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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 975 matches for " Uzma Bashir Aamir "
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Molecular Characterization of Circulating Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Genotypes in Gilgit Baltistan Province of Pakistan during 2011-2012 Winter Season
Uzma Bashir Aamir, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Hajra Sadia, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi, Birjees Mazher Kazi
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074018
Abstract: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections in young children, but very little is known about its epidemiology and circulating genotypes in Pakistan. This study analyzed the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of RSV genotypes detected in Pakistani children less than 2 years of age with acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) in a tertiary care hospital in Gilgit Baltistan (GB) province during 2011-12 winter season. RSV was detected in 75 out of 105 children presenting with acute respiratory infection. Male infants between 2-6 months age made up the highest percentage of RSV positive cases. Epidemiological factors such as pre-maturity, mean weight, clinical features and diagnosis when compared between RSV positive and negative groups were found to be statistically insignificant. Phylogenetic analysis classified all 75 of the RSV strains into 71 strains of subgroups A and 4 strains of subgroup B, respectively. Strains belonging to subgroups A and B were further subdivided into NA1/GA2 and BA, respectively. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence identities were relatively high among these strains (>90%). Both RSV-A and RSV-B isolates had two potential N-glycosylation sites in HVR2 of G protein and with heavy O-glycosylation of serine and threonine residues (G scores of 0.5-0.7). This report highlights the significance of RSV as a dominant viral etiologic agent of pediatric ARIs, and need for continued molecular epidemiological surveys for early detection of prevalent strains and newly emerging genotypes to understand epidemiology of RSV infections in various regions of Pakistan.
Influenza Virus Surveillance in Pakistan during 2008-2011
Nazish Badar, Uzma Bashir Aamir, Muhammad Rashid Mehmood, Nadia Nisar, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Birjees Mazhar Kazi, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079959
Abstract: Background There is little information about influenza among the Pakistani population. In order to assess the trends of Influenza-like-Illness (ILI) and to monitor the predominant circulating strains of influenza viruses, a country-wide lab-based surveillance system for ILI and Severe Acute Respiratory Illness (SARI) with weekly sampling and reporting was established in 2008. This system was necessary for early detection of emerging novel influenza subtypes and timely response for influenza prevention and control. Methods Five sentinel sites at tertiary care hospitals across Pakistan collected epidemiological data and respiratory samples from Influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) cases from January 2008 to December 2011. Samples were typed and sub-typed by Real-Time RT-PCR assay. Results A total of 6258 specimens were analyzed; influenza virus was detected in 1489 (24%) samples, including 1066 (72%) Influenza type A and 423 (28%) influenza type B viruses. Amongst influenza A viruses, 25 (2%) were seasonal A/H1N1, 169 (16%) were A/H3N2 and 872 (82 %) were A(H1N1)pdm09. Influenza B virus circulation was detected throughout the year along with few cases of seasonal A/H1N1 virus during late winter and spring. Influenza A/H3N2 virus circulation was mainly observed during summer months (August-October). Conclusions The findings of this study emphasize the need for continuous and comprehensive influenza surveillance. Prospective data from multiple years is needed to predict seasonal trends for vaccine development and to further fortify pandemic preparedness.
Prediction of Clinical Factors Associated with Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Pakistan
Nadia Nisar, Uzma Bashir Aamir, Nazish Badar, Muhammad Rashid Mehmood, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Birjees Mazher Kazi, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089178
Abstract: Background Influenza is a viral infection that can lead to serious complications and death(s) in vulnerable groups if not diagnosed and managed in a timely manner. This study was conducted to improve the accuracy of predicting influenza through various clinical and statistical models. Methodology A retrospective cross sectional analysis was done on demographic and epidemiological data collected from March 2009 to March 2010. Patients were classified as ILI or SARI using WHO case definitions. Respiratory specimens were tested by RT-PCR. Clinical symptoms and co-morbid conditions were analyzed using binary logistic regression models. Results In the first approach, analysis compared children (≤12) and adults (>12). Of 1,243 cases, 262 (21%) tested positive for A(H1N1)pdm09 and the proportion of children (≤12) and adults (>12) were 27% and 73% respectively. Four symptoms predicted influenza in children: fever (OR 2.849, 95% CI 1.931–8.722), cough (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.512–3.643), diarrhea (OR 2.100, 95% CI 2.040–3.25) and respiratory disease (OR 3.269, 95% CI 2.128–12.624). In adults, the strongest clinical predictor was fever (OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.025–3.135) followed by cough (OR 1.431, 95% CI 1.032–2.815). In the second instance, patients were separated into two groups: SARI 326 (26%) and ILI 917 (74%) cases. Male to female ratio was 1.41:1.12 for SARI and 2:1.5 for ILI cases. Chi-square test showed that fever, cough and sore throat were significant factors for A(H1N1)pdm09 infections (p = 0.008). Conclusion Studies in a primary care setting should be encouraged focused on patients with influenza-like illness to develop sensitive clinical case definition that will help to improve accuracy of detecting influenza infections. Formulation of a standard “one size fits all” case definition that best correlates with influenza infections can help guide decisions for additional diagnostic testing and also discourage unjustified antibiotic prescription and usage in clinical practice.
