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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6896 matches for " Victoria Thompson "
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Wnt/β-Catenin Expression Does Not Correlate with Serum Alkaline Phosphatase Concentration in Canine Osteosarcoma Patients
Caroline M. Piskun, Anantharaman Muthuswamy, Michael K. Huelsmeyer, Victoria Thompson, Timothy J. Stein
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026106
Abstract: Osteosarcoma is an aggressive malignancy of the bone and an increase in serum alkaline phosphatase concentration has clinical prognostic value in both humans and canines. Increased serum alkaline phosphatase concentration at the time of diagnosis has been associated with poorer outcomes for osteosarcoma patients. The biology underlying this negative prognostic factor is poorly understood. Given that activation of the Wnt signaling pathway has been associated with alkaline phosphatase expression in osteoblasts, we hypothesized that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway would be differentially activated in osteosarcoma tissue based on serum ALP status. Archived canine osteosarcoma samples and primary canine osteosarcoma cell lines were used to evaluate the status of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activity through immunohistochemical staining, western immunoblot analyses, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and a Wnt-responsive promoter activity assay. We found no significant difference in β-catenin expression or activation between OSA populations differing in serum ALP concentration. Pathway activity was mildly increased in the primary OSA cell line generated from a patient with increased serum ALP compared to the normal serum ALP OSA cell line. Further investigation into the mechanisms underlying differences in serum ALP concentration is necessary to improve our understanding of the biological implications of this negative prognostic indicator.
On the Distribution of Type II Errors in Hypothesis Testing  [PDF]
Skip Thompson
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/am.2011.22021
Abstract: When a statistical test of hypothesis for a population mean is performed, we are faced with the possibility of committing a Type II error by not rejecting the null hypothesis when in fact the population mean has changed. We consider this issue and quantify matters in a manner that differs a bit from what is commonly done. In particular, we define the probability distribution function for Type II errors. We then explore some interesting properties that we have not seen mentioned elsewhere for this probability distribution function. Finally, we discuss several Maple procedures that can be used to perform various calculations using the distribution.
Accounting for Population in an EKC for Water Pollution  [PDF]
Alexi Thompson
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.47A017

This paper explores the role of population in empirical studies. While panel estimation should control for differences across countries as more populated countries should pollute more, more pollution may not lead to more pollution per capita. Two models are estimated each of which control for population in different ways. One model accounts for population by expressing BOD in per capita terms and the second model regresses BOD on population using the residual in the EKC regression. The Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) reveals the second model is preferred to the first model. In addition, although both models reveal an EKC, the turning points are vastly different. Future EKC studies can benefit by testing EKC models that control for population in different ways.

Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollution: The Case of Border Countries  [PDF]
Alexi Thompson
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.51008

This paper looks for evidence of an environmental Kuznets curve for water pollution in countries that share major rivers as their border. The data in this paper consist of a panel of 21 years and 30 countries, seven of which are border countries. The turning point for the border countries is much lower than that for the other subset. A t-test comparing group means for income and biochemical oxygen demand levels for both subsets finds no statistical difference for either variable, implying that countries sharing a river may be able to enforce environmental regulations more effectively than countries not sharing a river.

