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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 200574 matches for " Valsan P. Verghese "
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Chronic growth faltering amongst a birth cohort of Indian children begins prior to weaning and is highly prevalent at three years of age
Andrea M Rehman, Beryl P Gladstone, Valsan P Verghese, Jayaprakash Muliyil, Shabbar Jaffar, Gagandeep Kang
Nutrition Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-8-44
Abstract: 452 children born between March 2002 and August 2003 were followed until their third birthday in three neighbouring slums in Vellore, South India. Field workers visited homes to collect details of morbidity twice a week. Height and weight were measured monthly from one month of age in a study-run clinic. For analysis, standardised z-scores were generated using the 2006 WHO child growth standards. Risk factors for stunting at three years of age were analysed in logistic regression models. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to examine the effect of missing values.At age three years, of 186 boys and 187 girls still under follow-up, 109 (66%, 95% Confidence interval 58-73%) boys and 93 (56%, 95% CI 49-64%) girls were stunted, 14 (8%, 95% CI 4-13%) boys and 12 (7%, 95% CI 3-11%) girls were wasted (low weight-for-height) and 72 (43%, 95% CI 36-51) boys and 66 (39%, 95% CI 31-47%) girls were underweight (low weight-for-age). In total 224/331 (68%) children at three years had at least one growth deficiency (were stunted and/or underweight and/or wasted); even as early as one month of age 186/377 (49%) children had at least one growth deficiency. Factors associated with stunting at three years were birth weight less than 2.5 kg (OR 3.63, 95% CI 1.36-9.70) 'beedi-making' (manual production of cigarettes for a daily wage) in the household (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.05-2.86), maternal height less than 150 cm (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.12-3.62), being stunted, wasted or underweight at six months of age (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.05-2.93) and having at least one older sibling (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.14-3.51).A high proportion of urban slum dwelling children had poor growth throughout the first three years of life. Interventions are needed urgently during pregnancy, early breastfeeding and weaning in this population.In developing countries, poor growth of children under five is a major public health problem. Children with poor growth have high rates of mortality and morbidity [1,2] and can suffer motor and
Does 3-Day Course of Oral Amoxycillin Benefit Children of Non-Severe Pneumonia with Wheeze: A Multicentric Randomised Controlled Trial
Shally Awasthi, Girdhar Agarwal, Sushil K. Kabra, Sunit Singhi, Madhuri Kulkarni, Vaishali More, Abhimanyu Niswade, Raj Mohan Pillai, Ravi Luke, Neeraj M. Srivastava, Saradha Suresh, Valsan P. Verghese, P. Raghupathy, R. Lodha, Stephen D. Walter
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001991
Abstract: Background WHO-defined pneumonias, treated with antibiotics, are responsible for a significant proportion of childhood morbidity and mortality in the developing countries. Since substantial proportion pneumonias have a viral etiology, where children are more likely to present with wheeze, there is a concern that currently antibiotics are being over-prescribed for it. Hence the current trial was conducted with the objective to show the therapeutic equivalence of two treatments (placebo and amoxycillin) for children presenting with non-severe pneumonia with wheeze, who have persistent fast breathing after nebulisation with salbutamol, and have normal chest radiograph. Methodology This multi-centric, randomised placebo controlled double blind clinical trial intended to investigate equivalent efficacy of placebo and amoxicillin and was conducted in ambulatory care settings in eight government hospitals in India. Participants were children aged 2–59 months of age, who received either oral amoxycillin (31–54 mg/Kg/day, in three divided doses for three days) or placebo, and standard bronchodilator therapy. Primary outcome was clinical failure on or before day- 4. Principal Findings We randomized 836 cases in placebo and 835 in amoxycillin group. Clinical failures occurred in 201 (24.0%) on placebo and 166 (19.9%) on amoxycillin (risk difference 4.2% in favour of antibiotic, 95% CI: 0.2 to 8.1). Adherence for both placebo and amoxycillin was >96% and 98.9% subjects were followed up on day- 4. Clinical failure was associated with (i) placebo treatment (adjusted OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.01 to1.62), (ii) excess respiratory rate of >10 breaths per minute (adjusted OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.19, 1.92), (iii) vomiting at enrolment (adjusted OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.96), (iv) history of use of broncho-dilators (adjusted OR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.30, 2.24) and (v) non-adherence (adjusted OR = 8.06, 95% CI: 4.36, 14.92). Conclusions Treating children with non-severe pneumonia and wheeze with a placebo is not equivalent to treatment with oral amoxycillin. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00407394
Estimation of the Burden of Pandemic(H1N1)2009 in Developing Countries: Experience from a Tertiary Care Center in South India
Mahesh Moorthy, Prasanna Samuel, John Victor Peter, Saranya Vijayakumar, Dipika Sekhar, Valsan P. Verghese, Indira Agarwal, Prabhakar D. Moses, Kala Ebenezer, Ooriapadickal Cherian Abraham, Kurien Thomas, Prasad Mathews, Akhilesh C. Mishra, Renu Lal, Jayaprakash Muliyil, Asha Mary Abraham
