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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 216407 matches for " Ulrich-Christoph Welge-Lüssen "
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Preventive Effects of Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids on Peroxide Mediated Oxidative Stress Responses in Primary Human Trabecular Meshwork Cells
Theofilos Tourtas, Marco T. Birke, Friedrich E. Kruse, Ulrich-Christoph Welge-Lüssen, Kerstin Birke
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031340
Abstract: Pathologic processes in glaucoma include increased apoptosis, accumulation of extracellular material in the trabecular meshwork and optic nerve, condensations of the cytoskeleton and precocious cellular senescence. Oxidative stress was shown to generate these alterations in primary ocular cells. Fatty acids omega-3 and -6 are alleged to constitute a prophylaxis against these deleterious effects. Here, we tested actual preventive effects omega-3 and -6 against peroxide induced stress responses in primary human trabecular meshwork cells. Changes of mitochondrial activity, proliferation, heat shock proteins, extracellular matrix components, and inflammatory markers were evaluated. Alterations of the cytoskeleton were evaluated by phalloidin labeling. Here we report a repressive effect of omega-6 on metabolic activity and proliferation, which was not detected for omega-3. Both agents were able to prevent the anti-proliferative effect of H2O2, but only omega-3 prevented metabolic repression. Expression of heat shock protein 27 was unaltered by both fatty acids, whereas heat shock protein 90 was significantly induced by both. Omega-6 increased fibronectin and connective tissue growth factor synthesis, as well as the amount of secreted fibronectin. Omega-3, instead, induced plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 synthesis. H2O2 further increased fibronectin production in omega-6 supplemented cells, which was not the case in omega-3 treated cells. H2O2 stimulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and connective tissue growth factor was repressed by both fatty acids. Both fatty acids appeared to abolish H2O2 mediated stimulation of nuclear factor κB and IL-6, but not IL-1α and IL-8. H2O2 induced formation of cross-linked actin networks and stress fibers, which was reduced by preemptive application of omega-3. Omega-6, in contrast, had no protective effect on that, and even seemed to promote condensation. Based on the observed side effects of omega-6, omega-3 appears to be the more beneficial fatty acid in respect of prophylactic intake for prevention of a glaucomatous disease.
Re-establishment of olfactory and taste functions
Welge-Lüssen, Antje
GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery , 2005,
Abstract: The incidence of olfactory disorders is appoximately 1-2% and they can seriously impact on the quality of life. Quantitative disorders (hyposmia, anosmia) are distinguished from qualitative disorders (parosmia, phantosmia). Olfactory disorders are classified according to the etiology and therapy is planned according to the underlying pathophysiology. In ENT patients olfactory disorders caused by sinonasal diseases are the most common ones, followed by postviral disorders. Therapy consists of topical and systemic steroids, whereas systemic application seems to be of greater value. It is very difficult to predict the improvement of olfactory function using surgery, moreover, the long term - success in surgery is questionable. Isolated taste disorders are rare and in most often caused by underlying diseases or side effects of medications. A meticulous history is necessary and helps to choose effective treatment. In selected cases zinc might be useful.
Common Genetic Determinants of Intraocular Pressure and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma
Leonieke M. E. van Koolwijk equal contributor,Wishal D. Ramdas equal contributor,M. Kamran Ikram,Nomdo M. Jansonius,Francesca Pasutto,Pirro G. Hysi,Stuart Macgregor,Sarah F. Janssen,Alex W. Hewitt,Ananth C. Viswanathan,Jacoline B. ten Brink,S. Mohsen Hosseini,Najaf Amin,Dominiek D. G. Despriet,Jacqueline J. M. Willemse-Assink,Rogier Kramer,Fernando Rivadeneira,Maksim Struchalin,Yurii S. Aulchenko,Nicole Weisschuh,Matthias Zenkel,Christian Y. Mardin,Eugen Gramer,Ulrich Welge-Lüssen,Grant W. Montgomery,Francis Carbonaro,Terri L. Young,The DCCT/EDIC Research Group,Céline Bellenguez,Peter McGuffin,Paul J. Foster,Fotis Topouzis,Paul Mitchell,Jie Jin Wang,Tien Y. Wong,Monika A. Czudowska,Albert Hofman,Andre G. Uitterlinden,Roger C. W. Wolfs,Paulus T. V. M. de Jong,Ben A. Oostra,Andrew D. Paterson,Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2,David A. Mackey,Arthur A. B. Bergen,André Reis,Christopher J. Hammond,Johannes R. Vingerling,Hans G. Lemij,Caroline C. W. Klaver,Cornelia M. van Duijn
PLOS Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002611
Abstract: Intraocular pressure (IOP) is a highly heritable risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma and is the only target for current glaucoma therapy. The genetic factors which determine IOP are largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study for IOP in 11,972 participants from 4 independent population-based studies in The Netherlands. We replicated our findings in 7,482 participants from 4 additional cohorts from the UK, Australia, Canada, and the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium 2/Blue Mountains Eye Study. IOP was significantly associated with rs11656696, located in GAS7 at 17p13.1 (p = 1.4×10?8), and with rs7555523, located in TMCO1 at 1q24.1 (p = 1.6×10?8). In a meta-analysis of 4 case-control studies (total N = 1,432 glaucoma cases), both variants also showed evidence for association with glaucoma (p = 2.4×10?2 for rs11656696 and p = 9.1×10?4 for rs7555523). GAS7 and TMCO1 are highly expressed in the ciliary body and trabecular meshwork as well as in the lamina cribrosa, optic nerve, and retina. Both genes functionally interact with known glaucoma disease genes. These data suggest that we have identified two clinically relevant genes involved in IOP regulation.