Specifying the EKC: Downstream Dependence in Water Pollution  [PDF]
Alexi Thompson
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.49094
Abstract: The present study provides a utility maximizing theoretical framework motivating the EKC model. Theoretical parameters are linked directly to the typical empirical parameters of the reduced form empirical EKC model. Linking the theory to the typical empirically estimated parameters is relevant for devising policy and future EKC studies.
Classifying Groups of Small Order  [PDF]
Gerard Thompson
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2016.62007
Abstract: The classification of groups of order less than 16 is reconsidered. The goal of the paper is partly historical and partly pedagogical and aims to achieve the classification as simply as possible in a way which can be easily incorporated into a first course in abstract algebra and without appealing to the Sylow Theorems. The paper concludes with some exercises for students.
Examination of Three Case Studies of Caring for Psychiatric Patients on a Medical Surgical Unit  [PDF]
Victoria Siegel
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.413096
Medical surgical nurses frequently care for patients with psychiatric disorders as one in four people have a diagnosed psychiatric disorder. Since these nurses specialize in medical surgical nursing, they often feel they lack the expertise to care for patients with co-morbid psychiatric problems. This article presents three case studies and delineates nursing care strategies which could assist the medical-surgical nurses in caring for this population.
The clinical and functional relevance of microparticles induced by activated protein C treatment in sepsis
Margarita Pérez-Casal, Victoria Thompson, Colin Downey, Ingeborg Welters, Duncan Wyncoll, Jecko Thachil, Cheng Toh
Critical Care , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/cc10356
Abstract: This was an experimental study on clinical samples in an intensive care setting, and included patients with severe sepsis who fulfilled criteria for treatment with rhAPC. The number of CD13+ MPs from the patients were analysed to determine their origin. They were also quantified for endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) and APC expression. Clinical relevance of these MPs were ascertained by comparing survival between the group receiving rhAPC (n = 25) and a control group of untreated patients (n = 25). MPs were also incubated with endothelial cells to analyse apoptotic gene expression, cytoprotection and anti-inflammatory effects.rhAPC treatment induced a significant increase in circulating MP-associated EPCR by flow cytometry (P < 0.05) and by quantitative ELISA (P < 0.005). APC expression also showed significant increases (P < 0.05). Numerically, CD13+ MPs were higher in rhAPC-treated survivors versus non-survivors. However, the number of non-survivors was low and this was not significantly different. APC on MPs was demonstrated to induce anti-apoptotic and endothelial barrier effects through the activation of endothelial PAR1.rhAPC treatment in patients with sepsis significantly increases circulating EPCR + MPs. These MPs were noted to express APC, which has specific anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects, with a non-significant correlative trend towards survival. This suggests that MPs could disseminate APC function and activate endothelial PAR1 at distal vascular sites.The presence of circulating microparticles (MPs) in septic patients is well recognised [1,2] and is inducible by thrombin [3], cytokines [4], lipopolysaccharide (LPS) [5] and collagen [6]. Derived from cell membrane shedding as a result of activation or apoptosis, circulating MPs constitute a marker of vascular and systemic disease [7]. Rearrangement of membrane phospholipids during MP release can result in increased phosphatidylserine availability with procoagulant activity. In patients wi
Knockout of ERK5 causes multiple defects in placental and embryonic development
Lijun Yan, Julia Carr, Peter R Ashby, Victoria Murry-Tait, Calum Thompson, J Simon C Arthur
BMC Developmental Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1471-213x-3-11
Abstract: To help determine the function of ERK5 we have used gene targeting to inactivate this gene in mice. Here we report that ERK5 knockout mice die at approximately E10.5. In situ hybridisation for ERK5, and its upstream activator MKK5, showed strong expression in the head and trunk of the embryo at this stage of development. Between E9.5 and E10.5, multiple developmental problems are seen in the ERK5-/- embryos, including an increase in apoptosis in the cephalic mesenchyme tissue, abnormalities in the hind gut, as well as problems in vascular remodelling, cardiac development and placental defects.Erk5 is essential for early embryonic development, and is required for normal development of the vascular system and cell survival.Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play important roles in many cellular processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis. They are also important for many physiological functions in several systems, including in developmental, immune and neuronal systems. At least 12 isoforms of MAPKs exist in mammalian cells, and these can be divided into 4 main groups, the 'classical' MAPKs (ERK1 and ERK2), JNKs (also referred to as SAPK1), p38s (also referred to as SAPK2, SAPK3 and SAPK4) and atypical MAPKs such as ERK3, ERK5 and ERK8. With the exception of ERK3, MAPKs are activated by dual phosphorylation on a Thr-Xaa-Tyr motif by a dual specificity MAPK kinase (MKK). MKKs are in turn activated by a MAPK kinase kinase (MKKK), which are activated in response to appropriate extracellular signals.ERK5 is an atypical MAPK that can be activated in vivo by a variety of stimuli, including some mitogens such as EGF, and some cellular stress such as oxidative and osmotic shock [1-3]. These stimuli activate a cascade in which the MAPK kinase kinases MEKK3 or MEKK2 activate MKK5, which in turn activates ERK5 [4,5]. Interest in the ERK5 pathway has been fuelled by reports that the activation of ERK5 by MKK5 can be blocked in viv
Protecting Water Quality and Public Health Using a Smart Grid  [PDF]
Ken Thompson, Raja Kadiyala
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering (CWEEE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cweee.2013.22B013
Abstract: After the attacks on September 11, 2001 and the follow-up risk assessments by utilities across the United States, securing the water distribution system against malevolent attack became a strategic goal for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Following 3 years of development work on a Contamination Warning System (CWS) at the Greater Cincinnati Water Works, four major cities across the United States were selected to enhance the CWS development conducted by the USEPA. One of the major efforts undertaken was to develop a process to seamlessly process “Big Data” sets in real time from different sources (online water quality monitoring, consumer complaints, enhanced security, public health surveillance, and sampling and analysis) and graphically display actionable information for operators to evaluate and respond to appropriately. The most significant finding that arose from the development and implementation of the “dashboard” were the dual benefits observed by all four utilities: the ability to enhance their operations and improve the regulatory compliance of their water distribution systems. Challenge: While most of the utilities had systems in place for SCADA, Work Order Management, Laboratory Management, 311 Call Center Management, Hydraulic Models, Public Health Monitoring, and GIS, these systems were not integrated, resulting in duplicate data entry, which made it difficult to trace back to a “single source of truth.” Each one of these data sources can produce a wealth of raw data. For most utilities, very little of this data is being translated into actionable information as utilities cannot overwhelm their staffs with manually processing the mountains of data generated. Instead, utilities prefer to provide their staffs with actionable information that is easily understood and provides the basis for rapid decision-making. Smart grid systems were developed so utilities can essentially find the actionable needle in the haystack of data. Utilities can then focus on rapidly evaluating the new information, compare it known activities occurring in the system, and identify the correct level of response required. Solution: CH2M HILL was engaged to design, implement, integrate, and deploy a unified spatial dashboard/smart grid system. This system included the processes, technology, automation, and governance necessary to link together the disparate systems in real time and fuse these data streams to the GIS. The overall solution mapped the business process involved with the data collection, the information flow requirements, and the system and
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