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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 248 matches for " Vince Castranova "
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Toxicology of Nanomaterials: Permanent interactive learning
Paul Borm, Vince Castranova
Particle and Fibre Toxicology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1743-8977-6-28
Abstract: A recent series of publications within the past year on carbon nanotubes (CNT) have created extensive interest among regulatory agencies internationally. The first paper by Takagi et al. [1] reported that intraperitoneal injection of MWCNT resulted in mesothelioma in p53 +/- mice. Issues raised concerning this study were the high dose (3 mg/mouse) used and the relevance of the p53 +/- mouse model. Soon after, Poland et al. [2] reported that abdominal injection of long MWCNT but not short MWCNT induced inflammation and granulomatous lesions on the abdominal side of the diaphragm at one week post-exposure. In contrast to the Takagi et al. [1] study, they used wild type mice and a much lower dose (50 μg/mouse) of MWCNT. Although this study documented acute inflammation, it did not evaluate whether this inflammation would persist and progress to mesothelioma. Sakamoto et al. [3] used a 240 μg/rat dose of MWCNT injected intrascrotally and reported mesothelioma of the abdominal and thoracic lining 40 weeks post-exposure. Although this was a much lower dose than used by Takagi et al. [1], some have expressed concern about the dose rate employed using a single injection. Recently, Muller et al. [4] reported that no mesothelioma was noted 2 years after intraperitoneal injection of MWCNT (2-20 mg/rat). However, the MWCNT sample used in this study was very short (< 1 μm), and the study by Poland et al [2] would have predicted such short nanotubes to express low activity. An issue that still remains is whether inhaled MWCNT would reach the intrapleual space. Preliminary results from Hubbs et al. [5] indicate the such migration can occur in that they report microscopic evidence that MWCNT had penetrated the pleural surface of the lung 56 days after pharyngeal aspiration of 40 μg of MWCNT in a mouse model.In light of these reports of asbestos - like properties of CNT, a panel discussion was held to evaluate the state of CNT toxicology at the International Nanofiber Symposium - 20
Microprocessor of microRNAs: regulation and potential for therapeutic intervention
Kevin J Beezhold, Vince Castranova, Fei Chen
Molecular Cancer , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1476-4598-9-134
Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously synthesized small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by interfering with protein translational machinery and/or inducing degradation of target mRNAs [1]. Since the discovery of miRNAs, much effort has been made to understand the mechanisms by which miRNAs are synthesized and involved in cell lineage development and human diseases, especially, cancer. It is imperative that scientists continue to delineate how the biogenesis of these miRNAs is controlled by the cellular processing machinery, so that one may better understand how to modulate their expression or function as it contributes to a unique disease state. Recent research shows the involvement of additional proteins that modulate the function of the miRNA processing machinery, the Drosha processing complex, or microprocessor. This article reviews these new findings and discusses the potential for targeting these regulatory pathways in cancer therapy.It has been well-established that the biogenesis of microRNAs (miRNAs) involves three step-wise processes, including transcription of primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs) from the miRNA genes [2], partially processed precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs) in nuclei [3] and the mature miRNAs that were generated in the cytoplasm (Fig. 1). Pri-miRNA is typically a large RNA polymerase pol II-derived transcript whose tertiary structure forms stem loop structures. The stem loop is cleaved off by the microprocessor machinery, Drosha complex, to form ~60-100 nucleotide long pre-miRNA, which is further processed into ~22 nucleotide long mature miRNAs by Dicer, a RNase III enzyme, following translocation from the nuclei to cytoplasm [4].After successful cleavage, the pre-miRNA is bound by exportin-5 in a ran-GTP dependant manner and exported from the nucleus [5-7]. Binding of pre-miRNA by exportin-5 is dependent upon the stem of the miRNA, requiring a length of 16-18 base pairs, and alterations in the 3' overhang will affect the efficiency of exp
JNK1 activation predicts the prognostic outcome of the human hepatocellular carcinoma
Qingshan Chang, Jianguo Chen, Kevin J Beezhold, Vince Castranova, Xianglin Shi, Fei Chen
Molecular Cancer , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1476-4598-8-64
