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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 337 matches for " Vishwas Seshadri "
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The Giardia lamblia vsp gene repertoire: characteristics, genomic organization, and evolution
Rodney D Adam, Anuranjini Nigam, Vishwas Seshadri, Craig A Martens, Gregory A Farneth, Hilary G Morrison, Theodore E Nash, Stephen F Porcella, Rima Patel
BMC Genomics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-11-424
Abstract: The WB Giardia isolate has been sequenced at 10× coverage and assembled into 306 contigs as large as 870 kb in size. We have used this assembly to evaluate the genomic organization and evolution of the vsp repertoire. We have identified 228 complete and 75 partial vsp gene sequences for an estimated repertoire of 270 to 303, making up about 4% of the genome. The vsp gene diversity includes 30 genes containing tandem repeats, and 14 vsp pairs of identical genes present in either head to head or tail to tail configurations (designated as inverted pairs), where the two genes are separated by 2 to 4 kb of non-coding DNA. Interestingly, over half the total vsp repertoire is present in the form of linear gene arrays that can contain up to 10 vsp gene members. Lastly, evidence for recombination within and across minor clades of vsp genes is provided.The data we present here is the first comprehensive analysis of the vsp gene family from the Genotype A1 WB isolate with an emphasis on vsp characterization, function, evolution and contributions to pathogenesis of this important pathogen.Giardia lamblia (syn. G. duodenalis, G. intestinalis) is an anaerobic protist that is medically important as a common cause of intestinal infection and diarrhea [1]. Humans and other susceptible mammals become infected when cysts are ingested from contaminated water or food and excyst into trophozoites in the proximal small intestine. These trophozoites replicate and cause the symptoms of diarrhea. Infections with Giardia are frequently prolonged and malabsorption with weight loss may last for months in the absence of treatment, despite an immune response that would be expected to eradicate the infection. One of the possible reasons for the persistence of infection is antigenic variation of the variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs).A single trophozoite expresses only a single member of this protein family at any one time [2], but may switch expression from one VSP to another in vitro at a r
Beyond Marikana: The Post-Apartheid South African State Jenseits von Marikana: Der Post-Apartheid-Staat in Südafrika
Vishwas Satgar
Africa Spectrum , 2012,
Abstract: This article situates the Marikana massacre, in which 34 mine workers were gunned down by police in South Africa, in the context of what the South African state has become, and questions the characterisation of the post-Apartheid state as a “developmental state”. This contribution first highlights what is at stake when the post-Apartheid state is portrayed as a “developmental state” and how this misrecognition of the state is ideologically constituted. Second, it argues for an approach to understanding the post-Apartheid state by locating it within the context of the rise of transnational neoliberalism and the process of indigenising neoliberalism on the African continent. Third, it examines the actual economic practices of the state that constitute it as an Afro-neoliberal state. Such economic practices are historicised to show the convergence between the post-Apartheid state and the ideal type neoliberal state coming to the fore in the context of global neoliberal restructuring and crisis management. The article concludes by recognising that South Africa’s deep globalisation and globalised state affirm a form of state practice beyond utilising market mechanisms that includes perpetrating violence to secure its existence. Marikana makes this point. Dieser Beitrag setzt das Marikana-Massaker, bei dem 34 Bergarbeiter von der Polizei erschossen wurden, in Bezug zum derzeitigen Zustand des südafrikanischen Staates. Gleichzeitig wird die Charakterisierung des Post-Apartheid-Staates als Entwicklungsstaat“ infrage gestellt. Der Autor beleuchtet zun chst, was diese Charakterisierung impliziert und inwieweit diese Fehlinterpretation ideologisch begründet ist. Er pl diert dann für einen Ansatz, der den Zustand des Post-Apartheid-Staates im Kontext des wachsenden Einflusses des Neoliberalismus sowie der Indigenisierung“ des Neoliberalismus auf dem afrikanischen Kontinent erkl rt. Schlie lich analysiert er die aktuellen wirtschaftspolitischen Entscheidungen, die den südafrikanischen Staat zu einem afro-neoliberalen“ Staat machen, und zeigt die Konvergenz zwischen diesen Entscheidungen und einem idealtypischen Staat im Rahmen von globaler neoliberaler Umstrukturierung und Krisenmanagement. Der Autor kommt zu dem Schluss, dass die tiefe Einbindung Südafrikas in die Globalisierung eine Form staatlichen Handelns bedingt, die über die Aussch pfung von Marktmechanismen hinaus auch die Gewaltanwendung zur Sicherung der eigenen Existenz einschlie t. Die Vorg nge in Marikana sind dafür ein Beleg.
