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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 488469 matches for " V.M.; "
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Cyanobacterial toxins in Portugal: effects on aquatic animals and risk for human health
Vasconcelos, V.M.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X1999000300001
Abstract: toxic cyanobacteria are common in portuguese freshwaters and the most common toxins are microcystins. the occurrence of microcystin-lr (mcyst-lr) has been reported since 1990 and a significant number of water reservoirs that are used for drinking water attain high levels of this toxin. aquatic animals that live in eutrophic freshwater ecosystems may be killed by microcystins but in many cases the toxicity is sublethal and so the animals can survive long enough to accumulate the toxins and transfer them along the food chain. among these, edible mollusks, fish and crayfish are especially important because they are harvested and sold for human consumption. mussels that live in estuarine waters and rivers where toxic blooms occur may accumulate toxins without many significant acute toxic effects. in this study data are presented in order to understand the dynamics of the accumulation and depuration of mcyst-lr in mussels. the toxin is readily accumulated and persists in the shellfish for several days after contact. in the crayfish the toxin is accumulated mainly in the gut but is also cleared very slowly. in carps, although the levels of the toxins found in naturally caught specimens were not very high, some toxin was found in the muscle and not only in the viscera. this raises the problem of the toxin accumulation by fish and possible transfer through the food chain. the data gathered from these experiments and from naturally caught specimens are analyzed in terms of risk for human consumption. the occurrence of microcystins in tap water and the incidence of toxic cyanobacteria in fresh water beaches in portugal are reported. the portuguese national monitoring program of cyanobacteria is mentioned and its implications are discussed.
Etymological aspects of idiomatic and proverbial expressions in the lexicographic development of Sesotho sa Leboa — a semantic analysis
V.M Mojela
Lexikos , 2004,
Abstract: Idiomatic and proverbial expressions are important components of the oral tradition of Sesotho sa Leboa, and therefore a knowledge of the literal meaning of words as they appear in dictionaries without inclusion of their figurative meaning seems to be a shortcoming. An idiom or a proverb possesses one basic meaning, i.e. the meaning to which the idiom or proverb is basically meant to refer, but each idiom or proverb is made up of several lexical items. Each of these lexical items has its own meaning, which usually differs from the figurative sense of the idiom or proverb. Even though the meaning of the words in an idiomatic or proverbial expression seems to differ from the sense of the idiom or proverb, there is to a certain extent a relationship. It is this relationship which lexicographers can assist to explain in their definitions in order to clarify both the literal and the figurative meanings of words in Sesotho sa Leboa. This article aims to stress the importance of having specialized dictionaries which will give users detailed etymological explanations of the meaning of idiomatic and proverbial expressions as used in Sesotho sa Leboa. The etymological analysis of the meaning of these lexical items (idioms and proverbs) will provide a better understanding of these expressions and enrich dictionaries with detailed definitions. This will create a better understanding of the relationship between the literal meanings of the expressions and their real (i.e. figurative) meanings.
Polysemy and Homonymy: Challenges Relating to Lexical Entries in the Sesotho sa Leboa–English Bilingual Dictionary
V.M Mojela
Lexikos , 2007,
Abstract: This article outlines the challenges relating to the lemmatization of the lexical items which are either polysemous or homonymous, as experienced during the compilation of the Sesotho sa Leboa–English Bilingual Dictionary. These problems can be ascribed to a lack of objectivity result-ing from an inadequate knowledge regarding the etymological relationships of the meanings of some lexical items which are subsequently misclassified as either homonyms or polysemous words. This often causes improper lexical entries in dictionaries, i.e. polysemous words may be lemma-tized as homonyms and vice versa. To unambiguously distinguish between lexical items which are either homonyms or polyse-mous words, lexicographers should in this regard consider the criteria suggested by scholars: — In accordance with the relatedness/unrelatedness criterion, the lexicographer will need to determine the extent to which the lexical items are related before entering them in the dic-tionary. — The etymological criterion will help the lexicographer to determine the relatedness of the lexical items for inclusion in the dictionary according to their historical connection. Using these criteria to lemmatize a lexical item properly in the dictionary, the lexicographer will be required to determine whether a lexical item can be regarded as one word with more than one meaning (a polysemous word), or as two different lexical items which have the same spelling (homonyms). To make this distinction, the lexicographer will need to research the historical back-ground of the lexical item. Even though these criteria are important aids for distinguishing polysemy and homonymy, the problem of subjectivity is not altogether removed since the criteria do not specify the level or degree of relatedness/unrelatedness at which the lexical item(s) can be said to be polysemous or homonymous.