Viral Etiologies of Acute Dehydrating Gastroenteritis in Pakistani Children: Confounding Role of Parechoviruses
Muhammad Masroor Alam,Adnan Khurshid,Shahzad Shaukat,Muhammad Suleman Rana,Salmaan Sharif,Mehar Angez,Nadia Nisar,Uzma Bashir Aamir,Muhammad Naeem,Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
Viruses , 2015, DOI: 10.3390/v7010378
Abstract: Despite substantial interventions in the understanding and case management of acute gastroenteritis, diarrheal diseases are still responsible for a notable amount of childhood deaths. Although the rotavirus is known to cause a considerable burden of pediatric diarrheal cases, the roles of other viruses remain undefined for the Pakistani population. This study was based on tertiary care hospital surveillance, from January 2009 to December 2010, including the detection of rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, and human parechovirus in children under the age of five using serological or molecular assays. Rotavirus, human parechovirus, norovirus, and astrovirus were detected in 66%, 21%, 19.5%, and 8.5% subjects, respectively. Human parechovirus genotypes, determined through analysis of VP1 gene sequences, showed a great diversity among co-circulating strains. Eighty percent of hospitalized children had dual or multiple viral infections, while 98% parechovirus positive cases were co-infected with rotavirus. The remarkable diversity of viruses associated with the childhood diarrhea in Pakistan calls for large-scale epidemiological surveys, coupled with case control studies, to ascertain their role in clinical manifestations. In addition, these findings also highlight the need for the implementation of up-to-date health interventions, such as the inclusion of a rotavirus vaccine in routine immunization programs for the improvement of quality in child health care.
Molecular Epidemiology of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Viruses from Pakistan in 2009–2010
Uzma Bashir Aamir, Nazish Badar, Muhammad Rashid Mehmood, Nadia Nisar, Rana Muhammad Suleman, Shehzad Shaukat, Salman Sharif, Jaleel Kamran, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi, Birjees Mazher Kazi, Larisa Gubareva, Xiyan Xu, Rebecca Garten, Alexander Klimov
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041866
Abstract: Background In early 2009, a novel influenza A(H1N1) virus that emerged in Mexico and United States rapidly disseminated worldwide. The spread of this virus caused considerable morbidity with over 18000 recorded deaths. The new virus was found to be a reassortant containing gene segments from human, avian and swine influenza viruses. Methods/Results The first case of human infection with A(H1N1)pdm09 in Pakistan was detected on 18th June 2009. Since then, 262 laboratory-confirmed cases have been detected during various outbreaks with 29 deaths (as of 31st August 2010). The peak of the epidemic was observed in December with over 51% of total respiratory cases positive for influenza. Representative isolates from Pakistan viruses were sequenced and analyzed antigenically. Sequence analysis of genes coding for surface glycoproteins HA and NA showed high degree of high levels of sequence identity with corresponding genes of regional viruses circulating South East Asia. All tested viruses were sensitive to Oseltamivir in the Neuraminidase Inhibition assays. Conclusions Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses from Pakistan form a homogenous group of viruses. Their HA genes belong to clade 7 and show antigenic profile similar to the vaccine strain A/California/07/2009. These isolates do not show any amino acid changes indicative of high pathogenicity and virulence. It is imperative to continue monitoring of these viruses for identification of potential variants of high virulence or drug resistance.
