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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1270 matches for " Vesna Slavkovich "
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Influence of Prenatal Arsenic Exposure and Newborn Sex on Global Methylation of Cord Blood DNA
J. Richard Pilsner, Megan N. Hall, Xinhua Liu, Vesna Ilievski, Vesna Slavkovich, Diane Levy, Pam Factor-Litvak, Mahammad Yunus, Mahfuzar Rahman, Joseph H. Graziano, Mary V. Gamble
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037147
Abstract: Background An emerging body of evidence indicates that early-life arsenic (As) exposure may influence the trajectory of health outcomes later in life. However, the mechanisms underlying these observations are unknown. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of prenatal As exposure on global methylation of cord blood DNA in a study of mother/newborn pairs in Matlab, Bangladesh. Design Maternal and cord blood DNA were available from a convenience sample of 101 mother/newborn pairs. Measures of As exposure included maternal urinary As (uAs), maternal blood As (mbAs) and cord blood As (cbAs). Several measures of global DNA methylation were assessed, including the [3H]-methyl-incorporation assay and three Pyrosequencing assays: Alu, LINE-1 and LUMA. Results In the total sample, increasing quartiles of maternal uAs were associated with an increase in covariate-adjusted means of newborn global DNA methylation as measured by the [3H]-methyl-incorporation assay (quartile 1 (Q1) and Q2 vs. Q4; p = 0.06 and 0.04, respectively). Sex-specific linear regression analyses, while not reaching significance level of 0.05, indicated that the associations between As exposures and Alu, LINE-1 and LUMA were positive among male newborns (N = 58) but negative among female newborns (N = 43); tests for sex differences were borderline significant for the association of cbAs and mbAs with Alu (p = 0.05 and 0.09, respectively) and for the association between maternal uAs and LINE-1 (p = 0.07). Sex-specific correlations between maternal urinary creatinine and newborn methyl-incorporation, Alu and LINE-1 were also evident (p<0.05). Conclusions These results suggest that prenatal As exposure is associated with global DNA methylation in cord blood DNA, possibly in a sex-specific manner. Arsenic-induced epigenetic modifications in utero may potentially influence disease outcomes later in life. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings and to examine the persistence of DNA methylation marks over time.
A cluster-based randomized controlled trial promoting community participation in arsenic mitigation efforts in Bangladesh
Christine George, Alexander van Geen, Vesna Slavkovich, Ashit Singha, Diane Levy, Tariqul Islam, Kazi Ahmed, Joyce Moon-Howard, Alessandro Tarozzi, Xinhua Liu, Pam Factor-Litvak, Joseph Graziano
Environmental Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-11-41
Abstract: We conducted a cluster based randomized controlled trial of 20 villages in Singair, Bangladesh. Fifty eligible respondents were randomly selected in each village. In 10 villages, a community member provided As education and WAs testing. In a second set of 10 villages an outside representative performed these tasks.Overall, 53% of respondents using As contaminated wells, relative to the Bangladesh As standard of 50?μg/L, at baseline switched after receiving the intervention. Further, when there was less than 60% arsenic contaminated wells in a village, the classification used by the Bangladeshi and UNICEF, 74% of study households in the community tester villages, and 72% of households in the outside tester villages reported switching to an As safe drinking water source . Switching was more common in the outside-tester (63%) versus community-tester villages (44%). However, after adjusting for the availability of arsenic safe drinking water sources, well switching did not differ significantly by type of As tester (Odds ratio =0.86[95% confidence interval 0.42-1.77). At follow-up, among those using As contaminated wells who switched to safe wells, average urinary As concentrations significantly decreased.The overall intervention was effective in reducing As exposure provided there were As-safe drinking water sources available. However, there was not a significant difference observed in the ability of the community and outside testers to encourage study households to use As-safe water sources. The findings of this study suggest that As education and WAs testing programs provided by As testers, irrespective of their residence, could be used as an effective, low cost approach to reduce As exposure in many As-affected areas of Bangladesh.Exposure to elevated levels of inorganic arsenic (As) is associated with cancers of the skin, bladder, and lung [1-3], developmental effects [4,5], cardiovascular disease [6,7], and skin lesions [8,9]. Chronic As exposure is also associated
Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Chromosome 10q24.32 Variants Associated with Arsenic Metabolism and Toxicity Phenotypes in Bangladesh