Borrowing and Loan Words: The Lemmatizing of Newly Acquired Lexical Items in Sesotho sa Leboa
V.M Mojela
Lexikos , 2010,
Abstract: The influence of foreign languages in Sesotho sa Leboa, or Northern Sotho, results in borrowing, which ultimately leads to an increase in the vocabulary of Sesotho sa Leboa. The languages influencing developments in the vocabulary of Sesotho sa Leboa include, inter alia, English, Afrikaans, Xitsonga, Tshivend√a and the Nguni languages. This article aims to give a critical analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the adoption of foreign lexical items in the lemmatization of vocabulary in Sesotho sa Leboa dictionaries. Most puristic inclined academics and intellectuals are reluctant to adopt loan words as a means of developing the Sesotho sa Leboa vocabulary. When confronted with borrowing, the purists usually prefer coinage, using indigenous lexical items to name foreign concepts. This is disadvantageous to the development of the vocabulary of the language because (1) there is no increase in the number of the lexical items in the language since only the meanings of the foreign lexical item are added to existing indigenous lexical items, and (2) in most cases, previously adopted loan words are mistaken for indigenous lexical items and given preference to newly acquired lexical items which have direct and accurate bearing on the meaning of the newly discovered or designed concepts or objects.
The cause of urban slang and its effect on the development of the northern Sotho lexicon
V.M Mojela
Lexikos , 2002,
Abstract: Urban slang terminology is extensively used today by most indigenous communities when speaking various South African indigenous languages. This is usually the case with informal conversations where the type of language used is also regarded to be informal. There are many instances where slang terms are used, consciously or unconsciously, in the form of code-switching with the indigenous languages in formal speech or informal conversations. These urban slang terms are regarded by most of the South African indigenous communities as prestige terms, especially by the young generation. Just as English and Afrikaans terminologies which had tremendous influence on the vocabularies of the indigenous languages, urban slang terminology has great influence on the daily usage of the South African indigenous languages. Despite this pressure, Northern Sotho and other South African indigenous languages do not have officially recognized adoptives which are derived from slang terminology. This is due to the fact that most language uthorities do not want to associate their standard languages with urban slang because of various reasons which include, inter alia, the conservative idea of associating urban slang with crime and juvenile delinquency. Despite the negative attitudes of most of the conservative language authorities who regard the loan words of urban slang origin to be "contaminating" the South African indigenous languages (such as Northern Sotho), this slang terminology is every day becoming more popular and seems to have come to stay rather than be removed from the language of the people. A considerable fraction of the vocabulary of Northern Sotho, for instance, is made up of words which can be regarded as "loan words" derived from urban slang, even though formally we are still refusing to accept them as part of the lexicon of official Northern Sotho.
