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Search Results: 1 - 8 of 8 matches for " Venkateshwari Ananthapur "
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A Dysmorphic Child with a Pericentric Inversion of Chromosome 8
Venkateshwari Ananthapur,Srilekha Avvari,Sujatha Madireddi,Pratibha Nallari,Jyothy Akka
Case Reports in Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/813963
Abstract: An 8-year-old boy was referred to our institute with dysmorphic features such as mild lupus, micrognathia, low hair line, hypoplasia, hemi atrophy of left side of the face, abnormal size of ears, hypothenar, hypoplasia of chin, and tongue tie. MRI scan was found to be normal and EEG suggestive of generalized seizure disorder. Cytogenetic evaluation of the proband revealed a pericentric inversion of chromosome 8 with 46, XY, and inv 8 (p11.2; q21.2) karyotype.
A Dysmorphic Child with a Pericentric Inversion of Chromosome 8
Venkateshwari Ananthapur,Srilekha Avvari,Sujatha Madireddi,Pratibha Nallari,Jyothy Akka
Case Reports in Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/813963
Abstract: An 8-year-old boy was referred to our institute with dysmorphic features such as mild lupus, micrognathia, low hair line, hypoplasia, hemi atrophy of left side of the face, abnormal size of ears, hypothenar, hypoplasia of chin, and tongue tie. MRI scan was found to be normal and EEG suggestive of generalized seizure disorder. Cytogenetic evaluation of the proband revealed a pericentric inversion of chromosome 8 with 46, XY, and inv 8 (p11.2; q21.2) karyotype. 1. Introduction Pericentric inversions are among the frequent chromosomal rearrangements associated with genetic disorders with a frequency of 1-2% [1, 2]. Pericentric inversions result from a two-break event which occurs between the short (p) and the long arms (q) within the chromosome followed by a 180° rotation of the intercalary segment. The phenotype of the inversion carrier depends on the type of inversion, size of the inverted part, and the chromosome involved [3]. In this report, we describe the distinct clinical phenotype and the karyotype of a boy with dysmorphic facial features and mild mental retardation associated with a pericentric inversion of chromosome 8. 2. Case Report An 8-year-old male child with dysmorphic facies and mild mental retardation was referred to the Institute of Genetics, Hyderabad for cytogenetic evaluation. He was born after full term as the third child in the sibship of nonconsanguineous parents. He had delayed developmental milestones, neck holding at the age of 5 months, walking independently at the age of 2 years and 5 months, and started speech at the age of 3 years and 5 months. The dysmorphic facial features included mild lupeus, micrognathia, low-hair line, hypoplasia, hemiatrophy of left side of the face, abnormal size of ears, hypothenar, hypoplasia of chin, and tongue tie. His external genitalia were normal. Psychological evaluation of the child was carried out using Senguin form board and Vineland Social maturity physical examination scale [4]. The intelligent quotient was found to be 64 indicative of mild mental retardation. MRI Scan report of the propositus was normal, but his EEG study was suggestive of generalized seizure disorder. He had hyperactive behavior with slurred speech. It is informed that the boy was frightened by loud sounds and is presently attending a special school. Chromosomal analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes was performed using GTG banding for the propositus and their parents [5, 6]. A rearranged chromosome was observed in the propositus with pericentric inversion of chromosome 8 with break point at p 11.2 and q 21.2 regions
Haplotypes of NOS3 Gene Polymorphisms in Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Lova Satyanarayana Matsa, Advithi Rangaraju, Viswamitra Vengaldas, Mona Latifi, Hossein Mehraban Jahromi, Venkateshwari Ananthapur, Pratibha Nallari
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070523