Brandon L. Pierce,Muhammad G. Kibriya,Lin Tong,Farzana Jasmine,Maria Argos,Shantanu Roy,Rachelle Paul-Brutus,Ronald Rahaman,Muhammad Rakibuz-Zaman,Faruque Parvez,Alauddin Ahmed,Iftekhar Quasem,Samar K. Hore,Shafiul Alam,Tariqul Islam,Vesna Slavkovich,Mary V. Gamble,Md Yunus,Mahfuzar Rahman,John A. Baron,Joseph H. Graziano,Habibul Ahsan
PLOS Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002522
Abstract: Arsenic contamination of drinking water is a major public health issue in many countries, increasing risk for a wide array of diseases, including cancer. There is inter-individual variation in arsenic metabolism efficiency and susceptibility to arsenic toxicity; however, the basis of this variation is not well understood. Here, we have performed the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of arsenic-related metabolism and toxicity phenotypes to improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which arsenic affects health. Using data on urinary arsenic metabolite concentrations and approximately 300,000 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for 1,313 arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi individuals, we identified genome-wide significant association signals (P<5×10?8) for percentages of both monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) near the AS3MT gene (arsenite methyltransferase; 10q24.32), with five genetic variants showing independent associations. In a follow-up analysis of 1,085 individuals with arsenic-induced premalignant skin lesions (the classical sign of arsenic toxicity) and 1,794 controls, we show that one of these five variants (rs9527) is also associated with skin lesion risk (P = 0.0005). Using a subset of individuals with prospectively measured arsenic (n = 769), we show that rs9527 interacts with arsenic to influence incident skin lesion risk (P = 0.01). Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses of genome-wide expression data from 950 individual's lymphocyte RNA suggest that several of our lead SNPs represent cis-eQTLs for AS3MT (P = 10?12) and neighboring gene C10orf32 (P = 10?44), which are involved in C10orf32-AS3MT read-through transcription. This is the largest and most comprehensive genomic investigation of arsenic metabolism and toxicity to date, the only GWAS of any arsenic-related trait, and the first study to implicate 10q24.32 variants in both arsenic metabolism and arsenical skin lesion risk. The observed patterns of associations suggest that MMA% and DMA% have distinct genetic determinants and support the hypothesis that DMA is the less toxic of these two methylated arsenic species. These results have potential translational implications for the prevention and treatment of arsenic-associated toxicities worldwide.
Promotion of well-switching to mitigate the current arsenic crisis in Bangladesh
van Geen,Alexander; Ahsan,Habibul; Horneman,Allan H.; Dhar,Ratan K.; Zheng,Yan; Hussain,Iftikhhar; Ahmed,Kazi Matin; Gelman,Andrew; Stute,Martin; Simpson,H. James; Wallace,Sean; Small,Christopher; Parvez,Faruque; Slavkovich,Vesna; LoIacono,Nancy J.; Becker,Marck; Cheng,Zhongqi; Momotaj,Hassina; Shahnewaz,Mohammad; Seddique,Ashraf Ali; Graziano,Joseph H.;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862002000900010
Abstract: objective: to survey tube wells and households in araihazar upazila, bangladesh, to set the stage for a long-term epidemiological study of the consequences of chronic arsenic exposure. methods: water samples and household data were collected over a period of 4 months in 2000 from 4997 contiguous tube wells serving a population of 55 000, the position of each well being determined to within ± 30 m using global positioning system receivers. arsenic concentrations were determined by graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry. in addition, groundwater samples collected every 2 weeks for an entire year from six tube wells were analysed for arsenic by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. findings: half of the wells surveyed in araihazar had been installed in the previous 5 years; 94% were privately owned. only about 48% of the surveyed wells supplied water with an arsenic content below 50 mg/l, the current bangladesh standard for drinking-water. similar to other regions of bangladesh and west bengal, india, the distribution of arsenic in araihazar is spatially highly variable (range: 5-860 mg/l) and therefore difficult to predict. because of this variability, however, close to 90% of the inhabitants live within 100 m of a safe well. monitoring of six tube wells currently meeting the 50 mg/l standard showed no indication of a seasonal cycle in arsenic concentrations coupled to the hydrological cycle. this suggests that well-switching is a viable option in araihazar, at least for the short term. conclusions: well-switching should be more systematically encouraged in araihazar and many other parts of bangladesh and west bengal, india. social barriers to well-switching need to be better understood and, if possible, overcome.
