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Cos i salut en persones immigrades Body and health of immigrants Cuerpo y salud en personas inmigradas
M. Cruz Molina Garuz,Crescencia Pastor Vicente
Temps d'Educació , 2007,
Abstract: La realitat multicultural de la societat comporta reorientar les accions dels serveis socials, educatius i sanitaris de la comunitat per tal de donar resposta a les necessitats específiques de les persones immigrants i reduir les diferencies amb la població autòctona. La promoció de la salut ha d’anar dirigida a capacitar la població immigrant per gestionar la seva salut, amb la finalitat de reduir les desigualtats en salut com a conseqüència de les discriminacions per raons ètniques o culturals. Des de l’educació, s’han d’aplicar estratègies per millorar la salut física i emocional que augmenti el benestar i la qualitat de vida de tota la societat, bo i incorporant actituds d’empatia i transformant les percepcions negatives en mirades positives envers la diversitat cultural, com un fet que ens enriqueix i amb el que hem de viure i conviure. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ La réalité multiculturelle de la société dans laquelle nous vivons implique de réorienter les actions développées dans les services de la communauté, sociaux, éducatifs et sanitaires, pour apporter une réponse aux besoins spécifiques des immigrés et réduire les différences par rapport à la population autochtone. La promotion de la santé doit viser à rendre la population immigrée capable de gérer sa propre santé, en réduisant ainsi les inégalités qui seraient la conséquence des discriminations pour des raisons ethniques ou culturelles. Dans la perspective de l’éducation, on doit appliquer des stratégies pour améliorer la santé physique et émotionnelle qui augmenteront le bien-être ainsi que la qualité de vie de toute la société, en introduisant des attitudes d’empathie et en transformant les perceptions négatives en regards positifs en ce qui concerne la diversité culturelle, comme un fait qui nous enrichit et avec lequel nous devons vivre. The multicultural reality of our society implies the reorientation of the actions carried out in the social, educational and health fields within the community in order to respond to the immigrant community’s specific needs and lessen the differences with respect to the autochthonous population. Health promotion must be aimed at preparing the immigrant population to manage its health, thus reducing inequalities in health because of discrimination on ethnic or cultural grounds. From an educational standpoint, strategies to improve physical and mental health must be implemented in or
Influencia de los procesos mediadores en la adaptación al dolor crónico
Beatriz Soucase Lozano,José F. Soriano Pastor,Vicente Monsalve Dolz
International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology , 2005,
Abstract: El objetivo de este estudio descriptivo mediante encuestas consiste en establecer la influencia de los procesos mediadores en la adaptación del paciente a su dolor, utilizando como criterio el nivel de ansiedad rasgo y depresión. La finalidad del estudio se centra en determinar qué variables de valoración y qué estrategias de afrontamiento predicen un mejor ajuste al dolor crónico. La muestra está formada por 168 pacientes con diferentes patologías en dolor crónico. A nivel descriptivo, los resultados muestran que el nivel de dolor informado por los pacientes oscila entre moderado e intenso, percibiéndose a sí mismos con una baja autoeficacia para controlar o disminuir el dolor, haciendo uso de estrategias de afrontamiento ante el mismo más bien pasivas (por ejemplo, la autoafirmación y la religión), y mostrando puntuaciones en ansiedad y depresión moderadamente elevadas. A nivel predictivo se observa que las variables de valoración tienen un mayor peso que las estrategias de afrontamiento en la predicción de un mejor o peor ajuste del paciente a su dolor.
Right-sided diaphragmatic rupture after blunt trauma. An unusual entity
Ramon Vilallonga, Vicente Pastor, Laura Alvarez, Ramon Charco, Manel Armengol, Salvador Navarro
World Journal of Emergency Surgery , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1749-7922-6-3
Abstract: Traumatic injuries of the diaphragm remain an entity of difficult diagnosis despite having been recognised early in the history of surgery. Sennertus, in 1541, performed an autopsy in one patient who had died from herniation and strangulation of the colon through a diaphragmatic gap secondary to a gunshot wound received seven months earlier [1]. However, these cases remain rare, and difficult to diagnose and care for. This has highlighted some of the aspects related to these lesions, especially when they are caused by blunt trauma and injuries of the right diaphragm [1,2].We report the case of a man of 36 years of age, thrown from a height of 12 meters and was referred to our centre. The patient arrived conscious and oriented, and we began manoeuvring the management of the patient with multiple injuries according to the guidelines of the ATLS (Advanced Trauma Life Support) recommended by the American College of Surgeons. The patient had an unstable pelvic fracture (type B2) with hemodynamic instability and respiratory failure. Patient's Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 38. Pelvis and chest X-rays were performed which confirmed the pelvic fracture and pathological elevation of the right hemidiaphragm was observed (Figure 1). We proceeded to stabilise the pelvic fracture and replace fluids, improving hemodynamic status. The patient continued with respiratory failure. For this reason, a chest tube was placed and Computerised Tomography (CT) was performed (Figure 2), showing a ruptured right hemidiaphragm, including chest drain in the right hepatic lobe and occupation of the lesser sac by blood. The patient underwent surgery, finding a right hemidiaphragm transverse rupture with a hepatothorax and an intrahepatic thoracic tube. We performed the suture of the diaphragm and liver packing, moved the patient to the intensive care unit, and after 48 hours, the liver packing was removed without problems. The patient evolved favourably.Currently, traumatic injuries of the diaph