Prosthetics rehabilitation of a male patient with a unique looped metal palate denture: A case report
Bhatia Vishwas,Bhatia Garima
Stomatolo?ki Glasnik Srbije , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/sgs1204205b
Abstract: Complete denture can improve both function and aesthetics. Even though mastication is highly improved, one of the most common problems for new full upper acrylic denture wearers is lack of feeling sensations such as hot and cold, loss of taste and fracture in the mid palatal region. These patients require a denture that allows them to feel sensations as close to normal as possible. The present case report discusses an alternative way of designing a metal palate for maxillary complete denture that along with fulfilling the above mentioned functions, has specially designed loops incorporated in such manner and directions to improve mechanical interlocking of acrylic within the metal loops and not to interfere with teeth arrangement.
The data paper: a mechanism to incentivize data publishing in biodiversity science
Chavan Vishwas,Penev Lyubomir
BMC Bioinformatics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-12-s15-s2
Abstract: Background Free and open access to primary biodiversity data is essential for informed decision-making to achieve conservation of biodiversity and sustainable development. However, primary biodiversity data are neither easily accessible nor discoverable. Among several impediments, one is a lack of incentives to data publishers for publishing of their data resources. One such mechanism currently lacking is recognition through conventional scholarly publication of enriched metadata, which should ensure rapid discovery of 'fit-for-use' biodiversity data resources. Discussion We review the state of the art of data discovery options and the mechanisms in place for incentivizing data publishers efforts towards easy, efficient and enhanced publishing, dissemination, sharing and re-use of biodiversity data. We propose the establishment of the 'biodiversity data paper' as one possible mechanism to offer scholarly recognition for efforts and investment by data publishers in authoring rich metadata and publishing them as citable academic papers. While detailing the benefits to data publishers, we describe the objectives, work flow and outcomes of the pilot project commissioned by the Global Biodiversity Information Facility in collaboration with scholarly publishers and pioneered by Pensoft Publishers through its journals Zookeys, PhytoKeys, MycoKeys, BioRisk, NeoBiota, Nature Conservation and the forthcoming Biodiversity Data Journal. We then debate further enhancements of the data paper beyond the pilot project and attempt to forecast the future uptake of data papers as an incentivization mechanism by the stakeholder communities. Conclusions We believe that in addition to recognition for those involved in the data publishing enterprise, data papers will also expedite publishing of fit-for-use biodiversity data resources. However, uptake and establishment of the data paper as a potential mechanism of scholarly recognition requires a high degree of commitment and investment by the cross-sectional stakeholder communities.
Indicators for the Data Usage Index (DUI): an incentive for publishing primary biodiversity data through global information infrastructure
Ingwersen Peter,Chavan Vishwas
BMC Bioinformatics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-12-s15-s3
Abstract: Background A professional recognition mechanism is required to encourage expedited publishing of an adequate volume of 'fit-for-use' biodiversity data. As a component of such a recognition mechanism, we propose the development of the Data Usage Index (DUI) to demonstrate to data publishers that their efforts of creating biodiversity datasets have impact by being accessed and used by a wide spectrum of user communities. Discussion We propose and give examples of a range of 14 absolute and normalized biodiversity dataset usage indicators for the development of a DUI based on search events and dataset download instances. The DUI is proposed to include relative as well as species profile weighted comparative indicators. Conclusions We believe that in addition to the recognition to the data publisher and all players involved in the data life cycle, a DUI will also provide much needed yet novel insight into how users use primary biodiversity data. A DUI consisting of a range of usage indicators obtained from the GBIF network and other relevant access points is within reach. The usage of biodiversity datasets leads to the development of a family of indicators in line with well known citation-based measurements of recognition.
