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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3998 matches for " Victoria Hammond "
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Prospective study of Outcomes in Sporadic versus Hereditary breast cancer (POSH): study protocol
Diana Eccles, Sue Gerty, Peter Simmonds, Victoria Hammond, Sarah Ennis, Douglas G Altman, the POSH steering group
BMC Cancer , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-7-160
Abstract: The study is a prospective cohort study recruiting 3,000 women aged 40 years or younger at breast cancer diagnosis; the recruiting period covers 1st June 2001 to 31st December 2007. Written informed consent is obtained at study entry. Family history and known epidemiological risk data are collected by questionnaire. Clinical information about diagnosis, treatment and clinical course is collected and blood is stored. Follow up data are collected annually after the first year. An additional recruitment category includes women aged 41 to 50 years who are found to be BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene carriers and were diagnosed with their first breast cancer during the study recruiting period.Power estimates were based on 10% of the cohort carrying a BRCA1 gene mutation. Preliminary BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation analysis in a pilot set of study participants confirms we should have 97% power to detect a difference of 10% in event rates between gene carriers and sporadic young onset cases. Most of the recruited patients (>80%) receive an anthracycline containing adjuvant chemotherapy regimen making planned analyses more straightforward.Less than 5% of breast cancers diagnosed in the UK are diagnosed in women aged 40 years or younger although there is a rapid increase in the incidence from about 35 years of age[1].Published retrospective studies suggest that early age at onset of breast cancer (below 35 years) is a poor prognosis factor; high grade and oestrogen receptor (ER) negative tumours appear to be more frequent in younger women[2,3]. Breast cancer arising due to a high penetrance genetic predisposition gene such as BRCA1 or BRCA2 occurs at younger average age than breast cancer in the general population and a higher proportion of young onset cases will have a genetic predisposition than breast cancer cases in general. Family history is still the most important indicator of an underlying inherited predisposition [4]. However BRCA1 and BRCA2 may account for less than 40% of all familia
Spin, the Classical Theory  [PDF]
Richard T. Hammond
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.31001
Abstract: With the development of local gauge theories of gravitation, it became evident that intrinsic spin was an integral part of the theory. This gave spin a classical formulation that predicted the existence of a new kind of field, the torsion field. To date only one class of experiments has been developed to detect this field, a search for a long range dipole force. In this article, the torsion equations are de-coupled from the curved space of general relativity derived from basic principles using vector calculus and the theory of electromagnetism as a guide. The results are written in vector form so that they are readily available to experimentalists, paving the way for new kinds of experiments.
AMPA Receptor Activation Promotes Non-Amyloidogenic Amyloid Precursor Protein Processing and Suppresses Neuronal Amyloid-β Production
Sarah E. Hoey, Federica Buonocore, Carla J. Cox, Victoria J. Hammond, Michael S. Perkinton, Robert J. Williams
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078155
Abstract: Soluble oligomeric amyloid β peptide (Aβ) generated from processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and through actions at glutamatergic synapses affects excitability and plasticity. The physiological control of APP processing is not fully understood but stimulation of synaptic NMDA receptors (NMDAR) can suppress Aβ levels through an ERK-dependent increase in α-secretase activity. AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPAR) couple to ERK phosphorylation independently of NMDAR activation raising the possibility that stimulation of AMPAR might similarly promote non-amyloidogenic APP processing. We have tested this hypothesis by investigating whether AMPAR directly regulate APP processing in cultured mouse cortical neurons, by analyzing APP C-terminal fragments (CTFs), soluble APP (sAPP), Aβ levels, and cleavage of an APP-GAL4 reporter protein. We report that direct stimulation of AMPAR increases non-amyloidogenic α-secretase-mediated APP processing and inhibits Aβ production. Processing was blocked by the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor TAPI-1 but was only partially dependent on Ca2+ influx and ERK activity. AMPAR can therefore, be added to the repertoire of receptors that couple to non-amyloidogenic APP processing at glutamatergic synapses and thus pharmacological targeting of AMPAR could potentially influence the development and progression of Aβ pathology in AD.