Indicadores socioeconómicos de área peque?a en el estudio de las desigualdades en salud
Domínguez-Berjón,María Felícitas; Borrell,Carme; Pastor,Vicente;
Gaceta Sanitaria , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0213-91112004000200004
Abstract: objective: to assess whether 2 area-level socioeconomic indicators (one single and the other composite) are able to detect social inequalities in health. methods: we used the health interview survey of barcelona, 1992. perceived health status, the presence of chronic conditions, smoking, pap test, educational level and social class were analyzed. as area-level indicators, the percentage of unemployment and a deprivation index at census tract level were obtained from the 1991 census. the associations between area-based socioeconomic indicators and individual-level socioeconomic position, as well as the associations among both types of socioeconomic indicator and health, were analyzed. results: a clear positive association was found between small area-based socioeconomic indicators and individual-level indicators. similar effects were observed for different health outcomes among men as well as among women. for most of the outcomes analyzed, the differences were greater with the deprivation index than with unemployment. thus, in men the age-adjusted odds ratio (ora) of average, poor or very poor perceived health status was 2.0 (95% ci, 1.4-2.9) in the most disadvantaged unemployment quartile in relation to the least disadvantaged quartile while with the deprivation index the ora was 2.7 (95% ci, 1.9-3.9). for women these ora were 1.8 (95% ci, 1.4-2.4) and 2.4 (95% ci, 1.8-3.2), respectively. conclusions: area-based socioeconomic indicators, such as those available through the spanish census, can be applied in all members of a population and are useful for detecting social inequalities in health.
Antibiotic use in dental practice: A review
Poveda Roda,Rafael; Bagán,José Vicente; Sanchis Bielsa,José María; Carbonell Pastor,Enrique;
Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal (Internet) , 2007,
Abstract: antibiotics are commonly used in dental practice. it has been estimated that 10% of all antibiotic prescriptions are related with dental infections. the association amoxicillin-clavulanate was the drug most frequently prescribed by dentists during 2005, at least in the valencian community (spain). the use of antibiotics in dental practice is characterized by empirical prescription based on clinical and bacteriological epidemiological factors, with the use of broad spectrum antibiotics for short periods of time, and the application of a very narrow range of antibiotics. the simultaneous prescription of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (nsaids) can modify the bioavailability of the antibiotic. in turn, an increased number of bacterial strains resistant to conventional antibiotics are found in the oral cavity. antibiotics are indicated for the treatment of odontogenic infections, oral non-odontogenic infections, as prophylaxis against focal infection, and as prophylaxis against local infection and spread to neighboring tissues and organs. pregnancy, kidney failure and liver failure are situations requiring special caution on the part of the clinician when indicating antibiotic treatment. the present study attempts to contribute to rational antibiotic use, with a review of the general characteristics of these drugs.
Project-based learning used for teaching electrical installations and lighting installations in architecture
Alicia Martinez Anton,Nuria Castilla Cabanes,Rosa Pastor Villa,Vicente Blanca Gimenez
Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management , 2011, DOI: 10.3926/jiem..v4n1.p123-145
Abstract: Purpose: This paper discusses the use of Project-Based Learning (PBL) in the subject "Acondicionamiento y Servicios 2", which is taught at the Escuela de Arquitectura at the UPV. Design/methodology/approach: Case study. Findings: The results show that the goals (motivation, improved learning outcomes, independent learning and connection with professional practice), which led to the introduction of this kind of learning, have been achieved. Research limitations/implications: This work has been proved in two groups of a subject. Therefore, conclusions are specifically related to this context and generalization is not proved. Practical implications: Increase motivation, improved learning outcomes, independent learning and connection with professional practice. Originality/value: This work confirms previous studies about the useful of PBL in engineering matters.
Processing Facilitation Strategies in OV and VO Languages: A Corpus Study  [PDF]
Luis Pastor, Itziar Laka
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2013.33033
Abstract:

The present corpus study aimed to examine whether Basque (OV) resorts more often than Spanish (VO) to certain grammatical operations, in order to minimize the number of arguments to be processed before the verb. Ueno & Polinsky (2009) argue that VO/OV languages use certain grammatical resources with different frequencies in order to facilitate real-time processing. They observe that both OV and VO languages in their sample (Japanese, Turkish and Spanish) have a similar frequency of use of subject pro-drop; however, they find that OV languages (Japanese, Turkish) use more intransitive sentences than VO languages (English, Spanish), and conclude this is an OV-specific strategy to facilitate processing. We conducted a comparative corpus study of Spanish (VO) and Basque (OV). Results show (a) that the frequency of use of subject pro-drop is higher in Basque than in Spanish; and (b) Basque does not use more intransitive sentences than Spanish; both languages have a similar frequency of intransitive sentences. Based on these findings, we conclude that the frequency of use of grammatical resources to facilitate the processing does not depend on a single typological trait (VO/OV) but it is modulated by the concurrence of other grammatical features.