Abstract: In the present study, we reported HCC signature genes based on the JNK1 activation status in 31 HCC specimens relative to the matched distal noncancerous liver tissue from 31 patients. The HCCs with high JNK1 (H-JNK1) and low JNK1 (L-JNK1) were sub-grouped. Two different signature gene sets for both H-JNK1 and L-JNK1 HCC were identified through gene expression profiling. A striking overlap of signature genes was observed between the H-JNK1 HCC and the hepatoblastoma or hepatoblastoma-type HCC. Many established biomarkers for hepatic progenitor cells were over-expressed in H-JNK1 HCC, including AFP, TACSTD1, KRT19, KRT7, THY1, and PROM1. In addition, the majority of the most up-regulated genes were those associated with metastasis and earlier recurrence, whereas the genes for normal liver function were substantially down-regulated in H-JNK1 HCC tissue. A Kaplan-Meier plot demonstrated that the survival of the patients with H-JNK1 HCC was severely impaired.Accordingly, we believe that the H-JNK1 HCC may originate from hepatic progenitor cells and is associated with poorer prognosis. The status of JNK1 activation in HCC tissue, thus, might be a new biomarker for HCC prognosis and therapeutic targeting.Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has plagued populations in Far East Asia, South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa for several decades where the prevalence of hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection and aflatoxin exposure is high[1,2]. A sharp increase in HCC incidence in North America, Western Europe and Japan has been noted in recent years due to hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection, alcohol abuse and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease [3-6]. HCC is the fourth most common neoplasm and the third most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Age-adjusted HCC incidence rates vary from 2 per 100,000 population in North America to 80 per 100,000 population in China. Since most HCC patients are diagnosed when the tumors are in an advanced stage and the majority of HCCs develop in the co
No Relationship between Economic Freedom and Economic Growth: A Note  [PDF]
Vince Hooper
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2019.72027
Abstract: The purpose of this research note is to re-examine the link between economic freedom and economic growth because the connection has been massively over played in the past 50 years. Answering this question has important socioeconomic policy implications as economic freedom as a means of fostering higher economic growth has been high on the priority list of leading countries like the UK and US. Indeed, virtually every country in the world has embarked on this agenda of increasing economic freedom either voluntarily or at the behest of the World Bank and IMF through Washington Consensus of increasing economic freedom at all costs. The costs of liberalisation and hence increasing economic freedom have been ongoing moral hazard problems, heightened financial instability, unsustainable global debt problems, increased geopolitical risks, greater economic disequilibrium, the rise of protectionism and international social upheaval. A new economic development order needs to be constructed based on solving these issues.
Dr Val Vallyathan: in memoriam
Vincent Castranova, Jeff Fedan
Particle and Fibre Toxicology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1743-8977-7-24
Abstract: Val was married for 45 years to Usha, and they were blessed with two children, Sanjay and Veena, and two grandchildren.Val received his B.Sc. (Honors), M.Sc., and Ph.D. degrees at Maharaja Sayajirao (M.S.) University of Baroda, India. He next held several academic and research and teaching positions at Maharaja Sayajirao University, the University of Baroda, the University of Guelph (Canada), the University of Vermont, and the Institute for Muscle Disease. Val joined NIOSH in 1979 and had been a leading researcher on the Morgantown campus ever since. He served as an Advisor to many university graduate students and postdoctoral fellows at the Maharaja Sayajirao University, the University of Vermont, West Virginia University and NIOSH.At NIOSH Val was a Research Physiologist and Team Leader in the Pathology and Physiology Research Branch (PPRB) of the Health Effects Laboratory Division. In fact, Val was trained primarily as an experimental pathologist, and his primary research interests lay in occupational respiratory diseases. After his retirement in October, 2009, Val came back to PPRB as an Expert Consultant; he was unable to cut his ties to his research activities, and probably would have never really retired and left his research.In addition to his duties at NIOSH, Val held several Adjunct Professorships at West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, in the Departments of Pathology, Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, and Anatomy.Val's influence on occupational health research was widely acknowledged and reached around the world. Of the many conferences he organized or played a significant role in, he would be most proud of the four international conferences on oxygen and nitrogen free radicals, the last one being held in October, 2009. Other conferences with which he was involved, both within and outside of NIOSH, were equally relevant, timely and successful.Nominated 17 times for Alice Hamilton and Charles C. Shepard Awards for "Best Paper of the Year" in NIOSH or CDC
Surface area of particle administered versus mass in determining the pulmonary toxicity of ultrafine and fine carbon black: comparison to ultrafine titanium dioxide
