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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4285 matches for " Urs Meyer "
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Welcome to the Journal of Personalized Medicine: A New Open-Access Platform for Research on Optimal Individual Healthcare
Urs A. Meyer
Journal of Personalized Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/jpm1010001
Abstract: A new vision of personalized medicine or personalized healthcare has evolved as a consequence of remarkable recent advances in technologies that allow to look at individual variation across the entire human genome and to identify personal risk factors behind many diseases and responses to therapy. These advances have greatly increased our understanding of how interactions between the entire genome and nongenomic factors result in health and disease and in therapeutic response. The challenge is now to translate this knowledge into benefits for the individual patient. I expect the Journal of Personalized Medicine to become the premier venue for the rapid and freely accessible publication of high quality manuscripts dealing with this vision for scientists around the world.
BMP signaling components in embryonic transcriptomes of the hover fly Episyrphus balteatus (Syrphidae)
Steffen Lemke, Dionysios A Antonopoulos, Folker Meyer, Marc H Domanus, Urs Schmidt-Ott
BMC Genomics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-12-278
Abstract: To search for BMP signaling components in E. balteatus, we generated and analyzed transcriptomes of freshly laid eggs (0-30 minutes) and late blastoderm to early germband extension stages (3-6 hours) using Roche/454 sequencing. We identified putative E. balteatus orthologues of 43% of all annotated D. melanogaster genes, including the genes of all BMP ligands and other BMP signaling components.The diversification of several BMP signaling components in the dipteran linage of D. melanogaster preceded the origin of the amnioserosa.[Transcriptome sequence data from this study have been deposited at the NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRP005289); individually assembled sequences have been deposited at GenBank (JN006969-JN006986).]Across animals, the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling pathway plays a major role in specifying the dorsoventral (DV) axis [1,2]. However, the components of the BMP pathway have been repeatedly modified through lineage specific gene duplications and gene losses [3,4]. Whether some of these genetic changes correlate with the origin of species-specific morphological traits that develop under the control of the BMP pathway is unknown. Flies (Diptera) provide an excellent opportunity to address this question firstly because the BMP signaling pathway of Drosophila melanogaster has been studied in great detail [5,6], and secondly because tissue specification presumably under the control of BMP signaling along the DV axis of dipterans has undergone significant change [7]. In D. melanogaster, dorsal blastoderm differentiates into a single extraembryonic epithelium, called amnioserosa, which closes the developing embryo dorsally [8]. This tissue is found in higher cyclorrhaphan flies (Schizophora), but in other dipterans, dorsal blastoderm gives rise to distinct serosal and amniotic epithelia [9-11]. Serosa and amnion develop from an amnioserosal fold at the margins of the gastrulating embryo. The outer cell layer of this fold becomes the serosa, whi
Activation of Midbrain and Ventral Striatal Regions Implicates Salience Processing during a Modified Beads Task
Christine Esslinger, Urs Braun, Frederike Schirmbeck, Andreia Santos, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Mathias Zink, Peter Kirsch
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058536
Abstract: Introduction Metacognition, i.e. critically reflecting on and monitoring one’s own reasoning, has been linked behaviorally to the emergence of delusions and is a focus of cognitive therapy in patients with schizophrenia. However, little is known about the neural processing underlying metacognitive function. To address this issue, we studied brain activity during a modified beads task which has been used to measure a “Jumping to Conclusions” (JTC) bias in schizophrenia patients. Methods We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify neural systems active in twenty-five healthy subjects when solving a modified version of the “beads task”, which requires a probabilistic decision after a variable amount of data has been requested by the participants. We assessed brain activation over the duration of a trial and at the time point of decision making. Results Analysis of activation during the whole process of probabilistic reasoning showed an extended network including the prefronto-parietal executive functioning network as well as medial parieto-occipital regions. During the decision process alone, activity in midbrain and ventral striatum was detected, as well as in thalamus, medial occipital cortex and anterior insula. Conclusions Our data show that probabilistic reasoning shares neural substrates with executive functions. In addition, our finding that brain regions commonly associated with salience processing are active during probabilistic reasoning identifies a candidate mechanism that could underlie the behavioral link between dopamine-dependent aberrant salience and JTC in schizophrenia. Further studies with delusional schizophrenia patients will have to be performed to substantiate this link.