Years of sunlight exposure and cataract: a case-control study in a Mediterranean population
María Pastor-Valero, Astrid E Fletcher, Bianca L de Stavola, Vicente Chaqués-Alepúz
BMC Ophthalmology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2415-7-18
Abstract: We carried out a frequency-matched case-control study of 343 cases and 334 controls attending an ophthalmology outpatient clinic at a primary health-care center in a small town near Valencia, Spain.All cases were diagnosed as having a cataract in at least one eye based on the Lens Opacification Classification system (LOCS II). Controls had no opacities in either eye. All cases and controls were interviewed for information on outdoor exposure, "usual" diet, history of severe episodes of diarrhea illness, life-style factors and medical and socio-demographic variables. Blood antioxidant vitamin levels were also analyzed. We used logistic regression models to estimate sex and age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) by quintiles of years of occupational outdoor exposure, adjusting for potential confounders such as smoking, alcohol consumption, serum antioxidants and education.No association was found between years of outdoor exposure and risk of cataract. However, exploratory analyses suggested a positive association between years of outdoor exposure at younger ages and risk of nuclear cataract later in life.Our study does not support an association with cataract and sunlight exposure over adult life.Laboratory studies demonstrate that exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces lens opacification [1-5]. In human populations, the strongest evidence is provided by studies of an occupational group with high outdoor exposure where ocular UVR has been estimated [6,7]. Among the general population exposure to sunlight has been related more frequently to cortical cataracts [6,8-10] but not observed in all [11] or else observed in men but not in women [12]. Only two studies have found an association between sunlight exposure at younger ages and nuclear cataracts in adult life [13,14]. A few epidemiological studies have been conducted in European populations. A hospital-based case-control study conducted in Parma, Northern Italy, showed increasing risk of cortical cataracts with a 4-
An insight into the role of phosphotransacetylase (pta) and the acetate/acetyl-CoA node in Escherichia coli
Sara Casta?o-Cerezo, José M Pastor, Sergio Renilla, Vicente Bernal, José L Iborra, Manuel Cánovas
Microbial Cell Factories , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2859-8-54
Abstract: This work analyzes the effect of mutations in the acetate excretion/assimilation pathways, acetyl-CoA synthethase (acs) and phosphotransacetylase (pta), in E. coli BW25113 grown on glucose or acetate minimal media. Biomass and metabolite production, redox (NADH/NAD+) and energy (ATP) state, enzyme activities and gene expression profiles related to the central metabolism were analyzed. The knock-out of pta led to a more altered phenotype than that of acs. Deletion of pta reduced the ability to grow on acetate as carbon source and strongly affected the expression of several genes related to central metabolic pathways.Results showed that pta limits biomass yield in aerobic glucose cultures, due to acetate production (overflow metabolism) and its inefficient use during glucose starvation. Deletion of pta severely impaired growth on acetate minimal medium and under anaerobiosis due to decreased acetyl-coenzyme A synthethase, glyoxylate shunt and gluconeogenic activities, leading to lower growth rate. When acetate is used as carbon source, the joint expression of pta and acs is crucial for growth and substrate assimilation, while pta deletion severely impaired anaerobic growth. Finally, at an adaptive level, pta deficiency makes the strain more sensitive to environmental changes and de-regulates the central metabolism.When E. coli grows on excess of glucose it excretes acetate, a phenomenon known as the Crabtree Effect or "acetate overflow", and which has several causes. When glucose is in excess, the TCA cycle is limited, acetyl-CoA accumulates and 15-30% is excreted as acetate, allowing the regeneration of CoASH [1-3], although it is not clear how the regulation works [4]Moreover, E. coli is also able to metabolize the acetate produced and even use it as sole carbon source. The enzymes intervening (Figure 1) are acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs, non-reversible dissimilation) and phosphotransacetylase-acetate kinase (Pta-Ack, reversible dissimilation). It has previously been d
Satisfacción con la Información: Posible Variable Interviniente en el Estado de ánimo de Cuidadores Primarios de Pacientes Críticos
Gómez-Carretero,Patricia; Soriano Pastor,José F.; Monsalve Dolz,Vicente; Andrés Ibá?ez,José de;
Clínica y Salud , 2009,
Abstract: when a relative is admitted to a hospital, both the patient and his/her family are psychologically and socially affected -experiencing stress, disorganization, helplessness, etc. severe anxiety responses of relatives when the patient is admitted to icu predict the later development of a ptsd and hence, it appears necessary to implement preventive measures -satisfaction with the information being one of the most outstanding ones. objective: assessment of the level of satisfaction, the need for information in relatives of surgical patients who will later stay in icu and its relationship with the depression and anxiety. results: a percentage of relatives showed significant levels of depression and anxiety. their satisfaction with the information was medium whereas their need of information was high. the "low satisfaction with information" group showed higher significant levels of depression and anxiety than the "high satisfaction" group. discussion: results highlight the need of psychological intervention in order to detect emotional disturbances of relatives, and to assess their needs of information -so that resources can be adapted to them.
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