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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1756 matches for " Voynow JA "
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Pathogenic triad in COPD: oxidative stress, protease–antiprotease imbalance, and inflammation
Fischer BM, Pavlisko E, Voynow JA
International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S10770
Abstract: thogenic triad in COPD: oxidative stress, protease–antiprotease imbalance, and inflammation Review (7908) Total Article Views Authors: Fischer BM, Pavlisko E, Voynow JA Published Date August 2011 Volume 2011:6 Pages 413 - 421 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S10770 Bernard M Fischer1, Elizabeth Pavlisko2, Judith A Voynow1 1Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit dominant features of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and/or asthma, with a common phenotype of airflow obstruction. COPD pulmonary physiology reflects the sum of pathological changes in COPD, which can occur in large central airways, small peripheral airways, and the lung parenchyma. Quantitative or high-resolution computed tomography is used as a surrogate measure for assessment of disease progression. Different biological or molecular markers have been reported that reflect the mechanistic or pathogenic triad of inflammation, proteases, and oxidants and correspond to the different aspects of COPD histopathology. Similar to the pathogenic triad markers, genetic variations or polymorphisms have also been linked to COPD-associated inflammation, protease–antiprotease imbalance, and oxidative stress. Furthermore, in recent years, there have been reports identifying aging-associated mechanistic markers as downstream consequences of the pathogenic triad in the lungs from COPD patients. For this review, the authors have limited their discussion to a review of mechanistic markers and genetic variations and their association with COPD histopathology and disease status.
Pathogenic triad in COPD: oxidative stress, protease–antiprotease imbalance, and inflammation
Fischer BM,Pavlisko E,Voynow JA
International Journal of COPD , 2011,
Abstract: Bernard M Fischer1, Elizabeth Pavlisko2, Judith A Voynow11Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit dominant features of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and/or asthma, with a common phenotype of airflow obstruction. COPD pulmonary physiology reflects the sum of pathological changes in COPD, which can occur in large central airways, small peripheral airways, and the lung parenchyma. Quantitative or high-resolution computed tomography is used as a surrogate measure for assessment of disease progression. Different biological or molecular markers have been reported that reflect the mechanistic or pathogenic triad of inflammation, proteases, and oxidants and correspond to the different aspects of COPD histopathology. Similar to the pathogenic triad markers, genetic variations or polymorphisms have also been linked to COPD-associated inflammation, protease–antiprotease imbalance, and oxidative stress. Furthermore, in recent years, there have been reports identifying aging-associated mechanistic markers as downstream consequences of the pathogenic triad in the lungs from COPD patients. For this review, the authors have limited their discussion to a review of mechanistic markers and genetic variations and their association with COPD histopathology and disease status.Keywords: senescence, apoptosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchitis, emphysema
Deficiency of α-1-antitrypsin influences systemic iron homeostasis
Ghio AJ, Soukup JM, Richards JH, Fischer BM, Voynow JA, Schmechel DE
International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S37897
Abstract: iency of α-1-antitrypsin influences systemic iron homeostasis Original Research (727) Total Article Views Authors: Ghio AJ, Soukup JM, Richards JH, Fischer BM, Voynow JA, Schmechel DE Published Date January 2013 Volume 2013:8 Pages 45 - 51 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S37897 Received: 08 September 2012 Accepted: 28 October 2012 Published: 22 January 2013 Andrew J Ghio,1 Joleen M Soukup,1 Judy H Richards,1 Bernard M Fischer,2 Judith A Voynow,2 Donald E Schmechel3 1US Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 2Division of Pediatric Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Pediatrics,3Joseph and Kathleen Bryan Alzheimer Disease Research Center, Department of Medicine (Neurology), Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: There is evidence that proteases and antiproteases participate in the iron homeostasis of cells and living systems. We tested the postulate that α-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) polymorphism and the consequent deficiency of this antiprotease in humans are associated with a systemic disruption in iron homeostasis. Archived plasma samples from Alpha-1 Foundation (30 MM, 30 MZ, and 30 ZZ individuals) were analyzed for A1AT, ferritin, transferrin, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Plasma samples were also assayed for metals using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES). Plasma levels of A1AT in MZ and ZZ individuals were approximately 60% and 20% of those for MM individuals respectively. Plasma ferritin concentrations in those with the ZZ genotype were greater relative to those individuals with either MM or MZ genotype. Plasma transferrin for MM, MZ, and ZZ genotypes showed no significant differences. Linear regression analysis revealed a significant (negative) relationship between plasma concentrations of A1AT and ferritin while that between A1AT and transferrin levels was not significant. Plasma CRP concentrations were not significantly different between MM, MZ, and ZZ individuals. ICPAES measurement of metals confirmed elevated plasma concentrations of nonheme iron among ZZ individuals. Nonheme iron concentrations correlated (negatively) with levels of A1AT. A1AT deficiency is associated with evidence of a disruption in iron homeostasis with plasma ferritin and nonheme iron concentrations being elevated among those with the ZZ genotype.
The Challenge of Implementing Information Security Standards in Small and Medium e-Business Enterprises  [PDF]
Ja’far Alqatawna
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2014.710079
Abstract: The dynamic nature of online systems requires companies to be proactive with thwarting information security threats, and to follow a systematic way for managing and evaluating the security of their online services. The existence of security standards is an important factor that helps organisations to evaluate and manage security by providing guidelines and best practices that enable them to follow a standard and systematic way to protect their e-Business activities. However, the suitability of available information security standards for Small and Medium e-Business Enterprises (e-SME) is worth further investigation. In this paper three major security standards including Common Criteria, System Security Engineering-Capability and Maturity Model and ISO/IEC 27001 were analysed. Accordingly, several challenges associated with these standards that may render them difficult to be implemented in e-SME have been identified.
