Abstract:
Almost all cells are easily killed by exposure to potent oxidants. Indeed, major pathogen defense mechanisms in both animal and plant kingdoms involve production of an oxidative burst, where host defense cells show an invading pathogen with reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although cancer cells can be similarly killed by ROS, development of oxidant-producing chemotherapies has been limited by their inherent nonspecificity and potential toxicity to healthy cells. In this paper, we describe the targeting of an ROS-generating molecule selectively to tumor cells using folate as the tumor-targeting ligand. For this purpose, we exploit the ability of 9,10-phenanthraquinone (PHQ) to enhance the continuous generation of H_{2}O_{2} in the presence of ascorbic acid to establish a con-stitutive source of ROS within the tumor mass. We report here that incubation of folate receptor-expressing KB cells in culture with folate-PHQ plus ascorbate results in the death of the cancer cells with an IC_{50} of ~10 nM (folate-PHQ). We also demonstrate that a cleavable spacer linking folate to PHQ is significantly inferior to a noncleavable spacer, in contrast to most other folate-targeted therapeutic agents. Unfortunately, no evidence for folate-PHQ mediated tumor regression in murine tumor models is obtained, suggesting that unanticipated impediments to generation of cytotoxic quantities of ROS in vivo are encountered. Possible mechanisms and potential solutions to these unanticipated results are offered.

Abstract:
In this paper, sharp upper bounds for the domination number, total domination number and connected domination number for the Cayley graph G = Cay(D2n, Ω) constructed on the finite dihedral group D2n, and a specified generating set Ω of D2n. Further efficient dominating sets in G = Cay(D2n, Ω) are also obtained. More specifically, it is proved that some of the proper subgroups of D2n are efficient domination sets. Using this, an E-chain of Cayley graphs on the dihedral group is also constructed.

Abstract:
A subset D of the vertex set of a graph G, is a dominating set if every vertex in ？ is adjacent to at least one vertex in D. The domination number () is the minimum cardinality of a dominating set of G. A subset of ？, which is also a dominating set of G is called an inverse dominating set of G with respect to D. The inverse domination number () is the minimum cardinality of the inverse dominating sets. Domke et al. (2004) characterized connected graphs G with ()

Abstract:
A Cayley graph is a graph constructed out of a group $ Gamma $ and its generating set $ A $. In this paper we attempt to find dominating sets in Cayley graphs constructed out of $ Z_{n} $. Actually we find the value of domination number for $ Cay(Z_{n}, A) $ and a minimal dominating set when $ |A| $ is even and further we have proved that $ Cay(Z_{n}, A) $ is excellent. We have also shown that $ Cay(Z_{n}, A) $ is $ 2- $excellent, when $ n = t(|A|+1)+1 $ for some integer $ t, t>0 $.

Abstract:
Let G be a finite group with identity e. The subgroup intersection graph Gamma_SI (G) of G isa graph with vertex set G e and two distinct vertices x and y are adjacent if and only if | i ∩ | | > 1. In this paper, we obtain a lower bound for the independence number of subgroup intersection graph. We characterize certain classes of subgroup intersection graphs corresponding to finite abelian groups. Finally, wecharacterize groups whose automorphism group is the same as that of its subgroup intersection graph.

Abstract:
A set ${Ssubseteq V}$ is said to be a complementary nil dominating set of a graph $G$ if it is a dominating set and its complement ${V-S}$ is not a dominating set for $G$. The minimum cardinality of a $cnd$-set is called the complementary nil domination number of $G$ and is denoted by ${gamma}_{ m cnd}(G)$. In this paper some results on the complementary nil domination number are obtained.

Abstract:
Round the clock, all seasoned, free of cost availability of Global Positioning System(GPS) enables all kinds of navigation. Positioning techniques for navigation developed rapidly by integrating GPS receivers and sensor devices. Also, the positioning accuracy has been increasing with the innovative technologies. With these conditions, a robust, easy-to-implement map matching algorithm is required for the imprecise vehicle trajectory data obtained from GPS receivers. The proposed algorithm presents a map matching technique based on statistical methods to handle outliers and outages present in the vehicle trajectory data. Using the test data, the algorithm is also evaluated. It is shown that the algorithm is capable of handling positioning errors in a conservative manner.

Abstract:
Giant cell tumour of the distal radius is the 3rd most common site after proximal tibia and distal femur. It is locally aggressive and is associated with a high rate of recurrence. Although it is usually treated with various modalities of treatment, wide resection and reconstruction with proximal fibular autograft is most commonly accepted in recurrent cases. The following is a case report of such a case with surgical management.

The co-doped ceria-based materials
with general composition formula Ce_{0.8}_{-x}Y_{x}Sm_{0.2}O_{2}_{-δ} (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06)
were prepared through the sol-gel method. The single phase of the prepared
materials was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The lattice parameters were
determined by least square fitting of UNIT CELL programme. The linear variation
of lattice parameter with concentration of Y
into the samarium doped ceria (SDC) indicates the validity of Vegard’s law.
The crystallite size of the samples obtained by using of Scherrer formula is in
the range from 34nm to 49nm. The thermal expansion studies were carried out by using
dilatometric technique in the temperature range from room temperature to 1000°C.
It was observed that the thermal expansion increased linearly with increasing
temperature for all the samples. The electrical conductivity was studied using
impedance spectroscopy. It was observed that the composition Ce_{0.74}Y_{0.06}Sm_{0.2}O_{2}_{-
}

Abstract:
ℐ-open sets were introduced and studied by Janković and Hamlett (1990) to generalize the well-known Banach category theorem. Quasi-ℐ-openness was introduced and studied by Abd El-Monsef et al. (2000). These are ∗-dense-in-itself sets of the ideal spaces. In this note, properties of these sets are further investigated and characterizations of these sets are given. Also, their relation with ℐ-dense sets and ℐ-locally closed sets is discussed. Characterizations of completely codense ideals are given in terms of semi-preopen sets.