Development of synthetic cattle populations
K Hammond
Genetics Selection Evolution , 1982, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-14-4-580b
Abstract:
"Plain packaging" regulations for tobacco products: the impact of standardizing the color and design of cigarette packs
Hammond,David;
Salud Pública de México , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342010000800018
Abstract: tobacco packaging and labeling policies have emerged as prominent and cost-effective tobacco control measures. although packaging policies have primarily focused on health warnings, there is growing recognition of the importance of packaging as a marketing tool for the tobacco industry. the current paper reviews evidence on the potential impact of standardizing the color and design of tobacco packages -so called "plain" packaging. the evidence indicates three primary benefits of plain packaging: increasing the effectiveness of health warnings, reducing false health beliefs about cigarettes, and reducing brand appeal especially among youth and young adults. overall, the research to date suggests that "plain" packaging regulations would be an effective tobacco control measure, particularly in jurisdictions with comprehensive restrictions on other forms of marketing.
Cash Cow: User Fees in Alberta Public Libraries
Jason Hammond
Partnership : the Canadian Journal of Library and Information Practice and Research , 2007,
Abstract: Alberta is the wealthiest province in Canada. It is also the only jurisdiction in North America where the majority of local library boards charge patrons to use their public libraries. There are many reasons why these fees came into being in the 1980s and continue to exist today. Library trustees see them as an easy source of funds for their cash-strapped libraries, some librarians feel that they help instill a sense of value in library materials and services, library patrons realise the fees are often less than the cost of a single paperback book and don’t mind paying them. But the main reason the fees still exist is because of the unique form of conservatism espoused by the popular Alberta premier Ralph Klein, who favoured big business, lower taxes, and privatization of public services while leading the province from 1992 to 2006. Klein’s policies included a focus on user-pay models for all manner of services. Paying for library cards is something that Alberta’s citizens have accepted for the most part. But because of Alberta’s strong support for user-pay models, this isn’t just an issue for the librarians, patrons, and politicians of that province. The possibility also exists that libraries in other provinces could be opened up to a GATS challenge by for-profit corporations outside of Canada because of Alberta’s current user fee policies. How this unique user fee arrangement developed, the current situation, and what the future may bring will be the subject of this paper.
Cash Cow: User Fees in Alberta Public Libraries
Jason Hammond
Partnership : the Canadian Journal of Library and Information Practice and Research , 2007,
Abstract: Alberta is the wealthiest province in Canada. It is also the only jurisdiction in NorthAmerica where the majority of local library boards charge patrons to use their publiclibraries.There are many reasons why these fees came into being in the 1980s and continue toexist today. Library trustees see them as an easy source of funds for their cashstrappedlibraries, some librarians feel that they help instill a sense of value in librarymaterials and services, library patrons realise the fees are often less than the cost of asingle paperback book and don’t mind paying them.But the main reason the fees still exist is because of the unique form of conservatismespoused by the popular Alberta premier Ralph Klein, who favoured big business, lowertaxes, and privatization of public services while leading the province from 1992 to 2006.Klein’s policies included a focus on user-pay models for all manner of services. Payingfor library cards is something that Alberta’s citizens have accepted for the most part. Butbecause of Alberta’s strong support for user-pay models, this isn’t just an issue for thelibrarians, patrons, and politicians of that province. The possibility also exists thatlibraries in other provinces could be opened up to a GATS challenge by for-profitcorporations outside of Canada because of Alberta’s current user fee policies.How this unique user fee arrangement developed, the current situation, and what thefuture may bring will be the subject of this paper.
THE FINITE-STATE PLAYGROUND
Michael Hammond
International Journal of English Studies (IJES) , 2008, DOI: 10.6018/ijes.8.1.49131
Abstract: Finite-state methods are finding ever increasing use among linguists as a way of modeling phonology and morphology and as a method for manipulating and modeling text. This paper describes a suite of very simple finite-state tools written by the author that can be used to investigate this area and that can be used for simple analysis.
GRADIENCE, PHONOTACTICS, AND THE LEXICON IN ENGLISH PHONOLOGY
Michael Hammond
International Journal of English Studies (IJES) , 2004, DOI: 10.6018/ijes.4.2.47961
Abstract: Experimental work has established that when subjects judge the phonological wellformedness of nonsense forms, they are strongly affected by the frequency of the phonological elements of the form and by the number of actual words that such a form is similar to. These results challenge phonological theory by suggesting a central role for frequency and the lexicon. In this paper, I review these results and show how they can be easily modelled with Probabilistic Optimality Theory. The payoff is that from very few phonological assumptions we can derive virtually the whole panoply of experimental effects. We can also derive various Local Conjunction effects as well.
Development of synthetic cattle populations
Hammond K
Genetics Selection Evolution , 1982,
Abstract:
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