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041507
Abstract: Background The burden of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza might be underestimated if detection of the virus is mandated to diagnose infection. Using an alternate approach, we propose that a much higher pandemic burden was experienced in our institution. Methodology/Principal Findings Consecutive patients (n = 2588) presenting to our hospital with influenza like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) during a 1-year period (May 2009–April 2010) were prospectively recruited and tested for influenza A by real-time RT-PCR. Analysis of weekly trends showed an 11-fold increase in patients presenting with ILI/SARI during the peak pandemic period when compared with the pre-pandemic period and a significant (P<0.001) increase in SARI admissions during the pandemic period (30±15.9 admissions/week) when compared with pre-pandemic (7±2.5) and post-pandemic periods (5±3.8). However, Influenza A was detected in less than one-third of patients with ILI/SARI [699 (27.0%)]; a majority of these (557/699, 79.7%) were Pandemic (H1N1)2009 virus [A/H1N1/09]. An A/H1N1/09 positive test was correlated with shorter symptom duration prior to presentation (p = 0.03). More ILI cases tested positive for A/H1N1/09 when compared with SARI (27.4% vs. 14.6%, P = 0.037). When the entire study population was considered, A/H1N1/09 positivity was associated with lower risk of hospitalization (p<0.0001) and ICU admission (p = 0.013) suggesting mild self-limiting illness in a majority. Conclusion/Significance Analysis of weekly trends of ILI/SARI suggest a higher burden of the pandemic attributable to A/H1N1/09 than estimates assessed by a positive PCR test alone. The study highlights methodological consideration in the estimation of burden of pandemic influenza in developing countries using hospital-based data that may help assess the impact of future outbreaks of respiratory illnesses.
Low Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Non-Urban Pregnant Women in Vellore, S. India
Navjyot K. Vidwan, Annie Regi, Mark Steinhoff, Jill S. Huppert, Mary Allen Staat, Caitlin Dodd, Rida Nongrum, Shalini Anandan, Valsan Verghese
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034794
Abstract: Objective To determine the prevalence and risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in pregnant women and the rate of transmission of CT to infants. Methods Pregnant women (≥28 weeks gestation) in Vellore, South India were approached for enrollment from April 2009 to January 2010. After informed consent was obtained, women completed a socio-demographic, prenatal, and sexual history questionnaire. Endocervical samples collected at delivery were examined for CT by a rapid enzyme test and nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). Neonatal nasopharyngeal and conjunctival swabs were collected for NAAT testing. Results Overall, 1198 women were enrolled and 799 (67%) endocervical samples were collected at birth. Analyses were completed on 784 participants with available rapid and NAAT results. The mean age of women was 25.8 years (range 18–39 yrs) and 22% (95% CI: 19.7–24.4%) were primigravida. All women enrolled were married; one reported >one sexual partner; and six reported prior STI. We found 71 positive rapid CT tests and 1/784 (0.1%; 95% CI: 0–0.38%) true positive CT infection using NAAT. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the largest study on CT prevalence amongst healthy pregnant mothers in southern India, and it documents a very low prevalence with NAAT. Many false positive results were noted using the rapid test. These data suggest that universal CT screening is not indicated in this population.
2007: A Canadian Corporate Ownership Survey
Valsan, Calin
The European Journal of Comparative Economics , 2010,
Abstract: This study documents a decline in the levels of corporate ownership concentration between 1996 and 2007. When compared to previous studies, the incidence of ownership stakes of 20% or larger has decreased form 60% to 41% of the total population of publicly listed Canadian firms. Regional disparities among provinces remain important. Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia have the most widely-held firms, while Quebec and Atlantic Canada show the most concentrated corporate ownership patterns. The interpretation of these results requires a complex understanding of historical, demographic, cultural, political and institutional factors.
Functional Foods for Obesity Management  [PDF]
Rajitha Sunkara, Martha Verghese
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.514148
Abstract:

Obesity is a global problem and numbers are rising at a fast pace in developing countries and it becomes a major public health concern. Economic costs associated with obesity are high and increasing as the rate of obesity. Obesity leads to its co-morbidities; namely diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, osteoarthritis, stroke and inflammatory diseases. Changes in life-style along with modifications to the diet are important in the management of obesity. Certain dietary components and foods have the ability to induce thermogenesis and modify the trafficking of nutrients in the body. Positive effects in managing obesity by natural components, and selected foods have drawn attention due to the potential side effects of obesity drugs. The food industry has developed low-density foods to reduce energy intake. Now focus has been geared towards the development of foods that possess more than one mechanism to alter the progression of obesity. In this review, selected foods and their components with potential anti-obesity properties are discussed.


