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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2440 matches for " Virginia;Matricardi "
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A cria??o de áreas protegidas e os limites da conserva??o ambiental em Rond?nia
Pedlowski, Marcos;Dale, Virginia;Matricardi, Eraldo;
Ambiente & Sociedade , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S1414-753X1999000200008
Abstract: this article analyses the process of creation and protection of conservation units in the brazilian state of rond?nia. this effort has received financial and policy support from the world bank through different programs of regional development since the 1980s. based upon a discussion about the key role played by conservation units in the preservation of amazonian ecosystems, the article reviews the main limitations, of both institutional and human capital aspects, that undermine environmental conservation efforts like the one carried out in rond?nia. a specific discussion is made about persistent road construction as a regional development tool and its negative impacts on conservation units plus indian and extractive reserves. the article concludes that large investments in restructuring governmental agencies and top-down approaches for public participation do not guarantee the effective creation and protection of conservation units. a suggestion presented to improve the performance of conservation efforts is the involvement of local communities and civil society organizations in all levels and phases of the environmental conservation process.
Technical Note: An assessment of the accuracy of the RTTOV fast radiative transfer model using IASI data
M. Matricardi
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2009,
Abstract: IASI measurements of spectral radiances made between the 1st April 2008 and the 15th April 2008 are compared with simulations performed using the RTTOV fast radiative transfer model utilizing regression coefficients based on different line-by-line models. The comparisons are performed within the framework of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Integrated Forecast System using fields of temperature, water vapour and ozone obtained from short-range forecasts. Simulations are performed to assess the accuracy of the RTTOV computations and investigate relative differences between the line-by-line models and the quality of the spectroscopic databases on which the RTTOV coefficients are based.
An assessment of the accuracy of the RTTOV fast radiative transfer model using IASI data
M. Matricardi
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: IASI measurements of spectral radiances made between the 1 April 2008 and the 15 April 2008 are compared with simulations performed using the RTTOV fast radiative transfer model utilizing regression coefficients based on different line-by-line models. The comparisons are performed within the framework of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Integrated Forecasting System using fields of temperature, water vapour and ozone obtained from short-range forecasts. Simulations are performed to assess the accuracy of the RTTOV computations and investigate relative differences between the line-by-line models and the quality of the spectroscopic databases on which the RTTOV coefficients are based.
Mimicking microbial 'education' of the immune system: a strategy to revert the epidemic trend of atopy and allergic asthma?
Paolo Matricardi, Sergio Bonini
Respiratory Research , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/rr22
Abstract: Allergic asthma is on the increase in Western countries, as are efforts to identify the reasons for this increase [1]. This trend is part of a generalized increase in prevalence of atopic conditions that are characterized by mucosal eosinophilic inflammation, such as allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic eczema [1,2]. The allergy 'epidemic' appears to parallel the overly hygienic conditions that are typical of affluent societies [3,4,5]. Hence, the hygiene hypothesis has been suggested. According to this hypothesis, changing interactions between humans and microbes of their ecosystem alter the immune balance at mucosal level between type 1 (Th1, Tcl) and type 2 (Th2, Tc2) immunity, thereby predisposing to atopic diseases [5,6], including allergic asthma. Partially deprived of appropriate microbial stimulation, type 1 immune mechanisms would no longer downregulate the hypersensitivity-and allergy-causing type 2 response to a sufficient degree [1,5,6,7,8,9,10,11].Although the hygiene hypothesis remains a hypothesis, it raises questions. Must we go back to living in 'dirty' conditions? Are allergy and asthma an unavoidable price that westernized societies must pay for the decline in morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases?The answer to this provocative question is 'no'. Many respiratory infections induce wheezing, and many cases of wheezing that are linked to recurrent respiratory infections are labelled 'asthma' or are perceived as such [12]. Some respiratory viruses (eg respiratory syncytial virus) induce asthma in predisposed individuals [13], whereas others (eg rhinoviruses) exacerbate pre-existing atopic bronchial inflammation [14].The rising trend in severe asthma cases in poor, and hence supposedly less hygienic, urban areas of US cities ('inner city asthma') appears to refute the hygiene hypothesis [15]. Therefore, the words 'dirty' or 'hygiene' are too generic to be used to label environments that facilitate or protect against allergy. We must still
