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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 409962 matches for " Usama M. El Shokhaiby "
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Evaluation of Decompressive Craniectomy  [PDF]
Magdy A. El Hawary, Usama M. El Shokhaiby, Ahmed Maher Ahmed
Open Journal of Modern Neurosurgery (OJMN) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojmn.2018.83022
Abstract: Background and Purpose: Decompressive craniectomy is a surgery used to remove a large bone flap and opening the dura to allow edematous brain tissue to bulge extracranially. However, the efficacy of decompressive surgery to reduce the mortality and improve the outcome in patients with refractory intra-cranial pressure is still unclear. We investigated whether decompressive crani-ectomy is associated with improved conscious state and survival in patients with severely raised intracranial pressure and resistant to conservative management. Methods: We studied 20 patients with clinical and radiological evidence of increased intracranial pressure & indicated for decompressive crani-ectomy. All patients were followed postoperatively in ICU with serial follow up (CT). Consciousness level was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Scale and Glasgow outcome score. Results: The overall mortality was 11 cases (55%), two cases remain in a vegetative state (10%), one case (5%) was severely disabled and six cases (30%) discharged with mild disability. Conclusion: In 20 cases with severely raised intracranial pressure resistant to conservative management Decompressive Craniectomy allowed (30 %) of cases to be discharged from hospitals with mild degree of disability for rehabilitation.
Ultraviolet Protection, Flame Retardancy and Antibacterial Properties of Treated Polyester Fabric Using Plasma-Nano Technology  [PDF]
Wafaa M. Raslan, Usama S. Rashed, Hanan El-Sayad, Azza A. El-Halwagy
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2011.210194
Abstract: Nanotechnology provides the ability to engineer the properties of materials. The possibility of using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) air plasma treatment for fibre surface activation to facilitate deposition of aluminum oxide (Al2O3), nano-silver (Ag) and nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) onto polyester fabric is investigated. It is aimed to study the possibility of engineering the multifunctional of polyester fabric. The treated fabric is evaluated through measuring the whiteness index (WI), wettability, surface roughness, surface morphology, flame retardancy, ultraviolet protection factor (UPF), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), antibacterial activity, mechanical properties, and coloration behavior as well as fastness properties. Scan electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) graphs show deposition of Al2O3 and nano particles (NPs) of TiO2 and Ag onto the fibre after washing several times. Air plasma-Al2O3 treatment improves the flame retarding, UPF, the thermal stability and whiteness of polyester fabric; whereas air plasma-nano Ag treatment affects positively the antibacterial activity of the fibre and air plasma-nano TiO2 enhances the fibre protection against ultraviolet rays. The colouration behaviour of the treated samples is unchanged or slightly improved.
Rifamycins Production by Amycolatopsis mediterranei in Batch and Repeated Batch Cultures Using Immobilized Cells in Alginate and Modified Alginate Beads
Hesham A. El-Enshasy,Usama I. Beshay,Ahmed I. El-Diwany,Hoda M. Omar
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The production of rifamycins B and SV by Amycolatopsis mediterranei using immobilization technique was investigated. Alginate beads proved to be an alternative method for the production of rifamycin antibiotic as it has many advantage over using free cells such as it enables the operation at higher dilution rates without the danger of wash out, ease of handling and facilitates recycling or reverse of using microorganism. Different hardening agents were used to improve the stability of the beads and decrease cells escapement. Gum Arabic and gellan gum were used and the rate of rifamycin production increased by using gellan gum as hardening agent compared to pure alginate beads. The rifamycins B and SV increased from 685 to 810 and from 547.5 to 702 mg L-1, respectively by using gellan-gum modified beads compared to the non-treated beads. In repeated batch production, the beads were stable and no breaking of the gel beads was observed throughout the experiment time. The total amount of rifamycin B and SV during the five repeated batches (each of 144 h) reached 3360 and 2309 mg L-1, respectively. On reducing the batch time to only 72 h, the antibiotic production was not influenced and the total concentration of rifamycins B and SV for five batches was 3785 and 2393 mg L-1, respectively.