Polysemy and Homonymy: Challenges Relating to Lexical Entries in the Sesotho sa Leboa?English Bilingual Dictionary
V.M. Mojela
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/17--537
Abstract: : This article outlines the challenges relating to the lemmatization of the lexical items which are either polysemous or homonymous, as experienced during the compilation of the Sesotho sa Leboa–English Bilingual Dictionary. These problems can be ascribed to a lack of objectivity result-ing from an inadequate knowledge regarding the etymological relationships of the meanings of some lexical items which are subsequently misclassified as either homonyms or polysemous words. This often causes improper lexical entries in dictionaries, i.e. polysemous words may be lemma-tized as homonyms and vice versa. To unambiguously distinguish between lexical items which are either homonyms or polyse-mous words, lexicographers should in this regard consider the criteria suggested by scholars: — In accordance with the relatedness/unrelatedness criterion, the lexicographer will need to determine the extent to which the lexical items are related before entering them in the dic-tionary. — The etymological criterion will help the lexicographer to determine the relatedness of the lexical items for inclusion in the dictionary according to their historical connection. Using these criteria to lemmatize a lexical item properly in the dictionary, the lexicographer will be required to determine whether a lexical item can be regarded as one word with more than one meaning (a polysemous word), or as two different lexical items which have the same spelling (homonyms). To make this distinction, the lexicographer will need to research the historical back-ground of the lexical item. Even though these criteria are important aids for distinguishing polysemy and homonymy, the problem of subjectivity is not altogether removed since the criteria do not specify the level or degree of relatedness/unrelatedness at which the lexical item(s) can be said to be polysemous or homonymous. Keywords: SEMANTIC SHIFT, POLYSEMY, HOMONYMY, MEANING, SENSE RELA-TION, LEXICAL ITEM, ETYMOLOGY, METAPHOR, METAPHORIC SENSE, EUPHEMISM, LEMMATIZATION Opsomming: Polisemie en homonimie: Uitdagings betreffende leksikale inskrywings in die Sesotho sa Leboa–English Bilingual Dictionary. Die artikel skets die uitdagings betreffende die lemmatisering van leksikale items wat óf poliseem óf homo-niem is soos te gekom gedurende die samestelling van die Sesotho sa Leboa–English Bilingual Dic-tionary. Hierdie probleme kan toegeskryf word aan 'n gebrek aan objektiwiteit wat die gevolg is van 'n onvoldoende kennis aangaande die etimologiese verwantskappe van die betekenisse van sommige leksikale items wat gevolglik foutiewelik gek
The Cause of Urban Slang and its Effect on the Development of the Northern Sotho Lexicon*
V.M. Mojela
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/12--769
Abstract: : Urban slang terminology is extensively used today by most indigenous communities when speaking various South African indigenous languages. This is usually the case with informal conversations where the type of language used is also regarded to be informal. There are many instances where slang terms are used, consciously or unconsciously, in the form of code-switching with the indigenous languages in formal speech or informal conversations. These urban slang terms are regarded by most of the South African indigenous communities as prestige terms, especially by the young generation. Just as English and Afrikaans terminologies which had tremendous influence on the vocabularies of the indigenous languages, urban slang terminology has great influence on the daily usage of the South African indigenous languages. Despite this pressure, Northern Sotho and other South African indigenous languages do not have officially recognized adoptives which are derived from slang terminology. This is due to the fact that most language authorities do not want to associate their standard languages with urban slang because of various reasons which include, inter alia, the conservative idea of associating urban slang with crime and juvenile delinquency. Despite the negative attitudes of most of the conservative language authorities who regard the loan words of urban slang origin to be "contaminating" the South African indigenous languages (such as Northern Sotho), this slang terminology is every day becoming more popular and seems to have come to stay rather than be removed from the language of the people. A considerable fraction of the vocabulary of Northern Sotho, for instance, is made up of words