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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 462435 matches for " Urs A. Ochsner "
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Elucidating Novel Serum Biomarkers Associated with Pulmonary Tuberculosis Treatment
Mary A. De Groote, Payam Nahid, Leah Jarlsberg, John L. Johnson, Marc Weiner, Grace Muzanyi, Nebojsa Janjic, David G. Sterling, Urs A. Ochsner
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061002
Abstract: In an unbiased approach to biomarker discovery, we applied a highly multiplexed proteomic technology (SOMAscan, SomaLogic, Inc, Boulder, CO) to understand changes in proteins from paired serum samples at enrollment and after 8 weeks of TB treatment from 39 patients with pulmonary TB from Kampala, Uganda enrolled in the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s Tuberculosis Trials Consortium (TBTC) Study 29. This work represents the first large-scale proteomic analysis employing modified DNA aptamers in a study of active tuberculosis (TB). We identified multiple proteins that exhibit significant expression differences during the intensive phase of TB therapy. There was enrichment for proteins in conserved networks of biological processes and function including antimicrobial defense, tissue healing and remodeling, acute phase response, pattern recognition, protease/anti-proteases, complement and coagulation cascade, apoptosis, immunity and inflammation pathways. Members of cytokine pathways such as interferon-gamma, while present, were not as highly represented as might have been predicted. The top proteins that changed between baseline and 8 weeks of therapy were TSP4, TIMP-2, SEPR, MRC-2, Antithrombin III, SAA, CRP, NPS-PLA2, LEAP-1, and LBP. The novel proteins elucidated in this work may provide new insights for understanding TB disease, its treatment and subsequent healing processes that occur in response to effective therapy.
The Influence of Surface Energy on the Washing Quality of Filter Cakes  [PDF]
Markus Wilkens, Urs A. Peuker
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2011.14036
Abstract: The washing of filter cakes, especially the displacement washing, represents an important aspect in science researches and industrial applications. A lot of ongoing researches are focussed on impurities, which are dissolved in the mother liquid (e.g. sodium chloride) and washed out with the identical pure liquid without impurities. The project flushing focuses on systems with two chemically different liquids. The main aim is to exchange an organic solvent by water. This article focuses on the adsorption effects during a washing process with solid systems of different wetting behaviours.
Welche Untersuchungsmethoden betreffen die Neuregelung der Pr implantationsdiagnostik (PID) durch §3a Embryonenschutzgesetz (ESchG) und die das Verfahren regelnde Rechtsverordnung (PIDV)?
Frommel M,Geisth?vel F,Ochsner A,Kohlhase J
Journal für Reproduktionsmedizin und Endokrinologie , 2013,
Abstract: Der Bundesgerichtshof (BGH) Leipzig hat in seinem Urteil vom 06.07.2010 (5. StR 386/09) festgestellt, dass die Pr implantationsdiagnostik (PID) an Trophektoderm- (TE-) Zellen der Blastozyste nach geltendem Recht erlaubt ist. Obgleich damit durchaus genügende Rechtssicherheit geschaffen worden ist, hat sich der Gesetzgeber mit dieser Gerichtsentscheidung nicht zufrieden gegeben. Stattdessen hat er in das Embryonenschutzgesetz (ESchG) von 1991 die Spezialvorschrift des § 3a (PID) eingefügt, welche das System des ESchG ver ndert. Die neue Regelung ist am 21.11. 2011 in Kraft getreten, aber noch nicht umgesetzt worden, da die Bundesregierung von der Erm chtigung in §3a Abs. 3 Satz 3 ESchG keinen Gebrauch gemacht. Zudem hat sie noch keine PID-Verordnung (PIDV) erlassen, welche das Verfahren und die von den L ndern durchzuführende Einrichtung einer Ethikkommissionen regelt. Zwar ist ein Referentenentwurf des Bundesministeriums für Gesundheit den L ndern und entsprechenden Verb nden zur Anh rung zugegangen, aber es gibt bisher keine verbindliche Vorlage. Zuwiderhandlungen gegen die PIDV sind keine Straftaten, sondern Ordnungswidrigkeiten, was zeigt, dass die geplante Neuregelung zwar einen strafrechtlichen Anteil hat, aber im Wesentlichen Verwaltungsrecht schafft. Die Hürde für ein rechtm iges PID-Verfahren ist sehr hoch, da die Ethikkommission nicht beratend t tig wird, sondern entscheidet. Ein Untersuchungsverbot mit Ausnahmen ist aber verfassungsrechtlich nur haltbar, wenn auch ein absolutes Verbot zul ssig w re. Dafür müsste es aber triftige Gründe geben, da es erheblich die Entscheidungsfreiheit der Frau und die Reproduktionsf higkeit des Paares einschr nkt. Nicht die Betroffenen selbst, sondern eine Ethikkommission entscheidet (praktisch nicht mehr justiziabel) in einer h chstpers nlichen Angelegenheit (vgl. weiter unten). Angesichts dieser hohen Eingriffsintensit t der Neuregelung ist es entscheidend, welche Untersuchungsmethoden sie erfasst. Dies ist in einer in sich konsistenten rechtlichen Systematik darzulegen. Verbietet das neue Recht mehr als das ESchG 1991 oder erweitert es sogar die vom BGH (5. StR 386/09) als erlaubt festgestellten Untersuchungsmethoden und schafft lediglich ein Verfahren und mehr Rechtssicherheit? Dies ist mit Blick auf die hier relevanten strafrechtlichen Rechtsgüter, n mlich auf die Reproduktionsfreiheit des Paares, die Entscheidungsfreiheit und Gesundheit der Frau sowie die Unversehrtheit des In-vitro-Embryos zu er rtern. Unter dieser Sicht wird hier die u erst komplexe Rechtslage der jeweiligen genetischen Untersuchungsme
