOR 0.58, 95% CI 0.34-0.98), literates (AOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.48-0.88), female headed households (AOR 0.46, 95% CI 0.27-0.76) were at decreased likelihood to have lifetime intimate partner violence. Yet, older women were nearly four times (AOR 3.36, 95% CI 1.27-8.89) more likely to report the incident. On the other hand, abduction (AOR 3.71, 95% CI 1.01-13.63), polygamy (AOR 3.79, 95% CI 1.64-0.73), spousal alcoholic consumption (AOR 1.98, 95% CI 1.21-3.22), spousal hostility (AOR 3.96, 95% CI 2.52-6.20), and previous witnesses of parental violence (AOR 2.00, 95% CI 1.54-2.56) were factors associated with an increased likelihood of lifetime intimate partner violence against women.In their lifetime, three out of four women experienced at least one incident of intimate partner violence. This needs an urgent attention at all levels of societal hierarchy including policymakers, stakeholders and professionals to alleviate the situation.Violence against women (VAW) is "...any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life" [1]. Since women are disproportionately affected than men (95% Vs
An Efficient Direct Method to Solve the Three Dimensional Poisson’s Equation  [PDF]
Alemayehu Shiferaw, Ramesh Chand Mittal
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2011.14035
Abstract: In this work, the three dimensional Poisson’s equation in Cartesian coordinates with the Dirichlet’s boundary conditions in a cube is solved directly, by extending the method of Hockney. The Poisson equation is approximated by 19-points and 27-points fourth order finite difference approximation schemes and the resulting large algebraic system of linear equations is treated systematically in order to get a block tri-diagonal system. The efficiency of this method is tested for some Poisson’s equations with known analytical solutions and the numerical results obtained show that the method produces accurate results. It is shown that 19-point formula produces comparable results with 27-point formula, though computational efforts are more in 27-point formula.
Fast Finite Difference Solutions of the Three Dimensional Poisson’s Equation in Cylindrical Coordinates  [PDF]
Alemayehu Shiferaw, R. C. Mittal
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2013.34045
Abstract:

In this work, the three-dimensional Poisson’s equation in cylindrical coordinates system with the Dirichlet’s boundary conditions in a portion of a cylinder for is solved directly, by extending the method of Hockney. The Poisson equation is approximated by second-order finite differences and the resulting large algebraic system of linear equations is treated systematically in order to get a block tri-diagonal system. The accuracy of this method is tested for some Poisson’s equations with known analytical solutions and the numerical results obtained show that the method produces accurate results.

Oral Health of Young Adolescents in Addis Ababa—A Community-Based Study  [PDF]
Hanna Yemane Berhane, Alemayehu Worku
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.48073
Abstract:

Introduction: Deteriorating oral health is an emerging public health concern in developing countries, yet little attention has been given to oral health in most sub-Saharan countries. The extents of caries, periodontal diseases and the associated risk factors have not been widely studied at the community level. Purpose: To assess the type and magnitude of oral health diseases as well as associated risk factors among young adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 658 children aged 10 - 14 years in Addis Ababa. Households for the study were selected through a multistage cluster sampling procedure. Data collection was carried out in December 2011 through interview and oral examination which was carried out by dental health professionals. Prevalence and 95% confidence interval was calculated. Factors associated with oral health conditions were identified using logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 47.4% (95% CI: 43.6% - 51.2%). Age, sweets intake, tooth cleaning, poor oral hygiene and being from a poor household were significantly associated with having dental caries. The prevalence of periodontal disease was 35.4% (95% CI: 31.7% - 39.0%) and it was associated with: having a mother with low education level, and poor oral hygiene. The prevalence of bad mouth odor was 4.4% (95% CI: 2.8% - 5.9%), and oral trauma 2.1% (95% CI: 1% - 3.2%). Conclusion: The prevalence of both periodontal disease and dental caries is alarmingly high. The findings indicate the need for large scale public education program to motivate regular dental check up, and proper oral hygiene practices. The study also indicates the need to strengthen oral health services using affordable and accessible outlets.

High Accurate Fourth-Order Finite Difference Solutions of the Three Dimensional Poisson’s Equation in Cylindrical Coordinate  [PDF]
Alemayehu Shiferaw, Ramesh Chand Mittal
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2014.42007
Abstract:

In this work, by extending the method of Hockney into three dimensions, the Poisson’s equation in cylindrical coordinates system with the Dirichlet’s boundary conditions in a portion of a cylinder for is solved directly. The Poisson equation is approximated by fourth-order finite differences and the resulting large algebraic system of linear equations is treated systematically in order to get a block tri-diagonal system. The accuracy of this method is tested for some Poisson’s equations with known analytical solutions and the numerical results obtained show that the method produces accurate results.

Assessing exchangeability in indirect and mixed treatment comparisons
Alemayehu D
Comparative Effectiveness Research , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CER.S21307
Abstract: ssessing exchangeability in indirect and mixed treatment comparisons Methodology (2559) Total Article Views Authors: Alemayehu D Published Date June 2011 Volume 2011:1 Pages 51 - 55 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CER.S21307 Demissie Alemayehu Pfizer, Inc, Statistics Department, New York, USA Abstract: In comparative effectiveness research (CER), investigators often resort to methods of indirect and mixed treatment comparisons, due to the unavailability of head-to-head comparative data from randomized clinical trials for competing treatment options. However, implicit in the available indirect comparison techniques is an assumption of exchangeability, which in practice cannot be conclusively verified. This paper discusses the implications of violations of this assumption, and describes approaches to evaluate its validity and steps that may be taken to minimize the impact on conclusions drawn from such studies.
Assessing exchangeability in indirect and mixed treatment comparisons
Alemayehu D
Comparative Effectiveness Research , 2011,
Abstract: Demissie AlemayehuPfizer, Inc, Statistics Department, New York, USAAbstract: In comparative effectiveness research (CER), investigators often resort to methods of indirect and mixed treatment comparisons, due to the unavailability of head-to-head comparative data from randomized clinical trials for competing treatment options. However, implicit in the available indirect comparison techniques is an assumption of exchangeability, which in practice cannot be conclusively verified. This paper discusses the implications of violations of this assumption, and describes approaches to evaluate its validity and steps that may be taken to minimize the impact on conclusions drawn from such studies.Keywords: network meta-analysis, heterogeneity, comparative effectiveness research, systematic review
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