Abstract:
Background: Quantitative biomechanical characterization of pelvic supportive
structures and functions in vivo is
thought to provide insight into pathophysiology of pelvic organ prolapse (POP).
An innovative approach—vaginal tactile imaging—allows biomechanical mapping of
the female pelvic floor to quantify tissue elasticity, pelvic support, and
pelvic muscle functions. The Vaginal Tactile Imager (VTI) records high
definition pressure patterns from vaginal walls under an applied tissue
deformation and during pelvic floor muscle contractions. Objective: To
explore an extended set of 52 biomechanical parameters for differentiation and
characterization of POP relative to normal pelvic floor conditions. Methods: 96 subjects with normal and POP conditions were included in the data analysis
from multi-site observational, case-controlled studies; 42 subjects had normal
pelvic floor conditions and 54 subjects had POP. The VTI, model 2S, was used
with an analytical software package to calculate automatically 52 biomechanical
parameters for 8 VTI test procedures (probe insertion, elevation, rotation,
Valsalva maneuver, voluntary muscle contractions in 2 planes, relaxation, and
reflex contraction). The groups were equalized for subject age and parity. Results: The ranges, mean values, and standard deviations for all 52 VTI parameters were
established. 33 of 52 parameters were identified as statistically sensitive (p<0.05; t-test) to the POP
development. Among these 33 parameters, 11 parameters show changes (decrease)
in tissue elasticity, 8 parameters

Abstract:
We prove a global existence result for the Cauchy problem, in the three-dimensional space, associated with the equation $$ u_{tt}-a_lambda(t) Delta_x u=-u|u|^{p(lambda)-1} $$ where $a_lambda(t)ge 0$ and behaves as $(t-t_0)^lambda$ close to some $t_0$ greater than zero with $a(t_0)=0$, and $p(lambda)=(3lambda+10)/(3lambda+2)$ with $3le p(lambda)le 5$. This means that we deal with the superconformal, critical nonlinear case. Moreover we assume a small initial energy.

Abstract:
In this paper we use a modified test function method to derive nonexistence results for the semilinear wave equation with time-dependent speed and damping. The obtained critical exponent is the same exponent of some recent results on global existence of small data solution.

Abstract:
pment of oxybutynin chloride topical gel for overactive bladder Review (3462) Total Article Views Authors: Lucente VR, Staskin DR, De E Published Date April 2011 Volume 2011:3 Pages 35 - 42 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RRU.S17046 Vincent R Lucente1, David R Staskin2, Elise De3 1Institute of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Allentown, PA, USA; 2Division of Urology, St Elizabeth’s Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 3Urological Institute of Northeastern New York, Albany, NY, USA Abstract: Overactive bladder (OAB) is an age-related syndrome often associated with urinary incontinence. Symptoms of OAB, such as urgency, frequency, and nocturia, can be treated effectively with inhibitors of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Antimuscarinic agents promote relaxation of the detrusor muscle and may modulate afferent neuronal signals involved in the regulation of the micturition reflex. Despite the availability of an increasing number of oral antimuscarinic agents, treatment persistence among patients with OAB generally appears to be low. This may be attributed, at least in part, to the common occurrence of anticholinergic adverse effects, such as dry mouth, constipation, and dizziness. Oxybutynin is a well-established antimuscarinic agent that is available in a variety of formulations. Transdermal formulations have been developed to avoid the first-pass hepatic and gastrointestinal drug metabolism responsible for the anticholinergic adverse effects often observed with oral delivery of oxybutynin. Oxybutynin chloride topical gel (OTG) is a formulation of oxybutynin that was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in January 2009. OTG was the result of a systematic evidence-based effort to develop a formulation that preserves the efficacy of oral oxybutynin formulations while eliminating most of their anticholinergic adverse effects. Additional emphasis was put on creating a transdermal formulation with minimal potential for application-site skin reactions. The formulation and pharmacokinetic properties of OTG are reviewed in the context of recently published efficacy and tolerability data from a large multicenter, placebo-controlled Phase III study.