Psychiatric Morbidity among a Sample of Orphanage Children in Cairo
Mohamed A. EL Koumi,Yasser F. Ali,Ehab A. El Banna,Usama M. Youssef
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/141854
Psychiatric Morbidity among a Sample of Orphanage Children in Cairo
Mohamed A. EL Koumi,Yasser F. Ali,Ehab A. El Banna,Usama M. Youssef,Yasser M. Raya,Aly A. Ismail
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/141854
Abstract: Objective. This study identifies the prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems and the associated factors in orphanage children. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in three private orphanages in Cairo. Two hundred sixty-five children of ages ranging from 6 to 12 years living in three different orphanages care systems were included in the study. A sociodemographic information form and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were used. Children were clinically interviewed and psychiatric disorders were identified. Diagnoses were done according to the manual for diagnosis and statistics of mental disorder fourth version (DSMIV). A written formal consent from the director of social solidarity was obtained before inclusion in the study. Results. The prevalence of behavioral disturbances was 64.53% among those in institutional care and the most prominent psychiatric disorders were nocturnal enuresis (23.3%), attention deficit hyperkinetic disorder (ADHD) (19.62%), oppositional defiant disorder (17.36%). Age at first admission, causes of receiving institutional care, and moves 2 or more times between institutions were significantly associated with an increased risk of behavioral and emotional problems. Conclusion. Our study showed that children living in institutions are prone to suffer from psychiatric disorders. Stability of the caregiver acts as a protective variable. 1. Introduction Childhood is a developmental stage in which the importance of reciprocal emotional bonding between a child and his/her caregivers, for healthy physical, psychological, and social development has been known for centuries [1]. Orphans in group homes or institutions take more risks, have more threats to achievement, and have poorer peer influences [2]. Almost no systematic studies have been carried out during the past five decades about orphanages largely because nearly all orphanages in industrial nations have been replaced by adoption and foster care [3]. This solution, in Third World Countries, is unacceptable either religiously in some countries as Egypt, or has been considered an unrealistic solution in other countries as in Africa [3]. Although orphanages can provide a secure and positive alternative to abusive and unsafe family or community environments, they cannot provide individualized and family nurturing [4]. Research findings indicate that children in institutional care have more behavioral problems, such as aggressive behavior and have higher levels of depression and anxiety, compared to children that are reared in a family environment [5–7]. Several
The Effects of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Leaves Powder on Glucose Level, Lipid Profile and Lipid Perodoxation  [PDF]
Louay Labban, Usama El-Sayed Mustafa, Yasser Mahmoud Ibrahim
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.56044

Introduction: Various herbs have been used as treatment and prevention for several chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and triglyceridemia; one of those herbs is Rosemary, which has biological antioxidant mechanisms. Rosemary is a thorny Rhamnaceous plant which is widely distributed in Europe and South-Eastern Asia. It’s used in traditional medicine for its therapeutic properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) leaves powder on glucose level and lipid profile in human. Material and Methods: Forty eight adults’ men and women participated in this study which has been carried out in the UOK University. The participants were randomly selected and divided into 3 groups. The first group was given 2 g/day of Rosemary leaves powder, the second group was given 5 g/day of Rosemary leaves powder while the third group was given 10 g/day of Rosemary leaves powder for a period of 4 weeks. Blood samples were analyzed for glucose, lipid profile and antioxidant at the beginning and the end of the study and the results were statistically analyzed. Results: The results indicated that a significant decrease in blood glucose level in the groups given 5



地球物理学报 , 2010,
Abstract: Transient ElectroMagnetic (TEM) sounding and Ground ElectroMagnetic (GEM) profiling have been conducted at Hawara archeological area, El Fayoum, Egypt to investigate the subsurface water and its effect on the archeological targets at this area. This archeological site comprises Hawara pyramid, the northern necropolis and a southern mortuary complex called "labyrinth". Nowadays Hawara area is entirely abandoned and surrounded by cultivated areas, as well as, a surface water canal named "Bahr Wahba". The surface and underground water bodies have negative effects on the foundation of Hawara pyramid and the labyrinth site, where the entrance of the pyramid is today flooded to a depth of about 6 meters below the ground surface. TEM data have been acquired at three sites in this area comprising the cultivated land, the pyramid and the labyrinth, while the GEM survey was conducted inside the labyrinth site. Integrated interpretation of these data sets indicates that, the agricultural activities and the flooding irrigation system applied to the planted area are the main sources for the water that invades the subsurface section at this area. Moreover, the subsurface water level has been recorded at variable depths ranging from 2 to 7 m below the ground surface according to the measuring site and surface elevation.