Spinodal Decomposition and the Deconfining Phase Transition
Bernd A. Berg,Urs M. Heller,Hildegard Meyer-Ortmanns,Alexander Velytsky
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1016/S0920-5632(03)02650-1
Abstract: We study the Glauber dynamics of simple spin systems to identify dynamical scenarios which may be of relevance for the deconfining phase transition in heavy ion collisions.
Dynamics of Phase Transitions by Hysteresis Methods I
Bernd A. Berg,Urs M. Heller,Hildegard Meyer-Ortmanns,Alexander Velytsky
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.69.034501
Abstract: In studies of the QCD deconfining phase transition or crossover by means of heavy ion experiments, one ought to be concerned about non-equilibrium effects due to heating and cooling of the system. Motivated by this, we look at hysteresis methods to study the dynamics of phase transitions. Our systems are temperature driven through the phase transition using updating procedures in the Glauber universality class. Hysteresis calculations are presented for a number of observables, including the (internal) energy, properties of Fortuin-Kasteleyn clusters and structure functions. We test the methods for 2d Potts models, which provide a rich collection of phase transitions with a number of rigorously known properties. Comparing with equilibrium configurations we find a scenario where the dynamics of the transition leads to a spinodal decomposition which dominates the statistical properties of the configurations. One may expect an enhancement of low energy gluon production due to spinodal decomposition of the Polyakov loops, if such a scenario is realized by nature.
Socio-cultural determinants of adiposity and physical activity in preschool children: A cross-sectional study
Flavia Bürgi, Ursina Meyer, Iris Niederer, Vincent Ebenegger, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Urs Granacher, Susi Kriemler, Jardena J Puder
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-733
Abstract: Forty preschools (N = 542 children) of two culturally different urban regions (German and French speaking part of Switzerland) participated in the study (Ballabeina Study). Outcome measures included adiposity (BMI and skinfold thickness), objectively measured sedentary activities and PA (accelerometers) and agility performance (obstacle course). Parental characteristics (migrant status, educational level and workload) were assessed by questionnaire.Children from the French speaking areas had higher adiposity, lower levels of total and of more intense PA, were more sedentary and less agile than children from the German speaking regions (percent differences for all outcome parameters except for BMI ≥10%; all p ≤ 0.04). Differences in skinfold thickness, sedentary activities and agility, but not in PA, were also found between children of Swiss and migrant parents, though they were ≤8% (p ≤ 0.02). While paternal workload had no effect, maternal workload and parental education resulted in differences in some PA measures and/or agility performance (percent differences in both: ≤9%, p ≤ 0.008), but not in adiposity or sedentary activities (p = NS). Regional differences in skinfold thickness, PA, sedentary activities and agility performance persisted after adjustment for parental socio-cultural characteristics, parental BMI and, where applicable, children's skinfolds (all p ≤ 0.01).The regional environment, especially the broader social environment, plays a prominent role in determining adiposity, PA and motor skills of young children and should be implicated in the prevention of obesity and promotion of PA in children.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00674544Childhood overweight and obesity have been increasing dramatically worldwide, even in young children. Despite a possible stabilization, the high prevalence remains a great public health concern [1]. Among several environmental factors, a sedentary behaviour (especially TV viewing) and a reduction in physical activity (PA) are imp
Effect of CAR activation on selected metabolic pathways in normal and hyperlipidemic mouse livers
Tadeja Re?en, Viola Tamasi, Anita L?vgren-Sandblom, Ingemar Bj?rkhem, Urs A Meyer, Damjana Rozman
BMC Genomics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-10-384