Rechtslage der Reproduktionsmedizin in Deutschland
Frommel M,Taupitz J,Ochsner A,Geisth?vel F
Journal für Reproduktionsmedizin und Endokrinologie , 2010,
Abstract: Die juristischen Fragestellungen der Reproduktionsmedizin (RM) werden in Deutschland in einem komplexen Netzwerk gesetzlicher Vorgaben, das durch das Grundgesetz, das Embryonenschutzgesetz, das Bürgerliche Gesetzbuch und das Gewebegesetz ma geblich bestimmt wird, geregelt. Daher ist die RM, obgleich ein spezifisch auf diese Fragestellungen ausgerichtetes Reproduktionsmedizingesetz nicht existiert, dennoch umfassend gesetzlich geregelt. Grundprinzipien hierfür sind die Autonomie der Frau und des Paares, der Lebensschutz und das Wohl des zukünftigen Kindes, wobei der Erfolg der Behandlung und die Erhaltung der Gesundheit des behandelten Paares ausgewogen bilanziert werden müssen. Weiterhin müssen im gesetzlichen Rahmen Qualit tsmanagement, Dokumentation und die Rückverfolgbarkeit medizinischer Handlungsabl ufe gew hrleistet sein. Die hier vorgelegte wissenschaftliche Analyse zeigt, dass im Gegensatz zur herk mmlichen Meinung die Rechtslage in Deutschland weitgehend zufriedenstellend und ausgewogen geregelt ist. Abgesehen von wenigen Verboten, wie z. B. die Durchführung des Klonens, der Eizellspende und der Leihmutterschaft, k nnen alle reproduktionsmedizinischen Ma nahmen mit einem hnlichen Handlungsspielraum wie im Ausland gehandhabt werden. Im Rahmen des sog. Deutschen Mittelwegs wird das Verbot der Vorratshaltung respektiert. Samen- und Embryonenspende, wie auch die Behandlung lesbischer Paare, sind erlaubt. Allerdings besteht eine eindeutige rechtliche Lücke bezüglich des Schutzes des Samengebers vor finanziellen Forderungen des Kindes, die vom Gesetzgeber geschlossen werden muss.
Welcome to the Journal of Personalized Medicine: A New Open-Access Platform for Research on Optimal Individual Healthcare
Urs A. Meyer
Journal of Personalized Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/jpm1010001
Abstract: A new vision of personalized medicine or personalized healthcare has evolved as a consequence of remarkable recent advances in technologies that allow to look at individual variation across the entire human genome and to identify personal risk factors behind many diseases and responses to therapy. These advances have greatly increased our understanding of how interactions between the entire genome and nongenomic factors result in health and disease and in therapeutic response. The challenge is now to translate this knowledge into benefits for the individual patient. I expect the Journal of Personalized Medicine to become the premier venue for the rapid and freely accessible publication of high quality manuscripts dealing with this vision for scientists around the world.
Application of a Particle Extraction Process at the Interface of Two Liquids in a Drop Column—Consideration of the Process Behavior and Kinetic Approach  [PDF]
Jacqueline V. Erler, Tom Leistner, Urs A. Peuker
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2014.42018
Abstract:

The focus of this research is a new type of particle extraction process for the transfer of magnetite nanoparticles from an aqueous to an immiscible organic phase, directly through the liquid-liquid phase boundary in a drop column. The particle extraction process comprises several advantages such as a minimum amount of stabilizing surfactant, no exposure of the particles to a gas atmosphere and with it the avoidance of sintering by capillary forces and a high particle concentration in the receiving phase as well. The study presents experimental results of the characterization of the process environment and the transfer behavior in a drop column. The solution of surfactant in the continuous phase has been investigated during a particle-free phase transfer experiment including the measurements of the total organic carbon (TOC) content and analysis of the size of the stabilized droplets using the laser diffraction spectroscopy. The determination of the transfer fluxes, the mass flows as well as the yield of transferred magnetite by ICP-OES measurements provide information on the impact of interaction of the elementary processes at the phase boundary. Furthermore, the transfer kinetics of the process is described and compared with calculated theoretical values resulting from a kinetic approach.

