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Phytochemical, Antioxidant & in vitro Antibacterial Activity of Aqueous & Ethanolic Fruit Extracts of Kigelia Africana
Amandeep Kaur Saini1, P. K. Chauhan2, V. Singh1 and Pankaj Sharma3
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research , 2013,
Abstract: Phytochemicals presents in plants probably explain the various uses of plants for traditional medicine. Inthis study Kigelia Africana fruit was selected for assessing the level of various Phytochemicals, enzymaticand non- enzymatic antioxidants & antimicrobial activity. Fruits of the plant taken, dried, grind to powderand then aqueous and ethanolic extracts were prepared. Antimicrobial activity of these extracts was thenstudied using agar well plate method. Results of the study showed that aqueous extract of Kigelia Africanahave significant amount of phytochemicals & antioxidant enzymes so useful to prevent chronic diseasesrelated to oxidative stress in human body. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous extract was more than theethanolic extract.
GENETIC DIVERSITY RESOURCES, DISTRIBUTION AND PRESENT ECOLOGICAL STATUS OF FIFTEEN NEW RECORDS OF ORCHID SPECIES TO ASSAM OF EASTERN HIMALAYA
Khyanjeet Gogoi1, R. L. Borah2, G. C. Sharma3 and Rajendra Yonzone4
Bioscience Discovery , 2012,
Abstract: Present paper deals 15 Orchid species with 12 genera viz., Bryobium pudicum, Bulbophyllum apodum, Chrysoglossum ornatum, Cleisostoma linearilobatum, C. simondii, Collabium chinense, Diploprora championii, Eria connate, E. ferruginea, Taeniophyllum crepidiforme, Tainia wrayana, Thelasis pygmaea, Thrixspermum acuminatissimum, T. pygmaeum, and Z. glandulosa were recorded from Dibrugarh district of Assam of Eastern Himalaya for the first time and reported as new distributional records to the state. Out of 15 species 11 species are epiphytic and the rest 4 are terrestrial in habitat. All the species are enumerated with latest citation, brief description, phonology, present ecological status and local distribution within Assam.
Understanding and Exploiting the T - Cell Memory
Kshipra Chandrashekhar1,Ajit Singh1,Archana Sharma1 and Rajkumari Sanjukta2
Veterinary World , 2010,
Abstract: Immunological memory is one of the lesser understood aspects of adaptive immunity which protects organisms from recurrent and persistent attack by pathogens. The central event in the generation of both humoral and cell mediated immune responses is the activation and clonal expansion of T cells. T cell activation is initiated by interaction of the TCR-CD3 complex with processed antigenic peptide bound to either a class I (CD8+cells) or class II (CD 4+cells) MHC molecule on the surface of antigen presenting cell (APC). On interaction of a na ve T cell with the processed antigen initiates a cascade of events which activates the resting T cell to enter the cell cycle, proliferating and developing into a clone of progeny cells, which differentiate into memory or effector T cells. Memory T cells are generated by antigen interaction and remain long but quiescent in nature, however responding with greater reactivity to a subsequent challenge with the same antigen, generating a secondary response. Memory cells, though in the G0 stage of the cell cycle require a lower level of activation than so na ve cells. A lot of work in this direction can yield a whole lot of interesting findings which will help us develop better vaccines for chronic animal diseases like Tuberculosis, Johne’s disease using suitable animal models. A better understanding of these issues may lead to improvements in the design of vaccines which can be used to generate potent protective T cell memory against pathogens. In the present article various properties of memory T cells along with their implications to vaccine development have been reviewed. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(7.000): 343-345]
Energy-Efficient Cluster Based Routing Techniques: A Review
Prabhdeep Singh1 , Max Bhatia2 , Ravneet Kaur3
International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: Wireless sensor networks consists of small low cost sensor nodes, having a limited transmission range and their processing, storage capabilities and energy resources are limited. These networks collect the information from nodes and transmit to base station for further processing. To perform routing in wireless sensor network with this limitation of low power, energy and storage capabilities is a major problem. Routing protocols are used for discovering and maintaining the routing in sensor networks. The most important consideration in designing protocols for WSN is the energy constraint of nodes due to limited power. Cluster based routing is capable to efficiently maintain the energy usage of sensor nodes by involving them in multi-hop communication within a particular cluster.This paper reviews some energy efficient clustering based protocols such as LEACH, PEGASIS, HEEP, TEEN in wireless sensor networks.