Evaluation of Lead Hepatotoxicity; Histological, Histochemical and Ultrastructural Study  [PDF]
Ahmed M. S. Hegazy, Usama A. Fouad
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research (FMAR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fmar.2014.23013
Abstract: Lead is one of the most well-known naturally occurring environmental heavy metals. This experimental study was designed to evaluate lead induced toxic effects on hepatocytes and lobular architecture as judged microscopically. Material and Methods: This study was conducted in anatomy department, Benha faculty of medicine, Benha University, Egypt from May to October 2013 on 30 normal adult albino rats divided into 3 groups; one control and 2 experimental groups. The experimental groups were given 0.13% lead acetate solution in drinking water for 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. Animals were scarified and livers were removed and used to identify microscopic changes. Specimens were stained with Hematoxylin and eosin, with Masson trichrome stain for study of fibrous tissue and with periodic acid shiff's (PAS) to study the glycogen content. Other specimens were prepared for ultrastructural study. Results: Mild lymphocytic infiltration, vacuolar degeneration and mild increase of periportal fibrosis with mild depletion of glycogen content and partial disappearance of glycogen vacuoles were reported in animals received contaminated water for 4 weeks. Animals maintained for 8 weeks on contaminated water showed hepatic changes in the form of abundant lymphocytic infiltration, increased cellular polymorphism, pyknotic nuclei and areas of cell necrosis with evident moderate periportal fibrosis and marked vacuolar degeneration associated with marked depletion of glycogen content. Ultrastructural study revealed mitochondrial edema, appearance of interstitial inflammatory cells, and appearance of scattered variable sized lead electron-dense inclusion bodies. Conclusion: It could be concluded that chronic exposure to lead imposes a potent toxic effect on liver cells manifested as glycogen depletion, cellular infiltration and liver architecture in the form of initiation of periportal fibrosis that may progress to liver cirrhosis.
Synthesis and Biological Activity of Drug Delivery System Based on Chitosan Nanocapsules  [PDF]
Mohamed Gouda, Usama Elayaan, Magdy M. Youssef
Advances in Nanoparticles (ANP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/anp.2014.34019
Abstract: Chitosan nanocapsules containing naproxen as an active ingredient were synthesized by ionic gelation method in presence of polyanion tripolyphosphate as a crosslinker. The morphology and diameter of the prepared chitosan nanoparticles was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transition electron microscopy. Different factors affecting on the size diameter of chitosan nanoparticles such as stirring time and temperature, pH values as well as chitosan concentration were studied. Different factors affecting on the immobilization of naproxen into chitosan nanoparticles such as time, temperature and pH values were optimized. Synthesized naproxen/chitosan nanocapsules were assessed against both Gram positive bacterial strain such as Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative bacterial strain such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Also, the antifungal activity of the naproxen/chitosan nanocapsules against Saccharomyces cerevisiae was demonstrated. Super oxide dismutase like activity of naproxen/chitosan nanocapsules will be determined.
Isolation, Phylogenetic Analysis and Anti-infective Activity Screening of Marine Sponge-Associated Actinomycetes
Usama Ramadan Abdelmohsen,Sheila M. Pimentel-Elardo,Amro Hanora,Mona Radwan,Soad H. Abou-El-Ela,Safwat Ahmed,Ute Hentschel
Marine Drugs , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/md8030399
Abstract: Terrestrial actinomycetes are noteworthy producers of a multitude of antibiotics, however the marine representatives are much less studied in this regard. In this study, 90 actinomycetes were isolated from 11 different species of marine sponges that had been collected from offshore Ras Mohamed (Egypt) and from Rovinj (Croatia). Phylogenetic characterization of the isolates based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing supported their assignment to 18 different actinomycete genera representing seven different suborders. Fourteen putatively novel species were identified based on sequence similarity values below 98.2% to other strains in the NCBI database. A putative new genus related to Rubrobacter was isolated on M1 agar that had been amended with sponge extract, thus highlighting the need for innovative cultivation protocols. Testing for anti-infective activities was performed against clinically relevant, Gram-positive ( Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative ( Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria, fungi ( Candida albicans) and human parasites ( Leishmania major, Trypanosoma brucei). Bioactivities against these pathogens were documented for 10 actinomycete isolates. These results show a high diversity of actinomycetes associated with marine sponges as well as highlight their potential to produce anti-infective agents.
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