Spanish-Language Home Visitation to Disadvantaged Latino Preschoolers: A Means of Promoting Language Development and English School Readiness  [PDF]
Virginia Mann
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.56051
Abstract:

This study reports five years of a school readiness intervention called “HABLA” (Home Based Activities Building Language Acquisition), designed to increase and enrich speech and literacy activities in the homes of economically and educationally disadvantaged Latino families with children between the age of 2 and 4. A team of trained home visitors provided two years of a 23-week program of visitation in which they met with parent(s) and child twice weekly. Both years presented a Spanish language adaptation of the parent-child home program model; home visitors provide intensive modeling and coaching of non-directive Spanish language use, conversation, and literacy activities. Administration of the PLS-3 in Spanish at the onset and culmination of each year of the program indicates significant increases in receptive and expressive language for each year of visitation (7.8 standard points for the first year, 4.4 for the second) with effect-size r ranging from .24 to 42. Participants had significantly improved their levels of oral Spanish skill and scored much higher than a comparison group of non-treated. A subset of graduates of the two-year program was tested as kindergarteners; they showed a continued advantage over a comparison group of 18 peers who had not received the intervention. For the graduates, both their Spanish PLS-3 scores and English PLS-4 scores were significantly higher, and their parents reported a continued effort to provide literacy experiences at home. The HABLA participants also showed a clear advantage for an English language test of phonological awareness, one of the strongest predictors of school success.

The use of IASI data to identify systematic errors in the ECMWF forecasts of temperature in the upper stratosphere
G. Masiello, M. Matricardi,C. Serio
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2011,
Abstract: Since data from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) became available in 2007, a number of papers have appeared in the literature which have reported relatively large discrepancies between IASI spectra and forward calculations in the centre of the CO2 Q-branch at 667 cm 1. In this paper we show that these discrepancies are primarily due to errors in the temperature profiles used in the forward calculations. In particular, we have used forecasts of temperature profiles from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) to demonstrate that, for the case study considered in this paper, these profiles are affected by systematic errors of the order of ≈10 K at the level of the stratopause. To derive the magnitude and the spatial location of the systematic errors in the temperature profile, we have carried out forward/inverse calculations for a number of clear-sky, daytime, IASI tropical soundings over the sea. The forward calculations have been performed using atmospheric state vectors which have been obtained either from the direct inversion of the IASI radiances or from space-time co-located profiles derived from radiosonde observations and from the ECMWF model. To rule out any effect due to the accuracy of the forward model, we have performed the forward calculations using two independent models. The sensitivity of the temperature biases to the variability of the CO2 profile and to spectroscopy errors has also been studied.
Gap Fraction Estimates over Selectively Logged Forests in Western Amazon  [PDF]
Ekena Rangel Pinagé, Eraldo A. T. Matricardi, Liliana Sayuri Osako, Alessandra Rodrigues Gomes
Natural Resources (NR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2014.516083
Abstract: Gap fraction is a biophysical variable related to energy balance, forest fauna, micro-climate and regeneration, and is an important indicator of forest management quality. The objective of this study was to compare gap fraction estimates from undisturbed forests and different environments or strata of selectively logged areas. Moreover, gap fraction measurements were collected with two distinct instruments (optical canopy analyzer LAI-2000 and hemispherical photographs). Field data were collected from two sustainable forest management sites at Jamari National Forest, Rondonia State, Brazilian Amazon. Our results indicated significant differences between data acquired using these two instruments. For instance, the LAI-2000 data showed greater variation for each environment compared to hemispherical photographics data, and the data were also more sensitive to the increase in gap fraction. Small variations were found in the gap fraction means for the two study areas, and only data for the undisturbed area were significantly different. A gradient of increasing gap fraction that ranged from primary forests to log decks was observed. Furthermore, a multiple linear regression analysis determined the contribution of the selectively logged environments to decreased forest cover, confirming the observed gradient.
