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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 325063 matches for " Ulrik S. Kesmodel "
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Separable Sustained and Selective Attention Factors Are Apparent in 5-Year-Old Children
Mette Underbjerg, Melanie S. George, Poul Thorsen, Ulrik S. Kesmodel, Erik L. Mortensen, Tom Manly
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082843
Abstract: In adults and older children, evidence consistent with relative separation between selective and sustained attention, superimposed upon generally positive inter-test correlations, has been reported. Here we examine whether this pattern is detectable in 5-year-old children from the healthy population. A new test battery (TEA-ChJ) was adapted from measures previously used with adults and older children and administered to 172 5-year-olds. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 60 children. Ninety-eight percent of the children managed to complete all measures. Discrimination of visual and auditory stimuli were good. In a factor analysis, the two TEA-ChJ selective attention tasks (one visual, one auditory) loaded onto a common factor and diverged from the two sustained attention tasks (one auditory, one motor), which shared a common loading on the second factor. This pattern, which suggests that the tests are indeed sensitive to underlying attentional capacities, was supported by the relationships between the TEA-ChJ factors and Test of Everyday Attention for Children subtests in the older children in the sample. It is possible to gain convincing performance-based estimates of attention at the age of 5 with the results reflecting a similar factor structure to that obtained in older children and adults. The results are discussed in light of contemporary models of attention function. Given the potential advantages of early intervention for attention difficulties, the findings are of clinical as well as theoretical interest.
Maternal Pre-Pregnancy BMI and Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in 5-Year-Old Children: A Cohort Based Study
Mette Bliddal, J?rn Olsen, Henrik St?vring, Hanne-Lise F. Eriksen, Ulrik S. Kesmodel, Thorkild I. A. S?rensen, Ellen A. N?hr
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094498
Abstract: Background An association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and childhood intelligence quotient (IQ) has repeatedly been found but it is unknown if this association is causal or due to confounding caused by genetic or social factors. Methods We used a cohort of 1,783 mothers and their 5-year-old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The children participated between 2003 and 2008 in a neuropsychological assessment of cognitive ability including IQ tests taken by both the mother and the child. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between parental BMI and child IQ adjusted for a comprehensive set of potential confounders. Child IQ was assessed with the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence – Revised (WPPSI-R). Results The crude association between maternal BMI and child IQ showed that BMI was adversely associated with child IQ with a reduction in IQ of ?0.40 point for each one unit increase in BMI. This association was attenuated after adjustment for social factors and maternal IQ to a value of ?0.27 (?0.50 to ?0.03). After mutual adjustment for the father's BMI and all other factors except maternal IQ, the association between paternal BMI and child IQ yielded a regression coefficient of ?0.26 (?0.59 to 0.07), which was comparable to that seen for maternal BMI (?0.20 (?0.44 to 0.04)). Conclusion Although maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely associated with the IQ of her child, the similar association with paternal BMI suggests that it is not a specific pregnancy related adiposity effect.
Effects of Tobacco Smoking in Pregnancy on Offspring Intelligence at the Age of 5
Hanne-Lise Falgreen Eriksen,Ulrik Schiøler Kesmodel,Theresa Wimberley,Mette Underbjerg
Journal of Pregnancy , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/945196
Abstract:
Reference population for international comparisons and time trend surveillance of preterm delivery proportions in three countries
Nils-Halvdan Morken, Ida Vogel, Karin Kallen, Rolv Skj?rven, Jens Langhoff-Roos, Ulrik Kesmodel, Bo Jacobsson
BMC Women's Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6874-8-16
Abstract: We studied all live births and stillbirths (≥ 28 weeks gestation) registered in the medical birth registers in Sweden, Denmark and Norway from 1995 through 2004. Gestational age was determined by best estimate. A reference population of pregnant women was designed using the following criteria: 1) maternal age 20–35, 2) primiparity, 3) spontaneously conceived pregnancy, 4) singleton pregnancy and 5) mother born in the respective country. National preterm delivery rate, preterm delivery rate in the reference population and rate of spontaneous preterm delivery in the reference population were calculated for each country.The total national preterm delivery rate (< 37 completed gestational weeks), increased in both Denmark (5.3% to 6.1%, p < 0.001) and Norway (6.0% to 6.4%, p = 0.006), but remained unchanged in Sweden, during 1995–2004. In Denmark, the preterm delivery rate in the reference population (5.3% to 6.3%, p < 0.001) and the spontaneous preterm delivery rate in the reference population (4.4% to 6.8%, p < 0.001) increased significantly. No similar increase was evident in Norway. In Sweden, rates in the reference population remained stable.Reference populations can facilitate overview and thereby explanations for changing preterm delivery rates. The model also permits comparisons over time. This model may in its simplicity prove to be a valuable supplement to assessments of national preterm delivery rates for public health surveillance.International comparison of common complex disease incidences and prevalences are difficult, and no common standard on how to perform such comparisons exist. Several risk factors contribute to a certain common complex trait, but the same factors may have different implications in different populations, resulting in often incomparable crude rates between nations, regions and over time. In obstetrics, preterm delivery rates are reported to be very different, ranging from 5–20%. It is obvious that this to some extent is due to differe
Predictors of Intelligence at the Age of 5: Family, Pregnancy and Birth Characteristics, Postnatal Influences, and Postnatal Growth
Hanne-Lise Falgreen Eriksen, Ulrik Schi?ler Kesmodel, Mette Underbjerg, Tina R?ndrup Kilburn, Jacquelyn Bertrand, Erik Lykke Mortensen
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079200
Abstract: Parental education and maternal intelligence are well-known predictors of child IQ. However, the literature regarding other factors that may contribute to individual differences in IQ is inconclusive. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of a number of variables whose predictive status remain unclarified, in a sample of basically healthy children with a low rate of pre- and postnatal complications. 1,782 5-year-old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort (2003–2007) were assessed with a short form of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence – Revised. Information on parental characteristics, pregnancy and birth factors, postnatal influences, and postnatal growth was collected during pregnancy and at follow-up. A model including study design variables and child’s sex explained 7% of the variance in IQ, while parental education and maternal IQ increased the explained variance to 24%. Other predictors were parity, maternal BMI, birth weight, breastfeeding, and the child’s head circumference and height at follow-up. These variables, however, only increased the explained variance to 29%. The results suggest that parental education and maternal IQ are major predictors of IQ and should be included routinely in studies of cognitive development. Obstetrical and postnatal factors also predict IQ, but their contribution may be of comparatively limited magnitude.