Epidemiology and Genetic Diversity of Rotavirus Strains in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis in Lahore, Pakistan
Muhammad Masroor Alam, Adnan Khurshid, Shahzad Shaukat, Rana Muhammad Suleman, Salmaan Sharif, Mehar Angez, Salman Akbar Malik, Tahir Masood Ahmed, Uzma Bashir Aamir, Muhammad Naeem, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067998
Abstract: Pakistan harbors high disease burden of gastro-enteric infections with majority of these caused by rotavirus. Unfortunately, lack of proper surveillance programs and laboratory facilities have resulted in scarcity of available data on rotavirus associated disease burden and epidemiological information in the country. We investigated 1306 stool samples collected over two years (2008–2009) from hospitalized children under 5 years of age for the presence of rotavirus strains and its genotypic diversity in Lahore. The prevalence rate during 2008 and 2009 was found to be 34% (n = 447 out of 1306). No significant difference was found between different age groups positive for rotavirus (p>0.05). A subset of EIA positive samples was further screened for rotavirus RNA through RT-PCR and 44 (49.43%) samples, out of total 89 EIA positive samples, were found positive. G and P type prevalence was found as follows: G1P [4] = 3(6.81%); G1P [6] = 9(20.45%); G1P [8] = 1(2.27%); G2P [4] = 21(47.72%); G2P [8] = 1(2.27%); G9P [4] = 1(2.27%); G9P [6] = 1(2.27%) and G9P [8] = 7(15.90%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the VP7 and VP4 sequences clustered closely with the previously detected strains in the country as well as Belgian rotaviruses. Antigenic characterization was performed by analyzing major epitopes in the immunodominant VP7 and VP4 gene segments. Although the neutralization conferring motifs were found variable between the Pakistani strains and the two recommended vaccines strains (Rotarix? and RotaTeq?), we validate the use of rotavirus vaccine in Pakistan based on the proven and recognized vaccine efficacy across the globe. Our findings constitute the first report on rotavirus’ genotype diversity, their phylogenetic relatedness and epidemiology during the pre-vaccination era in Lahore, Pakistan and support the immediate introduction of rotavirus vaccine in the routine immunization program of the country.
Allelopathic Effects of Sunflower Residue on Growth of Rice and Subsequent Wheat Crop Efectos Alelopáticos de Residuos de Girasol sobre el Crecimiento de Arroz y Cultivo de Trigo Subsecuente
Uzma Bashir,Arshad Javaid,Rukhsana Bajwa
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research , 2012,
Abstract: Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is a well known allelopathic plant species. However, Pakistani farmers generally incorporate the sunflower residue in the soil with the aim to enhance soil fertility and organic matter. Field experiments were, therefore, carried out to evaluate the effect of sunflower residue incorporation on growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and subsequent wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop. For rice crop, there were four treatments viz. control, sunflower residue incorporation (RI), NPK fertilizers, and NPK+RI. Two rice varieties (Basmati Pak and Basmati Super) were cultivated. Incorporation of sunflower residue markedly reduced plant growth and yield in 'Basmati Pak'. There was 34% reduction in yield of this variety due to RI. 'Basmati Super' was tolerant to sunflower allelopathy, where the effect of RI was generally insignificant on plant growth and grain yield. Two commonly cultivated varieties of wheat (Inqalab 91 and Punjab 96) were sown in the same plots after harvesting the rice, without any addition of either RI or NPK. In 'Punjab 96', the effect of RI or RI+NPK was insignificant on grain yield. In contrast, in 'Inqalab 91', RI in combination with NPK fertilizers significantly reduced the grain yield by 41% as compared to NPK alone. The present study concluded that rice 'Basmati Super' and wheat 'Punjab 96' are suitable for cultivation under sunflower allelopathic stress. El girasol (Helianthus annuus L.) es una planta alelopática bien conocida. Sin embargo, los agricultores de Paquistán generalmente incorporan el residuo de girasol en el suelo con el objetivo de mejorar la fertilidad y la materia orgánica del suelo. Los experimentos de campo se realizaron para evaluar el efecto de la incorporation de residuos de girasol en el crecimiento y production de arroz (Oryza sativa L.) y trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) subsecuente. Para el cultivo de arroz hubo cuatro tratamientos viz. Control, incorporation de residuo de girasol (RI), fertilizantes NPK, y NPK+RI. Se cultivaron dos variedades de arroz (Basmati Pak y Basmati Super). La incorporation de residuo de girasol redujo marcadamente crecimiento de planta y production en 'Basmati Pak'. Hubo una reduction de 34% en production de esta variedad debida a RI. 'Basmati Super' fue tolerante a alelopatía del girasol, siendo el efecto de RI generalmente insignificante en crecimiento de planta y production de grano. Dos variedades comúnmente cultivadas de trigo (Inqalab 91 y Punjab 96) se sembraron en las mismas parcelas después de cosechar el arroz, sin adicion de RI o NPK. En 'Punja
Determinants of organizational citizenship behavior: A case study of higher education institutes in Pakistan
Nazia Bashir,Amber Sardar,Khalid Zaman,Aamir Khan Swati
Management Science Letters , 2012,
Abstract: This study empirically examines the relationship between altruism, conscientiousness, and civic virtue, three of the antecedents of organizational citizenship behavior, in higher education institutes in the Khyber Pakhtonkhuwa Province (KPK) of Pakistan. The study is based on primary data collected from ninety-five employees of various institutes in Pakistan. The data is analyzed using the techniques of rank correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. All the findings are tested at 0.01 and 0.05 levels of significance. The result concludes that altruism, conscientiousness, and civic virtue have strong positive impacts on the organizational citizenship behavior in the context of higher education institutes in Pakistan.