Investigating the effect of precession on searches for neutron-star-black-hole binaries with Advanced LIGO
I. W. Harry,A. H. Nitz,Duncan A. Brown,A. Lundgren,Evan Ochsner,D. Keppel
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.89.024010
Abstract: The first direct detection of neutron-star-black-hole binaries will likely be made with gravitational-wave observatories. Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo will be able to observe neutron-star-black-hole mergers at a maximum distance of 900Mpc. To acheive this sensitivity, gravitational-wave searches will rely on using a bank of filter waveforms that accurately model the expected gravitational-wave signal. The angular momentum of the black hole is expected to be comparable to the orbital angular momentum. This angular momentum will affect the dynamics of the inspiralling system and alter the phase evolution of the emitted gravitational-wave signal. In addition, if the black hole's angular momentum is not aligned with the orbital angular momentum it will cause the orbital plane of the system to precess. In this work we demonstrate that if the effect of the black hole's angular momentum is neglected in the waveform models used in gravitational-wave searches, the detection rate of $(10+1.4)M_{\odot}$ neutron-star--black-hole systems would be reduced by $33 - 37%$. The error in this measurement is due to uncertainty in the Post-Newtonian approximations that are used to model the gravitational-wave signal of neutron-star-black-hole inspiralling binaries. We describe a new method for creating a bank of filter waveforms where the black hole has non-zero angular momentum, but is aligned with the orbital angular momentum. With this bank we find that the detection rate of $(10+1.4)M_{\odot}$ neutron-star-black-hole systems would be reduced by $26-33%$. Systems that will not be detected are ones where the precession of the orbital plane causes the gravitational-wave signal to match poorly with non-precessing filter waveforms. We identify the regions of parameter space where such systems occur and suggest methods for searching for highly precessing neutron-star-black-hole binaries.
A CONTINUING REVERENCE FOR WOOD
Martin A. Hubbe,Urs Buehlmann
BioResources , 2010,
Abstract: Our ancestors knew a great deal about wood. They had to in order to do well in life. Wood has played a dominant role in human infrastructure for many generations, and for most of that time woodcraft has depended on the decentralized knowledge passed down among families and guilds. This editorial, while celebrating the knowledge, skills, and insights of the woodworkers of past generations, also calls for a renewed attention to wood’s unique character, including characteristics that today are too often classified as “defects.” We may need to take lessons from generations past to truly derive the best value from wood resources.
Accuracy of gravitational waveform models for observing neutron-star--black-hole binaries in Advanced LIGO
Alexander H. Nitz,Andrew Lundgren,Duncan A. Brown,Evan Ochsner,Drew Keppel,Ian W. Harry
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.88.124039
Abstract: Gravitational waves radiated by the coalescence of compact-object binaries containing a neutron star and a black hole are one of the most interesting sources for the ground-based gravitational-wave observatories Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. Advanced LIGO will be sensitive to the inspiral of a $1.4\, M_\odot$ neutron star into a $10\,M_\odot$ black hole to a maximum distance of $\sim 900$ Mpc. Achieving this sensitivity and extracting the physics imprinted in observed signals requires accurate modeling of the binary to construct template waveforms. In a NSBH binary, the black hole may have significant angular momentum (spin), which affects the phase evolution of the emitted gravitational waves. We investigate the ability of post-Newtonian (PN) templates to model the gravitational waves emitted during the inspiral phase of NSBH binaries. We restrict the black hole's spin to be aligned with the orbital angular momentum and compare several approximants. We examine restricted amplitude waveforms that are accurate to 3.5PN order in the orbital dynamics and complete to 2.5PN order in the spin dynamics. We also consider PN waveforms with the recently derived 3.5PN spin-orbit and 3PN spin-orbit tail corrections. We compare these approximants to the effective-one-body model. For all these models, large disagreements start at low to moderate black hole spins, particularly for binaries where the spin is anti-aligned with the orbital angular momentum. We show that this divergence begins in the early inspiral at $v \sim 0.2$ for $\chi_{BH} \sim 0.4$. PN spin corrections beyond those currently known will be required for optimal detection searches and to measure the parameters of neutron star--black hole binaries. While this complicates searches, the strong dependence of the gravitational-wave signal on the spin dynamics will make it possible to extract significant astrophysical information.
A New Waveform Consistency Test for Gravitational Wave Inspiral Searches
Peter Shawhan,Evan Ochsner
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1088/0264-9381/21/20/018
Abstract: Searches for binary inspiral signals in data collected by interferometric gravitational wave detectors utilize matched filtering techniques. Although matched filtering is optimal in the case of stationary Gaussian noise, data from real detectors often contains "glitches" and episodes of excess noise which cause filter outputs to ring strongly. We review the standard \chi^2 statistic which is used to test whether the filter output has appropriate contributions from several different frequency bands. We then propose a new type of waveform consistency test which is based on the time history of the filter output. We apply one such test to the data from the first LIGO science run and show that it cleanly distinguishes between true inspiral waveforms and large-amplitude false signals which managed to pass the standard \chi^2 test.
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