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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 138911 matches for " Vannan K. Vijayan "
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Changes in Adenosine Metabolism in Asthma. A Study on Adenosine, 5'-NT, Adenosine Deaminase and Its Isoenzyme Levels in Serum, Lymphocytes and Erythrocytes  [PDF]
Jitender Sharma, Bala K. Menon, Vannan K. Vijayan, Surendra K. Bansal
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2015.52004
Abstract: Background: Adenosine deaminase (ADA) and 5'-nucleotidase (5'-NT) play a crucial role in adenosine metabolism in healthy individuals. Adenosine is an inflammatory mediator of asthma. Changes in adenosine metabolism and role of ADA and 5'-NT in regulating adenosine level in asthmatics and correlation of these changes with severity of asthma are not clearly understood. Methods: In this study, we screened 5217 patients, of which 2416 were diagnosed with asthma. Further, of 2416 asthmatics, only 45 patients who strictly fulfilled the selection criteria were enrolled in the study. The patients were classified into mild, moderate and severe persistent groups; each group consisted of fifteen patients. Fifteen healthy subjects served as controls. Adenosine levels and activities of 5'-NT, total ADA, ADA1 and ADA2 in serum, lymphocytes and erythrocytes were determined. The data were analysed statistically and p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: In asthma, adenosine levels in serum, lymphocytes and erythrocytes were found to be raised significantly. A significant reciprocal correlation existed between adenosine levels in serum, lymphocytes and erythrocytes of asthmatics and FEV1%. The 5'-nucleotidase activity in serum and lymphocytes was raised in moderate and severe persistent groups and an inverse correlation existed between 5'-nucleotidase activity and FEV1% whereas in erythrocytes it was raised only in severe persistent group and FEV1% had no correlation with the 5'-nucleotidase activity. The activities of total ADA, ADA1 and ADA2 were decreased in serum and lymphocytes of moderate and severe persistent asthmatics and a positive correlation existed between total ADA and FEV1%. In erythrocytes, total ADA activity increased in mild persistent group but remained unchanged in moderate and severe persistent groups. Conclusion: The present study suggests that adenosine levels tend to increase in serum, lymphocytes and erythrocytes with the severity of bronchial asthma. The balance between ADA and 5'-NT determines the levels of adenosine in serum and lymphocytes which may result in pathogenesis of asthma, or vice versa.
Dominating Sets and Domination Polynomials of Square of Paths  [PDF]
A. Vijayan, K. Lal Gipson
Open Journal of Discrete Mathematics (OJDM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojdm.2013.31013
Abstract: Let G = (V, E) be a simple graph. A set S í V is a dominating set of G, if every vertex in V-S is adjacent to at least one vertex in S. Let \"\" be the square of the Path \"\" and let \"\" denote the family of all dominating sets of \"\" with cardinality i. Let\"\" . In this paper, we obtain a recursive formula for \"\". Using this recursive formula, we construct the polynomial,\"\" , which we call domination polynomial of \"\" and obtain some properties of this polynomial.
Prediction of the Elastic Properties of Short Basalt Fiber Reinforced Al Alloy Metal Matrix Composites  [PDF]
Ezhil Vannan, Paul Vizhian
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2014.21010
Abstract: In this paper, a micro-mechanical model is implemented in software for the prediction of local mechanical properties of discontinuous short fiber reinforced composites. The model, based on the Mori and Tanaka method, shear-lag, computational model, Nielsen-Chen model and Miwa’s model is used to predict the elastic behaviour of basalt short fiber reinforced with Al alloy composites. The Al/basalt Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) contain basalt short fiber from 2.5% to 10% in steps of 2.5 wt.% and are fabricated using squeeze infiltration technique. The effects of fiber length and orientation on elastic properties of Al/basalt MMCs are investigated. A comparison between the experimental data and the theoretical data based on physical models is made, and the significance of the findings is discussed. The results show that as short basalt fiber content was increased from 2.5% to 10% by wt.%, an improvement in Young’s modulus of 13.26% has been observed. Optical microscopy was used to examine the general microstructure and fiber distribution in the composite produced. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was performed on the fractured surface to understand the failure mechanisms.