Cortical Evoked Potentials in Children of Diabetic Mothers
Mario Brinciotti,Angela Napoli,Antonio Mittica,Olimpia Bitterman,Maria Matricardi
Experimental Diabetes Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/640535
Abstract: Type 1 diabetic mothers' infants show a delay of visual evoked potential (VEP) significantly related to some parameters of poor metabolic control during pregnancy. In the present paper we analyzed the characteristics of VEPs and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) recorded in 16 three-year-old type 1 diabetic mothers' children (DMC). Compared with controls (23 nondiabetic mothers' healthy matched children), DMC showed significantly delayed mean latency of VEP (P2) and SEP (P22). In 3 cases (19%), we found pathological responses (
Preparation and Characterization of Novel Gellan Gum Hydrogels Suitable for Modified Drug Release
Pietro Matricardi,Claudia Cencetti,Roberto Ria,Franco Alhaique,Tommasina Coviello
Molecules , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/molecules14093376
Abstract: Innovative hydrogels obtained by physical and chemical crosslinking of deacylated Gellan gum have been characterized in terms of water uptake, rheological properties and compressibility, and the behaviour of the tested materials, according to the type of the obtained network, is thoroughly discussed. The release from the various gels of loaded model molecules of different steric hindrance was also investigated and the trend of the release profiles has been related to the structures proposed for the physical and the chemical hydrogel.
Cortical Evoked Potentials in Children of Diabetic Mothers
Mario Brinciotti,Angela Napoli,Antonio Mittica,Olimpia Bitterman,Maria Matricardi
Journal of Diabetes Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/640535
Abstract: Type 1 diabetic mothers' infants show a delay of visual evoked potential (VEP) significantly related to some parameters of poor metabolic control during pregnancy. In the present paper we analyzed the characteristics of VEPs and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) recorded in 16 three-year-old type 1 diabetic mothers' children (DMC). Compared with controls (23 nondiabetic mothers' healthy matched children), DMC showed significantly delayed mean latency of VEP (P2) and SEP (P22). In 3 cases (19%), we found pathological responses (+3 SD from the mean value of controls) of VEPs and SEPs. At the age of 3 years, the offspring of type 1 diabetic mothers showed delay of cortical evoked responses in both visual and somatosensory systems. 1. Introduction Evoked potentials are commonly used in clinical practice to study brain maturation and clinical disorders [1–3]. Diabetic patients frequently show abnormal evoked potentials, usually related to neuropathy, retinopathy, and poor metabolic control [4, 5]. Subclinical CNS dysfunctions have been reliably detected by evoked potentials in adult patients with uncomplicated diabetes and normal brain CT scan [6]. Moreover, evoked potentials are sensitive to drug administration effects and prenatal substance exposure [7, 8]. In previous studies [9, 10] on diabetic mothers’ infants, we found a delayed mean latency of the fourth (P2) component of VEPs compared to matched healthy infants. These results were significantly related to some parameters of poor metabolic control during pregnancy in type 1 diabetic mothers’ infants; on the contrary, in infants born from mothers with gestational diabetes VEPs did not show any significant relation with metabolic parameters during pregnancy, but latencies correlated with Apgar scores of perinatal distress. These features suggest that in the offspring of type 1 diabetic mothers VEP changes may be related to adverse effects due to exposure of the fetus to metabolic imbalance during intrauterine life. These observations raise two main points: (i) whether the VEP abnormalities recorded at the age of 2 months are transient and (ii) whether the abnormalities of evoked responses are restricted to the visual system or extended to other cortical structures. To investigate both these aspects, in the present study we analyzed the characteristics of VEPs and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) recorded in 3-year-old type 1 diabetic mothers’ children (DMC). 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Sample We studied VEPs and SEPs of 16 three-year-old children (11 females, 5 males, mean age years), whose
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