Quantum Entanglement and Spin Control in Silicon Nanocrystal
Vesna Berec
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045254
Abstract: Selective coherence control and electrically mediated exchange coupling of single electron spin between triplet and singlet states using numerically derived optimal control of proton pulses is demonstrated. We obtained spatial confinement below size of the Bohr radius for proton spin chain FWHM. Precise manipulation of individual spins and polarization of electron spin states are analyzed via proton induced emission and controlled population of energy shells in pure 29Si nanocrystal. Entangled quantum states of channeled proton trajectories are mapped in transverse and angular phase space of 29Si axial channel alignment in order to avoid transversal excitations. Proton density and proton energy as impact parameter functions are characterized in single particle density matrix via discretization of diagonal and nearest off-diagonal elements. We combined high field and low densities (1 MeV/92 nm) to create inseparable quantum state by superimposing the hyperpolarizationed proton spin chain with electron spin of 29Si. Quantum discretization of density of states (DOS) was performed by the Monte Carlo simulation method using numerical solutions of proton equations of motion. Distribution of gaussian coherent states is obtained by continuous modulation of individual spin phase and amplitude. Obtained results allow precise engineering and faithful mapping of spin states. This would provide the effective quantum key distribution (QKD) and transmission of quantum information over remote distances between quantum memory centers for scalable quantum communication network. Furthermore, obtained results give insights in application of channeled protons subatomic microscopy as a complete versatile scanning-probe system capable of both quantum engineering of charged particle states and characterization of quantum states below diffraction limit linear and in-depth resolution. PACS numbers: 03.65.Ud, 03.67.Bg, 61.85.+p, 67.30.hj
Map: Geospatial paradigm
Ikonovi? Vesna
Glasnik Srpskog Geografskog Dru?tva , 2006, DOI: 10.2298/gsgd0602237i
Abstract: There are different definitions of map. There is no one which is accepted in whole world or at least from the most cartographers. In the paper it will be given several definitions which are, at the best way, (according to the author’s opinion) reflecting essence of map as a model of reality. Map as a universal meaning of researching can’t serve only for representing particular geospace (spatial system) or some its element, or to give only clear view about geographical dispersion of objects, phenomena and processes, but have to make possible studying the patterns of that dispersion, as well as their mutual connections and conditions.
Sex differences in commuting in Serbia
Luki? Vesna
Glasnik Srpskog Geografskog Dru?tva , 2007, DOI: 10.2298/gsgd0702067l
Abstract: Bearing in mind that sex differences are one of the factors that influence variability of the scope and directions of commuting, the paper treats problems of commuter’s structure according to sex. Although it gives the data about total commuting according to sex (pupils, students and labor force), the emphasis has been put onto commuting patterns of economically active population due to greater number of factors, which in the case of economically active population have the impact on migratory process. Apart from the review about so-far knowledge about determinants on participation of women in commuting and on differences in directions and territorial range of commuting flows according to sex, changes in participation of women in commuting of workers in Serbia (without Kosovo and Metohija) have been analyzed, with discussion about basic characteristics of commuting flows of economically active women in Serbia.
Atlases: Complex models of geospace
Ikonovi? Vesna
Glasnik Srpskog Geografskog Dru?tva , 2005, DOI: 10.2298/gsgd0502133i
Abstract: Atlas is modeled contexture contents of treated thematic of space on optimal map union. Atlases are higher form of cartography. Atlases content composition of maps which are different by projection, scale, format methods, contents, usage and so. Atlases can be classified by multi criteria. Modern classification of atlases by technology of making would be on: 1. classical or traditional (printed on paper and 2. electronic (made on electronic media - computer or computer station). Electronic atlases divided in three large groups: view-only electronic atlases, 2. interactive electronic atlases and 3. analytical electronic atlases.
Commuting of active population in Serbia
Luki? Vesna
Glasnik Srpskog Geografskog Dru?tva , 2006, DOI: 10.2298/gsgd0601141l
Abstract: The paper deals with the problems of traveling to work, as a special form of geographical mobility of population. The accent has been given to commuting of active population. Development and changes of the extent and characteristics of commuting of workers in Serbia (without Kosovo and Metohija) during the last forty years of the 20th century have been analyzed.
Formation of social types in the theory of Orrin Klapp
Trifunovi? Vesna
Glasnik Etnografskog Instituta SANU , 2007, DOI: 10.2298/gei0701125t
Abstract: Theory of Orrin Klapp about social types draws attention to important functions that these types have within certain societies as well as that it is preferable to take them into consideration if our goal is more complete knowledge of that society. For Klapp, social types are important social symbols, which in an interesting way reflect society they are part of and for that reason this author dedicates his work to considering their meanings and social functions. He thinks that we can not understand a society without the knowledge about the types with which its members are identified and which serve them as models in their social activity. Hence, these types have cognitive value since, according to Klapp, they assist in perception and "contain the truth", and therefore the knowledge of them allows easier orientation within the social system. Social types also offer insight into the scheme of the social structure, which is otherwise invisible and hidden, but certainly deserves attention if we wish clearer picture about social relations within specific community. The aim of this work is to present this very interesting and inspirative theory of Orrin Klapp, pointing out its importance but also its weaknesses which should be kept in mind during its application in further research.
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