Design and Construction of a Computer Controlled Clothes Washing Machine
JA Akpobi, JA Okonta
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management , 2007,
Abstract: In this work we develop a computer software for controlling the operations of a domestic clothes washing machine. The valves, pump, electric motor and other sensitive parts were computer-controlled. In the design, the mechanical timer’s function were replaced by a software driven emulator which then controls components of the machine to carry out specific tasks at pre-determined intervals. The software was written using Microsoft Visual C++ for the IO.DLL File, while the control codes were developed using Microsoft Visual Basic Language. The software performed accurately and efficiently.
Theoretical studies on metal thioarsenites and thioantimonides: synergistic interactions between transition metals and heavy metalloids
JA Tossell
Geochemical Transactions , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/1467-4866-1-16
Abstract: In determining the solubilities of minerals in solution one generally examines the mineral by itself in contact with a solution which contains only noncoordinating ions.[1] However, in nature minerals do not occur in isolation. Rather, it is common to have suites of minerals occurring together, such as various combinations of metal sulfides. Mineral associations containing combinations of heavy transition metal sulfides and metalloid sulfides are well known.[2,3] In such situations there may be interactions between the different minerals that can modify the solubility of each, by creating a ternary (i. e., metal plus metalloid plus sulfide) species in solution. Studying such systems is difficult experimentally and arriving at a coherent set of solution species and stability constants is even more difficult. Recently it was shown that when As and Cu sulfide minerals were equilibrated together with aqueous solution the solubility of both As and Cu was dominated by contributions from a metal–thiometalate (or metal–metalloid) species[4] CuAsS(-SH)(OH). Quantum mechanical calculations[5] confirmed the stability of this species and characterized its structure and some of its properties.In this work we systematically explore the complexes formed between the thiometallate ligand AsS(SH)(OH)- (and some closely related ligands) and a number of late transition metal ions, including Cu+, Ag+, Au+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Tl+ and Pb2+. We use the same quantum mechanical methods which have previously proven successful for both the thioarsenite[5] and the simpler complexes of Cu+. Accurate energies are determined for the formation of such complexes in the gas phase and reaction energies in solution are estimated, using a simple scheme for approximating the hydration enthalpies of the ions. This allows us to determine which complexes should be of greatest stability in aqueous solution and suggests targets for more accurate computational studies and for experimental studies.We use mainly
Calculation of the visible-UV absorption spectra of hydrogen sulfide, bisulfide, polysulfides, and As and Sb sulfides, in aqueous solution
JA Tossell
Geochemical Transactions , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1467-4866-4-28
Abstract: In hydrothermal solutions, As and Sb are often present in appreciable concentration,[1] often occurring in association with Ag, Au and Hg, but the identities of the As and Sb species present are not well understood. In neutral to alkaline sulfidic waters at low temperature, thio- species are believed to predominate. [2] The speciation of Sb in sulfidic solutions has been studied for some time, but new results are still emerging. The main questions concern the oxidation state (III or v), the coordination number and the degree of oligomerization of the species. Typically Sb(III) compounds, which essentially have a 5 s2 lone pair orbital, will be trigonal three-coordinate, while Sb(v) compounds, without the lone pair, will be tetrahedral four-coordinate. By 1990 a consensus seemed to emerge that in alkaline sulfidic solutions Sb existed as Sb(III), based on numerous solubility studies[2-4] and Raman studies. [5]However, recent EXAFS studies[6,7] have presented evidence for the presence of Sb(v) species in such solutions. The Sb-S distances determined by EXAFS were more consistent with those for model compounds with four-coordinate Sb(v) than for those with three-coordinate Sb(III) and the coordination numbers from the model fits to the data were close to 4. Recently Helz and coworkers[8] reported the results of a solubility study for stibnite, Sb2S3, and elemental S in equilibrium with alkaline sulfidic solutions, which could be best interpreted in terms of a number of dimeric species, including the mixed Sb(III,v) and the Sb(v,v) dimers, Sb2S52- and Sb2S62-, which were new species, not previously considered. They also presented visible-UV absorption spectra which showed a broad peak around 4.4 eV, consistent with the limited experimental data available on Sb(v) sulfides. In recent work we have calculated energetics[9] for the formation of such oxidized dimer species which are in good agreement with the experimental data of Helz et al.[8]We had previously calculated st
How can I recognise the high-risk cardiovascular patient? The concept of risk
JA Ker
Continuing Medical Education , 2004,
Abstract:
The recognition and management of valvular heart disease
JA Ker
Continuing Medical Education , 2004,
Abstract:
Phenotypic plasticity of leaf length to an environmental gradient in Khaya ivorensis (Meliaceae) populations in Ghana
JA Danquah
African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: Khaya ivorensis encountears different ecological conditions in its native habitats in Ghana. The demand for this species has led to severe depletion of the natural stand, thus threatened with extinction. To address the dwindling populations demands intervention for restoration and establishment of plantations. The goal of reforestation is to establish a new generation of trees with optimal growth and adaptedness. Doing this requires knowledge of relative level of plastic response to environmental variables to aid general seed transfer which could be implemented by forest managers. In this study we employed Environmental Standardized Plasticity index (EPSI) and one-way ANOVA to understand the level of phenotypic plasticity in leaflet morphology to environmental gradient. Highly significant (P<0.0001) plastic response in leaf length was observed among the populations in relation to precipitation, temperature, altitude and latitude. The results suggested South-North clinal relationship to leaf length. The observed clinal variation in leaf length with environmental variables provide suitable framework for matching each provenance site or population to designate ecological zone, under premise each population has adapted to the local environmental conditions.
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