Experimental Investigations on Electroless Deposition of Copper on Basalt Fibers  [PDF]
S. Ezhil Vannan
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2015.34031
Abstract: In this work, an electroless method of coating copper on the basalt short fibers using copper sulphate solution is described. In order to avoid any interfacial reactions in the basalt fiber reinforced metal matrix composites, the basalt fibers were coated with copper. The effects of the time of sensitization, activation, metallization, PdCl2 concentration, pH and temperature bath on the extent of copper coating on basalt fiber are reported. The conditions used for electroless coating were optimized to obtain a uniform and continuous layer of copper. Using this method, it is possible to deposit up to about 25 wt% copper on the basalt fiber. The resultant composite fiber was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) during and after the coating process. The effects of the thickness of copper coating on surface condition and also the tensile strength of the basalt fibers have been investigated. The study of surface condition of the coated basalt fibers by SEM showed that the copper coating at the thickness of about 0.2 μm had the best continuity on the basalt fibers. The results of tensile tests of basalt fibers coated with different thickness of copper showed that increasing the thickness of coating layer decreased the overall strength of fibers.
A decade of contraceptive use in Cameroon: influences of structural changes
Vijayan K Pillai, Consoler Teboh
Open Access Journal of Contraception (OAJC) , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAJC.S12621
Abstract: decade of contraceptive use in Cameroon: influences of structural changes Original Research (3317) Total Article Views Authors: Vijayan K Pillai, Consoler Teboh Published Date December 2010 Volume 2011:2 Pages 5 - 11 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAJC.S12621 Vijayan K Pillai, Consoler Teboh School of Social Work, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, USA Abstract: The purpose of this article is to examine the impact of social changes over the last two decades in Cameroon. The data for this study are from the 2004 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) (Enquête Démographique et de Santé au Cameroun [EDSC-III]), the third DHS carried out in Cameroon. The first one was in 1991. The 1991Cameroon DHS is a sample of 3871 women aged between 15 and 49 years. The EDSC-III was carried out from February to August 2004 and covered 10,462 households, 10,656 women aged 15–49 years, and 5280 men aged 15–59 years. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of proposed determinants of modern contraceptive use among a sample of respondents in the 1991 and 2004 DHSs. We found that respondents from both surveys with an education compared with women with no education were more likely to use modern contraception. The two decision-making-related variables, “discuss” and “husband OK with family planning”, had significant positive effects on modern contraceptive use in both surveys. A few variables such as age at marriage had a significant effect on modern contraceptive use among respondents in one of the two samples. The differences in the effects of the determinants in the proposed models on contraceptive use in the two samples were decomposed into processual, compositional, and interaction components as suggested by the cohort effect model made famous by the demographer Norman Ryder. The compositional changes during 1991 and 2004 contributed more toward an improvement in modern contraceptive use than the rest of the components.
Child spacing and contraception among the poor in Zambia
Vijayan K Pillai, Rashmi Gupta
Open Access Journal of Contraception (OAJC) , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAJC.S7618
Abstract: spacing and contraception among the poor in Zambia Original Research (4804) Total Article Views Authors: Vijayan K Pillai, Rashmi Gupta Published Date March 2010 Volume 2010:1 Pages 1 - 8 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAJC.S7618 Vijayan K Pillai1, Rashmi Gupta2 1School of Social Work, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, USA; 2Department of Social Work, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA, USA Abstract: For decades, family planning programs have targeted women in developing countries. These programs bestow a great deal of autonomy on women with respect to fertility decision making. It is well known that a number of close relatives in multigenerational and extended family systems influence women’s fertility decisions with respect to child spacing and contraceptive use. One approach toward a systematic study of fertility decision making is to explicitly consider the husband’s influences on fertility decision making. This study examines the effects of a selected number of factors on the desired birth interval lengths. We interviewed husbands and wives separately from 165 randomly selected households from two poor neighborhoods in the city of Kitwe, Zambia. Three ordinal birth interval groups were obtained for both husbands and wives separately. The effect of selected factors on the likelihood of influencing the three groups was examined using ordinal logistic regression methods. Data from husbands and wives were analyzed separately. Qualitative methods such as semistructured interviews were used to gather extensive information on the various factors that husbands and wives perceive to influence their child spacing decisions. We found differences in accounts with respect to child spacing between husbands and wives, likely due to a lack of communication. A gender-sensitive approach is necessary to promote spacing methods among poor couples in Zambia.
Reproductive rights approach to reproductive health in developing countries
Vijayan K. Pillai,Rashmi Gupta
Global Health Action , 2011, DOI: 10.3402/gha.v4i0.8423
Abstract: Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between.This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women's reproductive health in developing countries. The empowerment strategy for improving reproductive health is theoretically situated on a number of background factors such as economic and social development.Cross-national socioeconomic and demographic data from a number of international organizations on 142 developing countries are used to test a model of reproductive rights and reproductive health.The findings suggest that both economic and democratic development have significant positive effects on levels of gender equality. The level of social development plays a prominent role in promoting reproductive rights. It is found that reproductive rights channel the influences of social structural factors and gender equality on reproductive health.