Abstract: Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by systolic dysfunction, followed by heart failure necessitating cardiac transplantation. The genetic basis is well established by the identification of mutations in sarcomere and cytoskeleton gene/s. Modifier genes and environmental factors are also considered to play a significant role in the variable expression of the disease, hence various mechanisms are implicated and one such mechanism is oxidative stress. Nitric Oxide (NO), a primary physiological transmitter derived from endothelium seems to play a composite role with diverse anti-atherogenic effects as vasodilator. Three functional polymorphisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) gene viz., T-786C of the 5′ flanking region, 27bp VNTR in intron4 and G894T of exon 7 were genotyped to identify their role in DCM. A total of 115 DCM samples and 454 controls were included. Genotyping was carried out by PCR -RFLP method. Allelic and genotypic frequencies were computed in both control & patient groups and appropriate statistical tests were employed. A significant association of TC genotype (T-786C) with an odds ratio of 1.74, (95% CI 1.14 - 2.67, p = 0.01) was observed in DCM. Likewise the GT genotypic frequency of G894T polymorphism was found to be statistically significant (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.34–3.27, p = 0.0011), with the recessive allele T being significantly associated with DCM (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.18 - 2.30, p = 0.003). The haplotype carrying the recessive alleles of G894T and T-786C, C4bT was found to exhibit 7 folds increased risk for DCM compared to the controls. Hence C4bT haplotype could be the risk haplotype for DCM. Our findings suggest the possible implication of NOS3 gene in the disease phenotype, wherein NOS3 may be synergistically functioning in DCM associated heart failure via the excessive production of NO in cardiomyocytes resulting in decreased myocardial contractility and systolic dysfunction, a common feature of DCM phenotype.
Genetic heterogeneity in duodenal ulceration
Venkateshwari A,Vidyasagar A,Pratibha N
Indian Journal of Human Genetics , 2006,
Abstract: Background: Duodenal ulcer (DU) is a multifactorial disorder with different etiological and pathogenetic mechanisms. Evidence for the role of genetic factors such as familial aggregation, twin studies, ABO blood groups, ABH nonsecretor status and hyperpepsinogenemia have been reported in DU. Genetic heterogeneity of cases with familial incidence will provide information regarding the association of qualitative and quantitative traits. Aim: Hence, the present study is envisaged at identifying the segregant and deviant groups based on parental phenotypes and their association with other quantitative markers. Materials AND Methods: 62 out of 462 endoscopically confirmed duodenal ulcer cases were considered for the analysis of genetic heterogeneity. This was resolved through the calculation of genetic risk estimates of sporadic cases in multiplex families based on different modes of inheritance and variation in associated genetic and biochemical markers. Results: Mean age at onset in simplex and multiplex cases was found to vary indicating the presence of genetic heterogeneity in the expression of the disease. Segregant and deviant groups were identified based on mortons probability risk estimates and examined for the possible association of qualitative and quantitative markers such as pepsinogen phenotype, serum and tissue pepsinogen levels, cathepsin E, malondialdehyde and ceruloplasmin levels. Conclusions: The study thus highlighted the presence of genetic heterogeneity in the expression of the disease. The risk factors associated with segregant type were normal serum and tissue pepsinogen levels increased malondialdehyde levels and association of AC phenotype while the deviant group was characterized by early age at onset with hyper pepsinogenemia and reduced cathepin E levels.
Helicobacter pylori infection in relation to gastric cancer progression
Venkateshwari A,Krishnaveni D,Venugopal S,Shashikumar P
Indian Journal of Cancer , 2011,
Abstract: Gastric cancer is a major cause of cancer death worldwide, especially in developing countries. The incidence of gastric cancer varies from country to country, probably as a result of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. H. pylori infection is considered as a major risk factor in the development of gastric cancer. However, the scenario varies in Asian countries, exhibiting a higher rate of H. pylori infection and low incidence of gastric cancer, which could be attributed to strain-specific virulence factors and host genetic makeup. In this review, we discuss the various virulence factors expressed by this bacterium and their interaction with the host factors, to influence pathogenesis.
Superoxide dismutase phenotypes in duodenal ulcers: A genetic marker?