A Emerging Technical Development in Next-Generation Low Cost Mass Fabrication for Nanolithography
Sarita Singh1 , Isha Arora 2 , Neha Jain3
International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Emerging Trends provides an insight into the developments in next-generation low cost nanolithography techniques . The study focuses mainly on the semiconductor market, which has the highest requirement for resolution and cost. This research paper covers key developments taking place in nanolithography required for fabricating future nanoscale semiconductor devices. In particular, potential technologies for fabricating smaller transistors is looked into, with leading extreme ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography, electron beam (E-Beam) direct writing, nanoimprinting and EOL Technique. An analytical overlook on research pipelines and market requirements is done to highlight the possible scenario in the coming years. The paper is written in a manner easily understood and allows the reader to assess different technologies from a top level view, while simultaneously providing comprehensive degree of information
Parameter Optimization In Image Enhancement Using PSO
Nirmal Singh1
American Journal of Engineering Research , 2013,
Abstract: In this paper parameters of the transformation function is considered as an optimization problem and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is used to solve it.(PSO) algorithms is a new approach for optimization. With intensity transformation function image enhancement is done by maximizing the information content of the enhanced image. In this work a parameterized transformation function is used, which uses local and global information of the image. Here an objective criterion for measuring image enhancement is used which considers entropy and edge information of the image. We tried to achieve the best enhanced image according to the objective criterion by optimizing the parameters used in the transformation function with the help of PSO. Results are compared with other enhancement techniques, viz. Histogram equalization, contrast stretching based image enhancement.
Hematological alterations in broiler chicks during different seasons supplemented with herbal formulations
Nidhi Singh1,J.P.Singh2 and M.K.S. Rajput3
Veterinary World , 2008,
Abstract: The study was conducted on Vencobb broiler chicks to ascertain the antistress affects of Zist, Zeetress and a combination of Amla and Turmeric during summer, rainy and winter seasons and thereby the haematological changes of birds revealed that during all the three seasons a marked improvement in Haemoglobin was encountered in all the three groups where herbal preparations were supplemented. A marked increase in the lymphocyte count occurred during summer and winter seasons in all the experimental groups of bird as compared to the control group. The heterophil count was decreased with the supplementation of herbal formulations in the feed irrespective of the seasons encountered in the season. This decrease in heterophil count was highly significant in seasons like summer, winter and rainy. This observation proves the hepato-stimulatory, hepato protective and immuno modulating effects of herbal preparations. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(4.000): 110-112]
VHDL Design and Implementation for Optimum Delay & Area for Multiplier & Accumulator Unit by 32-Bit Sequential Multiplier
SARITA SINGH1 , SACHIN MITTAL
International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: High performance systems such as microprocessors, digital signal processors, filters, ALU etc. which is need of hour now days requires a lot of components. One of main component of these high performance systems is multiplier. Most of the DSP computations involve the use of multiply-accumulate operations, and therefore the design of fast and efficient multipliers is imperative. However, area and speed are usually conflicting constraints so that improving speed results mostly in larger areas. This thesis investigates analysis of different multiplier for speed, area and delay usage. We try to present an efficient multiplier is produce fast, accurate and require minimum area. In this paper we will first study different types of multipliers: Then we compared the working of different multipliers by comparing the memory usage, speed and area by each of them. The result of this thesis helps us to choose a better option to choose a better multiplier out of different multipliers in fabricating different systems.
Chilli little leaf - A new phytoplasma disease in India
D. SINGH1 and S.J. SINGH2
Indian Phytopathology , 2012,
Abstract: During 1996-97, a disease causing small leaves on chilli (Capsicum annuum) cv. Pusa Jwala was observed around Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. Other symptoms include malformation and proliferation of axillary buds. Infected plants had many abnormally filiformed small leaves which failed to attain full size. Flower buds were upright instead of pendulous. As the disease progressed, all the freshly produced flowers became phylloid and leaves became progressively smaller. Infected plants did not bear fruits and early infection caused 100% yield loss. Studies showed that the disease is caused by a phytoplasma and is transmitted by grafting.
Incidence of bacterial blight and Alternaria leaf spot in Bt cotton
CHINMAY BISWAS*, DEVENDRA SINGH, RAVINDRA SINGH1 and VIPIN KUMAR
Indian Phytopathology , 2011,
Abstract:
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