which can be regarded as "loan words" derived from urban slang, even though formally we are still refusing to accept them as part of the lexicon of official Northern Sotho. Keywords: EUPHEMISM, FLYTAAL, INFERIOR DIALECT, INFERIOR LANGUAGE, MULTILINGUALISM, NORTHERN SOTHO LEXICON, PRESTIGE LANGUAGE, PRESTIGE TERMINOLOGY, SECRET TERMINOLOGY, TSOTSITAAL, URBAN SLANG, UNDERWORLD Opsomming: Die oorsprong van stedelike sleng en die uitwerking daarvanop die ontwikkeling van die Noord-Sotholeksikon. Stedelike slengterminologieword tans wyd gebruik deur die meeste inheemse gemeenskappe wanneer hulle verskillendeinheemse Suid-Afrikaanse tale praat. Dit is gewoonlik die geval met informele gesprekke waar die gebruikte tipe taal ook as informeel beskou word. Daar is baie gevalle waar slengterme, bewustelikof onbewustelik, gebruik word in die vorm van kodewisseling met die inheemse tale in form
Etymological Aspects of Idiomatic and Proverbial Expressions in the Lexicographic Development of Sesotho sa Leboa ? A Semantic Analysis*
V.M. Mojela
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/14--697
Abstract: : Idiomatic and proverbial expressions are important components of the oral traditionof Sesotho sa Leboa, and therefore a knowledge of the literal meaning of words as they appear indictionaries without inclusion of their figurative meaning seems to be a shortcoming. An idiom or aproverb possesses one basic meaning, i.e. the meaning to which the idiom or proverb is basicallymeant to refer, but each idiom or proverb is made up of several lexical items. Each of these lexicalitems has its own meaning, which usually differs from the figurative sense of the idiom or proverb.Even though the meaning of the words in an idiomatic or proverbial expression seems to differfrom the sense of the idiom or proverb, there is to a certain extent a relationship. It is this relationshipwhich lexicographers can assist to explain in their definitions in order to clarify both the literaland the figurative meanings of words in Sesotho sa Leboa.This article aims to stress the importance of having specialized dictionaries which will giveusers detailed etymological explanations of the meaning of idiomatic and proverbial expressions asused in Sesotho sa Leboa. The etymological analysis of the meaning of these lexical items (idiomsand proverbs) will provide a better understanding of these expressions and enrich dictionarieswith detailed definitions. This will create a better understanding of the relationship between theliteral meanings of the expressions and their real (i.e. figurative) meanings. Keywords: DIACHRONIC ANALYSIS, ETYMOLOGY, FIGURATIVE EXPRESSION, IDIOM,LEMMATIZATION, LEXICOLOGY, METAPHOR, METAPHORIC EXPRESSION, PROVERB,SYNCHRONIC ANALYSIS, TERMINOGRAPHY. Opsomming: Etimologiese aspekte van idiomatiese en spreekwoordelikeuitdrukkings in die leksikografiese ontwikkeling van Sesotho sa Leboa — 'nsemantiese ontleding. Idiomatiese en spreekwoordelike uitdrukkings is belangrike komponentevan die mondelinge tradisie van Sesotho sa Leboa en gevolglik skyn die letterlike betekenisvan woorde soos hulle in woordeboeke voorkom sonder insluiting van hul figuurlike betekenis, 'ntekortkoming te wees. 'n Idioom of spreekwoord besit een basiese betekenis, d.i. die betekenis waarna die idoom of spreekwoord bedoel is om basies te verwys, maar elke idioom of spreekwoordbestaan uit verskeie leksikale items. Hierdie leksikale items het elk sy eie betekenis watgewoonlik verskil van die figuurlike betekenis van die idioom of spreekwoord. Selfs al skyn diebetekenis van die woorde in 'n idiomatiese of spreekwoordelike uitdrukking te verskil van dieidioom of spreekwoord, is daar in sekere mate 'n
Borrowing and Loan Words: The Lemmatizing of Newly Acquired Lexical Items in Sesotho sa Leboa
V.M. Mojela
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/20-0-163
Abstract: ABSTRACT: The influence of foreign languages in Sesotho sa Leboa, or Northern Sotho, results in borrowing, which ultimately leads to an increase in the vocabulary of Sesotho sa Leboa. The languages influencing developments in the vocabulary of Sesotho sa Leboa include, inter alia, English, Afrikaans, Xitsonga, Tshivend√a and the Nguni languages. This article aims to give a critical analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the adoption of foreign lexical items in the lemmatization of vocabulary in Sesotho sa Leboa dictionaries. Most puristic inclined academics and intellectuals are reluctant to adopt loan words as a means of developing the Sesotho sa Leboa vocabulary. When confronted with borrowing, the purists usually prefer coinage, using indigenous lexical