Sulekha S,Madhavi J,Venkateshwari A,Yasmeen S
Indian Journal of Human Genetics , 2006,
Abstract: Background:Cu-Zn superoxide dismutases are antioxidative defensive enzymes that catalyze the reduction of superoxide anions to hydrogen peroxide. Aim:The study focuses on the association of electromorph of superoxide dismutase with duodenal ulcers, which result due to an imbalance between aggressive and defensive factors. Materials and Methods:Endoscopically confirmed 210 duodenal ulcer patients and 185 healthy individuals for comparative analysis were considered for the present study. Phenotyping of superoxide dismutase was carried out by subjecting the RBC membranes to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, using appropriate staining protocols. Results:Statistical analysis of SOD phenotypes revealed a significant increase of SOD AFNx012 allele and Superoxide dismutases (SOD) 2-2 phenotype in duodenal ulcer group. Among these individuals, a predominance of Helicobacter pylori infection was observed. The increased preponderance of homozygotes can be explained on the basis of reduced and altered enzyme activity, which may lead to disturbance in homeostasis of antioxidant/oxidant culminating in high lipid peroxidative gastric mucosal tissue damage and ulceration. No variation in the distribution of SOD phenotypes with respect to Helicobacter pylori indicates the role of Mn-SOD rather than Cu-Zn SOD in the Helicobacter pylori infected cases as reported earlier. Conclusions:Superoxide dismutase as a genetic marker / gene modifier, encoding for an antioxidant enzyme in maintaining tissue homeostasis of the gastric mucosa is discussed.
Epidemiology and genetics of dilated cardiomyopathy in the Indian context
Ushasree B,Shivani V,Venkateshwari A,Jain R
Indian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Background: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) still remains to be a poorly understood and less analyzed group of cardiac-muscle disorders when compared to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Also, the vast clinical heterogeneity among the patients has rendered the small and isolated kindred studies less informative on the genetics and epidemiology of DCM. Aim of the study: The study aimed at understanding the epidemiology and genetics of DCMs in the Indian context. Materials and methods/ Statistical analysis: One hundred seven DCM patients and 105 healthy individuals were included in the study for epidemiological and genetic risk factor identification and to fit the possible mode of inheritance. Single′s ascertainment methodology for segregation analysis and Penrose frequency estimates were followed to evaluate for the role of specific epidemiological factors in the disease etiology. Chi-square analysis was carried out to interpret the results statistically. Results and Conclusion: Our study suggests that epidemiological factors like gender, age at onset and vegetarian diet in conjunction with sarcomere gene mutations may play a role in the disease expression. Similarly, segregation analysis for the possible mode of inheritance showed a deviation from the autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, strengthening the underlying genetic heterogeneity of DCM.
An In Silico Analysis of Troponin I Mutations in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy of Indian Origin
Gayatri Ramachandran, Manoj Kumar, Deepa Selvi Rani, Venkateshwari Annanthapur, Narasimhan Calambur, Pratibha Nallari, Punit Kaur
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070704
Abstract: Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an autosomal dominant disorder of the myocardium which is hypertrophied resulting in arrhythmias and heart failure leading to sudden cardiac death (SCD). Several sarcomeric proteins and modifier genes have been implicated in this disease. Troponin I, being a part of the Troponin complex (troponin I, troponin C, troponin T), is an important gene for sarcomeric function. Four mutations (1 novel) were identified in Indian HCM cases, namely, Pro82Ser, Arg98Gln, Arg141Gln and Arg162Gln in Troponin I protein, which are in functionally significant domains. In order to analyse the effect of the mutations on protein stability and protein-protein interactions within the Troponin complex, an in silico study was carried out. The freely available X-ray crystal structure (PDB ID: 1JIE) was used as the template to model the protein followed by loop generation and development of troponin complex for both the troponin I wild type and four mutants (NCBI ID: PRJNA194382). The structural study was carried out to determine the effect of mutation on the structural stability and protein-protein interactions between three subunits in the complex. These mutations, especially the arginine to glutamine substitutions were found to result in local perturbations within the troponin complex by creating/removing inter/intra molecular hydrogen bonds with troponin T and troponin C. This has led to a decrease in the protein stability and loss of important interactions between the three subunits. It could have a significant impact on the disease progression when coupled with allelic heterogeneity which was observed in the cases carrying these mutations. However, this can be further confirmed by functional studies on protein levels in the identified cases.
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