Abstract:
Vincent R Lucente1, David R Staskin2, Elise De31Institute of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Allentown, PA, USA; 2Division of Urology, St Elizabeth’s Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 3Urological Institute of Northeastern New York, Albany, NY, USAAbstract: Overactive bladder (OAB) is an age-related syndrome often associated with urinary incontinence. Symptoms of OAB, such as urgency, frequency, and nocturia, can be treated effectively with inhibitors of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Antimuscarinic agents promote relaxation of the detrusor muscle and may modulate afferent neuronal signals involved in the regulation of the micturition reflex. Despite the availability of an increasing number of oral antimuscarinic agents, treatment persistence among patients with OAB generally appears to be low. This may be attributed, at least in part, to the common occurrence of anticholinergic adverse effects, such as dry mouth, constipation, and dizziness. Oxybutynin is a well-established antimuscarinic agent that is available in a variety of formulations. Transdermal formulations have been developed to avoid the first-pass hepatic and gastrointestinal drug metabolism responsible for the anticholinergic adverse effects often observed with oral delivery of oxybutynin. Oxybutynin chloride topical gel (OTG) is a formulation of oxybutynin that was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in January 2009. OTG was the result of a systematic evidence-based effort to develop a formulation that preserves the efficacy of oral oxybutynin formulations while eliminating most of their anticholinergic adverse effects. Additional emphasis was put on creating a transdermal formulation with minimal potential for application-site skin reactions. The formulation and pharmacokinetic properties of OTG are reviewed in the context of recently published efficacy and tolerability data from a large multicenter, placebo-controlled Phase III study.Keywords: oxybutynin topical gel, overactive bladder, transdermal formulation

Abstract:
We consider the possibility of simultaneously addressing the dark matter problem and neutrino mass generation in the minimal inverse seesaw realisation. The Standard Model is extended by two right-handed neutrinos and three sterile fermionic states, leading to three light active neutrino mass eigenstates, two pairs of (heavy) pseudo-Dirac mass eigenstates and one (mostly) sterile state with mass around the keV, possibly providing a dark matter candidate, and accounting for the recently observed and still unidentified monochromatic 3.5 keV line in galaxy cluster spectra. The conventional production mechanism through oscillation from active neutrinos can account only for $\sim 43\%$ of the observed relic density. This can be slightly increased to $\sim 48\%$ when including effects of entropy injection from the decay of light (with mass below 20 GeV) pseudo-Dirac neutrinos. The correct relic density can be achieved through freeze-in from the decay of heavy (above the Higgs mass) pseudo-Dirac neutrinos. This production is only effective for a limited range of masses, such that the decay occurs not too far from the electroweak phase transition. We thus propose a simple extension of the inverse seesaw framework, with an extra scalar singlet coupling to both the Higgs and the sterile neutrinos, which allows to achieve the correct dark matter abundance in a broader region of the parameter space, in particular in the low mass region for the pseudo-Dirac neutrinos.

Abstract:
The aim of this article is to prove an "almost" global existence result for some semilinear wave equations in the plane outside a bounded convex obstacle with the Neumann boundary condition.

Abstract:
We study the Cauchy problem for the semi-linear damped wave equation in any space dimension. We assume that the time-dependent damping term is effective. We prove the global existence of small energy data solutions in the supercritical case.

Abstract:
In this note we study the global existence of small data solutions to the Cauchy problem for the semi-linear wave equation with a not effective scale-invariant damping term, namely \[ v_{tt}-\triangle v + \frac2{1+t}\,v_t = |v|^p, \qquad v(0,x)=v_0(x),\quad v_t(0,x)=v_1(x), \] where $p>1$, $n\ge 2$. We prove blow-up in finite time in the subcritical range $p\in(1,p_2(n)]$ and an existence result for $p>p_2(n)$, $n=2,3$. In this way we find the critical exponent for small data solutions to this problem. All these considerations lead to the conjecture $p_2(n)=p_0(n+2)$ for $n\ge2$, where $p_0(n)$ is the Strauss exponent for the classical wave equation.

Abstract:
We address the impact of sterile fermions on the lepton flavor violating decays of quarkonia as well as of the $Z$ boson. We compute the relevant Wilson coefficients and show that the ${\rm B}(V\to\ell_\alpha\ell_\beta)$, where $V=\phi,\psi^{(n)}$, $\Upsilon^{(n)},Z$ can be significantly enhanced in the case of large sterile fermion masses and a non-negligible active-sterile mixing. We illustrate that feature in a specific minimal realization of the inverse seesaw mechanism, known as $(2,3)$-ISS, and in an effective model in which the presence of non-standard sterile fermions is parameterized by means of one heavy sterile (Majorana) neutrino.