Abstract: Using gene expression profiling with a dedicated microarray, we show that xenobiotic metabolism, PPARα and adipocytokine signaling, and steroid synthesis are the pathways most affected by TCPOBOP in normal and hyperlipidemic mice. TCPOBOP-induced CAR activation prevented the increased hepatic and serum cholesterol caused by feeding mice a diet containing 1% cholesterol. We show that this is due to increased bile acid metabolism and up-regulated removal of LDL, even though TCPOBOP increased cholesterol synthesis under conditions of hyperlipidemia. Up-regulation of cholesterol synthesis was not accompanied by an increase in mature SREBP2 protein. As determined by studies in CAR -/- mice, up-regulation of cholesterol synthesis is however CAR-dependent; and no obvious CAR binding sites were detected in promoters of cholesterogenic genes. TCPOBOP also affected serum glucose and triglyceride levels and other metabolic processes in the liver, irrespective of the diet.Our data show that CAR activation modulates hepatic metabolism by lowering cholesterol and glucose levels, through effects on PPARα and adiponectin signaling pathways, and by compromising liver adaptations to hyperlipidemia.The liver is the central organ of metabolic and energy homeostasis. It regulates levels of endogenous metabolites such as glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol, and detoxifies xenobiotics. These endobiotic and xenobiotic metabolic processes are frequently regulated by the same nuclear receptors. CAR, the constitutive androstane receptor, was initially described as a pure xenosensor of the liver. It activates the detoxification system in the presence of drugs and endogenous molecules, such as bile acids and bilirubin. Therefore, CAR activators are used to treat cholestasis and jaundice in humans and mice [1-4]. TCPOBOP (1,4-Bis [2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene) and phenobarbital, two representative CAR activators, have strong tumor-promoting effects in mice. They increase hepatocyte prol
The Influence of Surface Energy on the Washing Quality of Filter Cakes  [PDF]
Markus Wilkens, Urs A. Peuker
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2011.14036
Abstract: The washing of filter cakes, especially the displacement washing, represents an important aspect in science researches and industrial applications. A lot of ongoing researches are focussed on impurities, which are dissolved in the mother liquid (e.g. sodium chloride) and washed out with the identical pure liquid without impurities. The project flushing focuses on systems with two chemically different liquids. The main aim is to exchange an organic solvent by water. This article focuses on the adsorption effects during a washing process with solid systems of different wetting behaviours.
Frontal-Subcortical Protein Expression following Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Inflammation
Michelle Y. Deng,Sylvia Lam,Urs Meyer,Joram Feldon,Qi Li,Ran Wei,Lawrence Luk,Siew Eng Chua,Pak Sham,Yu Wang,Grainne Mary McAlonan
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016638
Abstract: Maternal immune activation (MIA) during prenatal life is a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders including schizophrenia and autism. Such conditions are associated with alterations in fronto-subcortical circuits, but their molecular basis is far from clear.
Prenatal Immune Challenge Is an Environmental Risk Factor for Brain and Behavior Change Relevant to Schizophrenia: Evidence from MRI in a Mouse Model
Qi Li, Charlton Cheung, Ran Wei, Edward S. Hui, Joram Feldon, Urs Meyer, Sookja Chung, Siew E. Chua, Pak C. Sham, Ed X. Wu, Grainne M. McAlonan
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006354
Abstract: Objectives Maternal infection during pregnancy increases risk of severe neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and autism, in the offspring. The most consistent brain structural abnormality in patients with schizophrenia is enlarged lateral ventricles. However, it is unknown whether the aetiology of ventriculomegaly in schizophrenia involves prenatal infectious processes. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that there is a causal relationship between prenatal immune challenge and emergence of ventricular abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia in adulthood. Method We used an established mouse model of maternal immune activation (MIA) by the viral mimic PolyI:C administered in early (day 9) or late (day 17) gestation. Automated voxel-based morphometry mapped cerebrospinal fluid across the whole brain of adult offspring and the results were validated by manual region-of-interest tracing of the lateral ventricles. Parallel behavioral testing determined the existence of schizophrenia-related sensorimotor gating abnormalities. Results PolyI:C-induced immune activation, in early but not late gestation, caused marked enlargement of lateral ventricles in adulthood, without affecting total white and grey matter volumes. This early exposure disrupted sensorimotor gating, in the form of prepulse inhibition. Identical immune challenge in late gestation resulted in significant expansion of 4th ventricle volume but did not disrupt sensorimotor gating. Conclusions Our results provide the first experimental evidence that prenatal immune activation is an environmental risk factor for adult ventricular enlargement relevant to schizophrenia. The data indicate immune-associated environmental insults targeting early foetal development may have more extensive neurodevelopmental impact than identical insults in late prenatal life.
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