items to name foreign concepts. This is disadvantageous to the development of the vocabulary of the language because (1) there is no increase in the number of the lexical items in the language since only the meanings of the foreign lexical item are added to existing indigenous lexical items, and (2) in most cases, previously adopted loan words are mistaken for indigenous lexical items and given preference to newly acquired lexical items which have direct and accurate bearing on the meaning of the newly discovered or designed concepts or objects. OPSOMMING: Ontlening en leenwoorde: Die lemmatisering van nuutverworwe leksikale items in Sesotho sa Leboa. Die invloed van vreemde tale op Sesotho sa Leboa, of Noord-Sotho, het ontlening tot gevolg, wat uiteindelik lei tot 'n toename in die woordeskat van Sesotho sa Leboa. Die tale wat ontwikkelinge in die woordeskat van Sesotho sa Leboa be nvloed, sluit onder andere Engels, Afrikaans, Xitsonga, Tsivend√a en die Ngunitale in. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om 'n kritiese ontleding van die voordele en nadele van die oorneem van vreemde leksikale items by die lemmatisering van die woordeskat in woordeboeke van Sesotho sa Leboa te gee. Die meeste puristies gesinde akademici en intellektuele is onwillig om leenwoorde oor te neem as 'n manier om die woordeskat van Sesotho sa Leboa te ontwikkel. Wanneer hulle met ontlening gekonfronteer word, verkies puriste gewoonlik nuutskeppinge deur gebruikmaking van inheemse leksikale items om vreemde konsepte te benoem. Dit is nadelig vir die ontwikkeling van die woordeskat van die taal omdat (1) daar geen toename in die aantal leksikale items is nie aangesien slegs die betekenisse van die vreemde leksikale items tot die bestaande inheemse leksikale items toegevoeg word, en (2) in die meeste gevalle voorheen oorgene
Standardization or Stigmatization? Challenges Confronting Lexicography and Terminography in Sesotho sa Leboa
V.M. Mojela
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/18--480
Abstract: : The article investigates the effects of the underutilization of the abundant vocabulary of Sesotho sa Leboa, which results from a one-sided standardization approach owing to the disregard and stigmatization of most dialects. Sesotho sa Leboa has several dialects differing greatly concerning terminology, pronunciation and vocabulary. The situation is complicated and aggravated by a standardization which has sidelined more than half of the dialects because of factors such as the influence of colonialism and lack of government co-ordination, the missionary activities, and the influence of early writers and publications. The strict and narrow standardization of Sesotho sa Leboa resulted in the exclusion of large parts of the dialectal vocabulary, the forcing of dialect speakers to accept a foreign standard language, the creation of 'prestige' and 'inferior' dialects, the separation of the standard language from its own dialects and the awakening of a nationalistic spirit among some dialect-speaking communities. Finally solutions for the challenges caused by these developments are afforded. Keywords: COLONIALISM, CORPUS, DIALECT, INFERIOR DIALECTS, LEMMATIZATION,LEXICOGRAPHY, MISSIONARY ACTIVITIES, NATIONALISM, ORTHOGRAPHY,PRESTIGE DIALECTS, STANDARD LANGUAGE, STANDARD DICTIONARY, SIDELINEDDIALECTS, STIGMATIZED DIALECTS, TERMINOGRAPHY Opsomming: Standaardisasie of stigmatisasie? Uitdagings waarvoor leksikografieen terminografie in Sesotho sa Leboa te staan kom. Die artikel ondersoekdie uitwerking van die onderbenutting van die ryk woordeskat van Sesotho sa Leboa watvolg uit 'n eensydige standaardisasiebenadering deur die miskenning en stigmatisasie van diemeeste dialekte. Sesotho sa Leboa het verskeie dialekte wat sterk verskil ten opsigte van terminologie,uitspraak en woordeskat. Die situasie word gekompliseer en vererger deur 'n standaardisasiewat meer as die helfte van die dialekte gesylyn het vanwe faktore soos die invloed van kolonialismeen die ontbreking van regeringsamewerking, die sendingaktiwiteite, en die invloed vanvroe re skrywers en publikasies. Die streng en eng standaardisasie van Sesotho se Leboa het gelei tot die uitsluiting van groot dele van die dialektiese woordeskat, die dwang van dialeksprekers om'n vreemde standaardtaal te aanvaar, die totstandkoming van "invloedryke" en "ondergeskikte"dialekte, die skeiding van die standaardtaal van sy eie dialekte, en die opwekking van 'n nasionalistiesegees by sommige van die dialeksprekende gemeenskappe. Laastens word oplossings aangebiedvir die uitdagings veroorsaak deur hierdie ontwikk
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