Virulence profile of different phylogenetic groups of locally isolated community acquired uropathogenic E. coli from Faisalabad region of Pakistan
Bashir Saira,Haque Abdul,Sarwar Yasra,Ali Aamir
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-0711-11-23
Abstract: Background Uropathogenic E.coli (UPEC) are among major pathogens causing urinary tract infections. Virulence factors are mainly responsible for the severity of these emerging infections. This study was planned to investigate the distribution of virulence genes and cytotoxic effects of UPEC isolates with reference to phylogenetic groups (B2, B1, D and A) to understand the presence and impact of virulence factors in the severity of infection in Faisalabad region of Pakistan. Methods In this study phylogenetic analysis, virulence gene identification and cytotoxicity of 59 uropathogenic E.coli isolates obtained from non-hospitalized patients was studied. Results Among 59 isolates, phylogenetic group B2 (50%) was most dominant followed by groups A, B1 (19% each) and D (12%). Isolates present in group D showed highest presence of virulence genes. The prevalence hlyA (37%) was highest followed by sfaDE (27%), papC (24%), cnf1 (20%), eaeA (19%) and afaBC3 (14%). Highly hemolytic and highly verotoxic isolates mainly belonged to group D and B2. We also found two isolates with simultaneous presence of three fimbrial adhesin genes present on pap, afa, and sfa operons. This has not been reported before and underlines the dynamic nature of these UPEC isolates. Conclusions It was concluded that in local UPEC isolates from non-hospitalized patients, group B2 was more prevalent. However, group D isolates were most versatile as all were equipped with virulence genes and showed highest level of cytotoxicity.
Multiple drug resistance patterns in various phylogenetic groups of uropathogenic E.coli isolated from Faisalabad region of Pakistan
Bashir, Saira;Sarwar, Yasra;Ali, Aamir;Mohsin, Mashkoor;Saeed, Muhammad Azeem;Tariq, Ayesha;Haque, Abdul;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822011000400005
Abstract: the objective of this work was the phylogenetic characterization of local clinical isolates of uropathogenic e. coli with respect to drug resistance. a total of 59 uropathogenic e. coli responsible for community acquired urinary tract infections were included in this study. a triplex pcr was employed to segregate each isolate into four different phylogenetic groups (a, b1, b2 and d). drug resistance was evaluated by disc diffusion method. the drugs used were ampicillin, aztreonam, cefixime, cefoperazone, ceftriaxone, cephradine among β-lactam group; amikacin, gentamicin, and streptomycin among aminoglycosides; nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin from quinolones; trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazole, and tetracycline. among 59 uropathogenic e. coli isolates majority belonged to phylogenetic group b2 (50%) where as 19% each belonged to groups a and b1, and 12% to group d. all the isolates were multiple drug resistant (mdr). most effective drugs against group a, b1, and b2 were gentamicin, amikacin and cefixime; ceftriaxone and quinolones; and ceftriaxone and amikacin, respectively. group d isolates were found to be highly resistant to all drugs. our results have shown emergence of mdr isolates among uropathogenic e. coli with dominance of phylogenetic group b2. however, it was found that group d isolates were though less frequent, more drug resistant as compared with group b2. groups a and b1 were relatively uncommon. amikacin, ceftriaxone and gentamicin were the most effective drugs in general.
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