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The cellular immune response
elicited by Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin
(BCG) has been carefully
investigated, but the humoral immune response has been partially neglected.
BALB/c mice were immunized with BCG strain used to immunize humans. Anti-BCG
antibodies, as assayed by ELISA, began to appear in the sera after the third
week of immunization and plateaued three weeks after the 8th immunization.
The total immunoglobulins (Igs) were purified by caprylic acid method from
pooled serum collected after the 8th immunization. Anti-BCG antigen
antibodies were detected in the total Igs preparation as well as in IgG, IgM,
IgG2a, and IgG2b,
but not in the IgG3. Distinct BCG proteins were recognized
the IgGs in Western blot analysis. Opsonization of BCG bacilli by the purified
Igs potentiated internalization of the bacteria by murine Raw 264.7 macrophages.
The intracellular BCG elimination coincided with the induction of NO
production, which was more pronounced in cells infected with opsonized BCG compared
to those infected with the non-opsonized bacteria. Coincidently, the production
of NO was also higher in macrophages infected with opsonized BCG (maximal NO
production at 48 h of incubation). The obtained results demonstrate that
repeated inoculations of BCG effectively activate the humoral immune response,
justifying the use of BCG as
The present article
reports the application of zinc ethyl silicate paint and the use of internal
and external paint schemes on carbon steel spheres for the storage of liquefied
petroleum gas. The new paint scheme eliminates the steps of blasting in the
field and minimizes the collection of waste generated and the environmental
impact, reducing the service time onsite and therefore providing a productivity
gain and better health and cleanliness at work. The results were obtained
through test runs and qualified in bodies-of-proof made with the same
characteristics as the sphere, that is, using the same material (carbon steel),
thickness, and mechanical formation and subject to the same conditions of
design and implementation process. The paint scheme was approved, qualified,
and committed to the supplier’s warranty with the paint manufacturer and assembler
of the storage spheres for liquefied petroleum gas.
Raised myeloperoxidase (MPO) serum levels are associated with endothelial dysfunction and cigarette smoking is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Since myocardial infarction is associated with leukocytosis and smokers present increased levels of neutrophils, here we hypothesized that the levels of serum MPO in smokers could be also raised. We carried out a study on sixty eight adult healthy volunteers. The control group consisted of thirty four non-smokers and the test group was thirty four heavy smokers. The hemogram, interleukin-8 (IL-8) and MPO serum levels were measured. Neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts were higher (p < 0.05) and the serum levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and MPO were fourfold higher in smokers than in non-smokers (n = 34, p < 0.05). This result correlated perfectly with the increased neutrophil count and IL-8 serum level that characterize smoking subjects. We propose that the high level of serum MPO could be directly involved in the higher prevalence of coronary artery diseases among heavy smokers.