Impaired in Vitro Macrophage Function in HIV-1 Infected Remunerated Blood Donors with History of Oral Iron Intake  [PDF]
Debasish Chattopadhya, Alice Verghese
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2018.64001
Abstract: Both HIV-1 infection and iron overload are independently associated with infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis due to impaired macrophage function. A prospective study of in vitro assessment of macrophage function was undertaken in a group of asymptomatic HIV-1 infected remunerated (professional) blood donors with (n = 54) or without (n = 54) prevalent practice of oral iron intake (subgroups I and II respectively). The assessment was carried out at enrolment as well as at the point of development of AIDS related illness (ARI). The subgroup I showed higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines viz. IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8, but lowered levels of IL-12p70 in serum as well as in supernatant of monocyte derived macrophage (MDM) cultures both at enrolment and at the point of development of ARI in the subset of cases that developed pulmonary tuberculosis (PT) on follow up compared to the subset that developed categories of ARI other than pulmonary tuberculosis (non-PT) on follow up. The subgroup II of HIV-1 positive donors did not show any such alterations at enrolment or at the point of development of PT or non-PT categories of ARI on follow up. There was significant depression of nitrite level in serum as well as that produced by MDM culture at enrolment in subgroup I regardless of category of ARI developed on follow up while in subgroup II there was significant elevation in these levels at enrolment, more among cases developing PT than those developing non-PT category of ARI. The subgroup I demonstrated increased production of superoxide at enrolment. The present study suggested that depressed production of nitrite and IL-12p70 by macrophages induced by iron overload may be responsible for greater susceptibility of HIV-1 positive donors to M. tuberculosis while superoxide may be a less powerful anti-mycobacterial tool.
Low-concentration, continuous brachial plexus block in the management of Purple Glove Syndrome: a case report
Georgene Singh, Verghese T Cherian, Binu P Thomas
Journal of Medical Case Reports , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-4-48
Abstract: A 26-year-old Tamil woman from India developed Purple Glove Syndrome after intravenous administration of phenytoin. She was managed conservatively by limb elevation, physiotherapy and oral antibiotics. A 20G intravenous cannula was inserted into the sheath of her brachial plexus and a continuous infusion of bupivacaine at a low concentration (0.1%) with fentanyl (2 μg/ml) at a rate of 1 to 2 ml/hr was given. She had adequate analgesia with preserved motor function which helped in physiotherapy and functional recovery of the hand in a month.A continuous blockade of the brachial plexus with a low concentration of bupivacaine and fentanyl helps to alleviate the vasospasm and the pain while preserving the motor function for the patient to perform active movements of the finger and hand.Intravenous administration of phenytoin can result in soft tissue injury at the site of injection leading to oedema and purplish-black discolouration of the hand. This is known as the Purple Glove Syndrome (PGS). The management of PGS is mainly conservative, which includes limb elevation and physiotherapy. Use of low concentration of local anaesthetic for brachial plexus block has the added advantage of preserving motor function to facilitate physiotherapy in addition to providing adequate analgesia and relief of vasospasm.A 26-year-old Tamil woman from India presented with an alleged history of generalized seizures. The emergency-room physician administered 600 mg of phenytoin-sodium dissolved in 500 ml of normal saline through a 20G cannula sited into a vein on the dorsum of her right hand. Four hours later, the patient complained of pain at the site of injection, which progressively became severe. The fingers, hand and forearm were swollen and had a purplish-black discolouration (Figure 1a). The radial artery was palpable, albeit feeble, under the oedema. The capillary refill under the nail bed was sluggish. The ultrasonic Doppler study of the arm showed normal flow through the radial
Prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by scedosporium apiospermum
Verghese S,Padmaja P,Chellamma M,Leelavathy S
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology , 2005,
Abstract: Scedosporium apiospermum , the asexual state of Pseudallescheria boydii , is increasingly recognized as an opportunistic pathogen. We report a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by this organism that developed in a patient following cardiac surgery.
A Survey Of Dimensionality Reduction And Classification Methods
Nebu Varghese,Vinay Verghese,Gayathri. P,N. Jaisankar
International Journal of Computer Science and Engineering Survey , 2012,
Abstract: Dimensionality Reduction is usually achieved on the feature space by adopting any one of the prescribed methods that fall under the selected technique. Feature selection and Feature extraction being the twoaforesaid techniques of reducing dimensionality, the former discards certain features that may be useful at a later stage whereas the latter re-constructs its features into a simpler dimension thereby preserving all its initial characteristics. The sole purpose of this survey is to provide an adequate comprehension of the different dimensionality reduction techniques that exist currently and also to introduce the applicability of any one of the prescribed methods depending upon the given set of parameters and varying conditions as described, under each algorithm’s usage statistics. This paper also presents guidelines where in, selection of the best possible algorithm for a specific instance can be determined with ease when a condition arises where in two or more algorithms may be suitable for executing the aforementioned task.
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