Real-time System Identification of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: A Multi-Network Approach
Vishwas Puttige,Sreenatha Anavatti
Journal of Computers , 2008, DOI: 10.4304/jcp.3.7.31-38
Abstract: In this paper, real-time system identification of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based on multiple neural networks is presented. The UAV is a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) nonlinear system. Models for such MIMO system are expected to be adaptive to dynamic behaviour and robust to environmental variations. This task of accurate modelling has been achieved with a multi-network architecture. The multi-network with dynamic selection technique allows a combination of online and offline neural network models to be used in the architecture where the most suitable outputs are selected based on a given criterion. The neural network models are based on the autoregressive technique. The online network uses a novel training scheme with memory retention. Flight test validation results for online and offline models are presented. The multi-network dynamic selection technique has been validated on real-time hardware in the loop (HIL) simulation and the results show the superiority in performance compared to the individual models.
A-posteriori error estimates for inverse problems
Vishwas Rao,Adrian Sandu
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: Inverse problems use physical measurements along with a computational model to estimate the parameters or state of a system of interest. Errors in measurements and uncertainties in the computational model lead to inaccurate estimates. This work develops a methodology to estimate the impact of different errors on the variational solutions of inverse problems. The focus is on time evolving systems described by ordinary differential equations, and on a particular class of inverse problems, namely, data assimilation. The computational algorithm uses first-order and second-order adjoint models. In a deterministic setting the methodology provides a posteriori error estimates for the inverse solution. In a probabilistic setting it provides an a posteriori quantification of uncertainty in the inverse solution, given the uncertainties in the model and data. Numerical experiments with the shallow water equations in spherical coordinates illustrate the use of the proposed error estimation machinery in both deterministic and probabilistic settings.
A Time-parallel Approach to Strong-constraint Four-dimensional Variational Data Assimilation
Vishwas Rao,Adrian Sandu
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: A parallel-in-time algorithm based on an augmented Lagrangian approach is proposed to solve four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation problems. The assimilation window is divided into multiple sub-intervals that allows to parallelize cost function and gradient computations. Solution continuity equations across interval boundaries are added as constraints. The augmented Lagrangian approach leads to a different formulation of the variational data assimilation problem than weakly constrained 4D-Var. A combination of serial and parallel 4D-Vars to increase performance is also explored. The methodology is illustrated on data assimilation problems with Lorenz-96 and the shallow water models.
Correlation of Electric Cardiometry and Continuous Thermodilution Cardiac Output Monitoring Systems  [PDF]
Vishwas Malik, Arun Subramanian, Sandeep Chauhan, Milind Hote
World Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery (WJCS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjcs.2014.47016

Purpose: Impedance Cardiography (ICG) with its drawbacks to reliably estimate cardiac output (CO) when compared to reference methods has led to the development of a novel technique called Electrical Cardiometry (EC). The purpose of this study was to compare EC-CO with the Continuous CO (CCO) derived from Pulmonary Artery Catheter (PAC). Methods: 60 patients scheduled to undergo coronary artery surgery necessitating the placement of PAC were studied in the operating room. Standard ECG electrodes were used for EC-CO measurements. Simultaneous CO measurement from EC and PAC was done at three predefined time points and were correlated. Results: A significant high correlation was found between the EC-CO and CCO at the three time points. Bland and Altman analysis revealed a bias of 0.08 L/min, a precision of 0.15 L/min, with a narrow limit of agreement (-0.13 to 0.28 L/min). The percentage error between the methods was 3.59%. Conclusion: The agreement between EC-CO and CCO is clinically acceptable and these two techniques can be used interchangeably. Mediastinal opening has no effect on the correlation between these two modalities.

Progeria: Too Old, Too Soon
Madhumathi Seshadri
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2007,
Abstract: Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare paediatric syndrome causing physical changes that resemble greatly accelerated aging in sufferers.Currently, there are less than 50 known cases of HGPS in the world and most progeria patients die at around 13 years of age. HGPS is caused by a mutation in the Lamin A gene (LMNA) that results in the synthesis of a mutant prelamin A (also called progerin). Progerin undergoes farnesylation but cannot be further processed to mature lamin A, a key structural component of the cell nucleus. In HGPS cells, progerin accumulates at the rim of the nucleus, causing misshapen nuclei.DescriptionDr. Jonathan Hutchinson in 1886 and Dr. Hastings Gilford in 1904 first described this syndrome. The word progeria is coined from the Greek word geras, which means old age. Progeria syndrome is also known as Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, HGPS or Gilford syndrome.
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