Tina M Sager, Vincent Castranova
Particle and Fibre Toxicology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1743-8977-6-15
Abstract: Ultrafine carbon black particles caused a dose dependent but transient inflammatory and cytotoxic response. On a mass basis, these responses were significantly (65 fold) greater than those for fine sized carbon black. However, when doses were equalized based on surface area of particles given, the ultrafine carbon black particles were only slightly (non-significantly) more inflammogenic and cytotoxic compared to the fine sized carbon black. At one day post-exposure, inflammatory potencies of the ultrafine carbon black and ultrafine titanium dioxide particles were similar. However, while the pulmonary reaction to ultrafine carbon black resolved with time, the inflammatory effects of ultrafine titanium dioxide were more persistent over a 42 day post-exposure period.These results indicate that for low toxicity low solubility materials, surface area of particles administered rather than mass burden of particles may be a more appropriate dose metric for pulmonary toxicity studies. In addition, ultrafine titanium dioxide appears to be more bioactive than ultrafine carbon black on an equivalent surface area of particles delivered basis.Nanotechnology is considered to be one of the world's most promising new technologies, able to impact all phases of life, just as the industrial revolution did in the past two centuries. Utilizing the quantum properties of atoms and molecules, nanotechnology proposes the construction of novel molecular devices possessing extraordinary properties. However, both epidemiological and toxicological studies have contributed to a body of evidence suggesting that nano or ultrafine particles may induce or exaggerate a number of adverse biological effects. It has been suggested that nanoparticles may interfere with a number of molecular processes that should be considered before such particles are brought into wide commercial use [1].Recent reports indicate that there can be considerable potential for exposure to nanoparticles in the workplace, especi
A Degree-Decreasing Lemma for (M O D q- M O D p) Circuits
Vince Grolmusz
Discrete Mathematics & Theoretical Computer Science , 2001,
Abstract: Consider a (MOD q, MOD p) circuit, where the inputs of the bottom MOD p gates are degree- d polynomials with integer coefficients of the input variables (p, q are different primes). Using our main tool --- the Degree Decreasing Lemma --- we show that this circuit can be converted to a (MOD q, MOD p) circuit with linear polynomials on the input-level with the price of increasing the size of the circuit. This result has numerous consequences: for the Constant Degree Hypothesis of Barrington, Straubing and Thérien, and generalizing the lower bound results of Yan and Parberry, Krause and Waack, and Krause and Pudlák. Perhaps the most important application is an exponential lower bound for the size of (MOD q, MOD p) circuits computing the n fan-in AND, where the input of each MOD p gate at the bottom is an arbitrary integer valued function of cn variables (c<1) plus an arbitrary linear function of n input variables.
A Note on Set Systems with no Union of Cardinality 0 modulo m
Vince Grolmusz
Discrete Mathematics & Theoretical Computer Science , 2003,
Abstract: Alon, Kleitman, Lipton, Meshulam, Rabin and Spencer (Graphs. Combin. 7 (1991), no. 2, 97-99) proved, that for any hypergraph F ={F 1,F 2,…, F d(q-1)+1 }, where q is a prime-power, and d denotes the maximal degree of the hypergraph, there exists an F 0 F, such that | F∈ F 0 F| ≡ 0 (q). We give a direct, alternative proof for this theorem, and we also show that an explicit construction exists for a hypergraph of degree d and size Ω(d 2) which does not contain a non-empty sub-hypergraph with a union of size 0 modulo 6, consequently, the theorem does not generalize for non-prime-power moduli.
Astronomical station Vidojevica: In situ test of the ALTA Apogee U42 CCD camera
Vince O.
Serbian Astronomical Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/saj1285065v
Abstract: Currently, the CCD camera most used by observers of the Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade is the ALTA Apogee U42. It is used for both photometric and astrometric observations. Therefore, it is very important to know different measurable parameters which describe the condition of the camera - linearity, gain, readout noise etc. In this paper, we present a thorough test of this camera.
Attenuation Laws for Galaxies with Different Star Formation Histories, Based on the SDSS Images
Vince, O.
Serbian Astronomical Journal , 2009,
Abstract: Attenuation curves (laws) in the optical part of thespectrum (from about 3500 AA~to 9000 AA) are determined for galaxieswith different star formation histories (SFHs) using images in five photometrical bands from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Owing to large surveys like SDSS, it is possible to defineseveral subgroups of galaxies with similar SFHs using two spectralindices that trace SFH. Attenuation curves are analyzed in termsof SFH and compared to the curves that are often used for dustcorrection of the observed data.
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