Child spacing and contraception among the poor in Zambia
Vijayan K Pillai,Rashmi Gupta
Open Access Journal of Contraception (OAJC) , 2010,
Abstract: Vijayan K Pillai1, Rashmi Gupta21School of Social Work, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, USA; 2Department of Social Work, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA, USAAbstract: For decades, family planning programs have targeted women in developing countries. These programs bestow a great deal of autonomy on women with respect to fertility decision making. It is well known that a number of close relatives in multigenerational and extended family systems influence women’s fertility decisions with respect to child spacing and contraceptive use. One approach toward a systematic study of fertility decision making is to explicitly consider the husband’s influences on fertility decision making. This study examines the effects of a selected number of factors on the desired birth interval lengths. We interviewed husbands and wives separately from 165 randomly selected households from two poor neighborhoods in the city of Kitwe, Zambia. Three ordinal birth interval groups were obtained for both husbands and wives separately. The effect of selected factors on the likelihood of influencing the three groups was examined using ordinal logistic regression methods. Data from husbands and wives were analyzed separately. Qualitative methods such as semistructured interviews were used to gather extensive information on the various factors that husbands and wives perceive to influence their child spacing decisions. We found differences in accounts with respect to child spacing between husbands and wives, likely due to a lack of communication. A gender-sensitive approach is necessary to promote spacing methods among poor couples in Zambia.Keywords: child spacing, contraceptive use, correspondence analysis, couple decision making
A decade of contraceptive use in Cameroon: influences of structural changes
Vijayan K Pillai,Consoler Teboh
Open Access Journal of Contraception (OAJC) , 2010,
Abstract: Vijayan K Pillai, Consoler TebohSchool of Social Work, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, USAAbstract: The purpose of this article is to examine the impact of social changes over the last two decades in Cameroon. The data for this study are from the 2004 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) (Enquête Démographique et de Santé au Cameroun [EDSC-III]), the third DHS carried out in Cameroon. The first one was in 1991. The 1991Cameroon DHS is a sample of 3871 women aged between 15 and 49 years. The EDSC-III was carried out from February to August 2004 and covered 10,462 households, 10,656 women aged 15–49 years, and 5280 men aged 15–59 years. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of proposed determinants of modern contraceptive use among a sample of respondents in the 1991 and 2004 DHSs. We found that respondents from both surveys with an education compared with women with no education were more likely to use modern contraception. The two decision-making-related variables, “discuss” and “husband OK with family planning”, had significant positive effects on modern contraceptive use in both surveys. A few variables such as age at marriage had a significant effect on modern contraceptive use among respondents in one of the two samples. The differences in the effects of the determinants in the proposed models on contraceptive use in the two samples were decomposed into processual, compositional, and interaction components as suggested by the cohort effect model made famous by the demographer Norman Ryder. The compositional changes during 1991 and 2004 contributed more toward an improvement in modern contraceptive use than the rest of the components.Keywords: modern contraceptive use, logistic regression, decomposition, structural influences
Living Arrangements among Single Mothers in India
Pillai, Vijayan K.,Swain, Pushpanjali
Canadian Studies in Population , 2005,
Abstract: English A large proportion of two parent households transition into single parenthouseholds upon marital disruption. Single parent households, especially femaleheaded households face an increase in the risk of poverty. This study focuses onwhether widow status in India influences the likelihood of household headshipin India. This study is based on the most recent National Family Health Survey1998-1999, in India. The population of interest includes all mothers aged 15 to49 years, without a spouse, living with one or more of their own children under18 years of age. We find that being a widow increases the likelihood of being ahousehold head compared to the likelihood of household headship among thedivorced and the separated in India. This study provides some evidence on thecontinuing social discrimination against widows in India. The implication of thefindings are discussed. French Une grande proportion des ménages biparentaux se transforme en ménagesmonoparentaux après une séparation maritale. Les ménages monoparentaux,spécialement ceux qui sont dirigés par une femme, font face à un danger plusélevé de sombrer dans la pauvreté. Cette étude examine à quel point le faitd’être veuve influence la probabilité de se retrouver à la tête d’un ménage enInde. Cette étude est basée sur le recensement sur la santé des familles de 1998-1999, le plus récent en Inde. La population d’intérêt comprend toutes les mèresagées de 15 à 49 ans, sans époux et qui vivent avec au moins un de leurs propresenfants de moins de 18 ans. Nous avons trouvé qu’en Inde, le fait d’être veuveaugmente la probabilité qu’une femme se retrouve à la tête de son ménage encomparaison aux femmes divorcées ou séparées. Cette étude avance despreuves de cette discrimination sociale continue en Inde envers les veuves. Lesimplications de ces constatations sont discutées.
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