Effects of Tobacco Smoking in Pregnancy on Offspring Intelligence at the Age of 5
Hanne-Lise Falgreen Eriksen,Ulrik Schi?ler Kesmodel,Theresa Wimberley,Mette Underbjerg,Tina R?ndrup Kilburn,Erik Lykke Mortensen
Journal of Pregnancy , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/945196
Abstract: The aim of the study was to examine the effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on children’s IQ at the age of 5. A prospective follow-up study was conducted on 1,782 women, and their offspring were sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy, the sex and age of the child, and tester were considered core confounders, but the full model also controlled for prenatal paternal smoking, maternal age and Bodymass Mass Index, parity, family/home environment, postnatal parental smoking, breast feeding, the child’s health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Unadjusted analyses showed a statistically significant decrement of 4 points on full-scale IQ (FSIQ) associated with smoking 10+ cigarettes per day compared to nonsmoking. After adjustment for potential confounders, no significant effects of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoking were found. Considering the indisputable teratogenic effects of tobacco smoking, these findings should be interpreted with caution. Still, the results may indicate that previous studies that failed to control for important confounders, particularly maternal intelligence, may be subject to substantial residual confounding. 1. Introduction The negative effects on health of active as well as passive exposure to tobacco smoking have long been known. A special case of exposure is that of the developing fetus when a pregnant woman is smoking, exposing the fetus to the adverse effects of the numerous toxins contained in tobacco, such as vasoconstriction and hypoxia [1]. Blood concentrations of cotinine, a nicotine metabolite, in exposed newborns indicate that the fetus is exposed to equal—or even higher—levels of nicotine than the smoking mother [2, 3]. The list of known adverse short- and long-term sequelae associated with prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke includes preterm delivery, pre- and postnatal growth restriction [4, 5], congenital malformations, [6] stillbirth, [7] and increased risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome [8, 9]. Further, tobacco smoking may act as a neuroteratogen through various mechanisms [10]. Nicotine and its metabolite cotinine may alter the function of several neurotransmitter systems, primarily acetylcholine, serotonin, and catecholamines [3]. Functionally, prenatal exposure to tobacco smoking has been associated with cognitive impairments, particularly in attention and linguistic skills presumably
Massalongia olechiana (Massalongiaceae, Peltigerales), a new lichen species from the Antarctic
Vagn Alstrup, Ulrik S chting
Polish Polar Research , 2011, DOI: 10.2478/v10183-011-0011-y
Abstract: A new species of lichenized ascomycete, Massalongia olechiana Alstrup et S chting, sp. nov. (Massalongiaceae) is described from the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula. The species is distinguished by laminal isidia and 5-7-septate ascospores. The relationships with the other species of the genus are discussed. From Massalongia carnosa, recorded from both the Arctic and the Antarctic, the new species is distinguished by its lack of isidioid squamules and in having pluriseptate ascospores instead of 1-septate ascospores.
A sign preserving WENO reconstruction method
Ulrik S. Fjordholm,Deep Ray
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: We propose a third-order WENO reconstruction which satisfies the sign property, required for constructing high resolution entropy stable finite difference scheme for conservation laws. The reconstruction technique, which is termed as SP-WENO, is endowed with additional properties making it a more robust option compared to ENO schemes of the same order. The performance of the proposed reconstruction is demonstrated via a series of numerical experiments for linear and nonlinear scalar conservation laws. The scheme is easily extended to multi-dimensional conservation laws.
Restricted Hysteresis Reduce Redundancy in Edge Detection  [PDF]
Bo Li, Ulrik S?derstr?m, Shafiq Ur Réhman, Haibo Li
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2013.43B028
Abstract:

In edge detection algorithms, there is a common redundancy problem, especially when the gradient direction is close to -135°, -45°, 45°, and 135°. Double edge effect appears on the edges around these directions. This is caused by the discrete calculation of non-maximum suppression. Many algorithms use edge points as feature for further task such as line extraction, curve detection, matching and recognition. Redundancy is a very important factor of algorithm speed and accuracy. We find that most edge detection algorithms have redundancy of 50% in the worst case and 0% in the best case depending on the edge direction distribution. The common redundancy rate on natural images is approximately between 15% and 20%. Based on Canny’s framework, we propose a restriction in the hysteresis step. Our experiment shows that proposed restricted hysteresis reduce the redundancy successfully.

FCJ-133 The Scripted Spaces of Urban Ubiquitous Computing: The experience, poetics, and politics of public scripted space
Christian Ulrik Andersen,S?ren Pold
Fibreculture Journal , 2011,
Abstract: This article proposes and introduces the concept of ‘scripted space’ as a new perspective on ubiquitous computing in urban environments. Drawing on urban history, computer games, and a workshop study of the city of Lund the article discusses the experience of digitally scripted spaces, and their relation to the history of public spaces. In conclusion, the article discusses the potential for employing scripted spaces as a reinvigoration of urban public space.
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