Biological Effects of Cigarette Smoke in Cultured Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells
Alice L. Yu, Kerstin Birke, Johannes Burger, Ulrich Welge-Lussen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048501
Abstract: The goal of the present study was to determine whether treatment with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induces cell loss, cellular senescence, and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis in primary human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Primary cultured human RPE cells were exposed to 2, 4, 8, and 12% of CSE concentration for 24 hours. Cell loss was detected by cell viability assay. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by loss of cis-parinaric acid (PNA) fluorescence. Senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-Gal) activity was detected by histochemical staining. Expression of apolipoprotein J (Apo J), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), fibronectin, and laminin were examined by real-time PCR, western blot, or ELISA experiments. The results showed that exposure of cells to 12% of CSE concentration induced cell death, while treatment of cells with 2, 4, and 8% CSE increased lipid peroxidation. Exposure to 8% of CSE markedly increased the number of SA-?-Gal positive cells to up to 82%, and the mRNA expression of Apo J, CTGF, and fibronectin by approximately 3–4 fold. Treatment with 8% of CSE also increased the protein expression of Apo J and CTGF and the secretion of fibronectin and laminin. Thus, treatment with CSE can induce cell loss, senescent changes, and ECM synthesis in primary human RPE cells. It may be speculated that cigarette smoke could be involved in cellular events in RPE cells as seen in age-related macular degeneration.
New Physics in Gamma_12^s: (sbar b) (taubar tau) Operators
Christoph Bobeth,Ulrich Haisch
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: Measurements performed at the Tevatron of both the like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry in B_d,s-meson samples and the mixing-induced CP asymmetry in B_s -> J/psi phi depart from their standard model (SM) predictions. This could be an indication for new CP phases in Delta B = 2 transitions, preferentially in B_s-Bbar_s mixing. The experimental situation, however, remained inconclusive, as it favored values of the element Gamma_12^s of the decay matrix in the B_s-meson system that are notably different from the SM expectation, suggesting the presence of new physics in the Delta B = 1 sector as well. The very recent LHCb measurements of B_s -> J/psi phi and B_s -> J/psi f_0, which do not find any evidence for a new-physics phase in the element M_12^s of the mass matrix, point into this direction as well. In this article, we explore the potential size of non-standard effects in Gamma_12^s stemming from dimension-six operators with flavor content (sbar b) (taubar tau). We show that since the existing constraints imposed by tree- and loop-level mediated B_d,s-meson decays are quite loose, absorptive new physics of this type can in part explain the current data. Our model-independent conclusions are finally contrasted with explicit analyses of the new-physics effects in B_s-Bbar_s mixing that can arise from leptoquarks or Z' bosons.
Anomalous triple gauge couplings from $B$-meson and kaon observables
Christoph Bobeth,Ulrich Haisch
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1007/JHEP09(2015)018
Abstract: We consider the three CP-conserving dimension-6 operators that encode the leading new-physics effects in the triple gauge couplings. The contributions to the standard-model electromagnetic dipole and semi-leptonic vector and axial-vector interactions that arise from the insertions of these operators are calculated. We show that radiative and rare $B$-meson decays provide, under certain assumptions, constraints on two out of the three anomalous couplings that are competitive with the restrictions obtained from LEP II, Tevatron and LHC data. The constraints arising from the $Z \to b \bar b$ electroweak pseudo observables, $K \to \pi \nu \bar \nu$ and $\epsilon^\prime/\epsilon$ are also studied.
Conformal deformations of immersed discs in $R^3$ and elliptic boundary value problems
Christoph Bohle,Ulrich Pinkall
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: Boundary value problems for operators of Dirac type arise naturally in connection with the conformal geometry of surfaces immersed in Euclidean 3--space. Recently such boundary value problems have been successfully applied to a variety of problems from computer graphics. Here we investigate under which conditions these boundary value problems are elliptic and self--adjoint. We show that under certain periodic deformations of the boundary data our operators exhibit non-trivial spectral flow.
Dual-Primal Isogeometric Tearing and Interconnecting Solvers for large-scale systems of multipatch continuous Galerkin IgA equations
Christoph Hofer,Ulrich Langer
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: The dual-primal isogeometric tearing and interconnecting (IETI-DP) method is the adaption of the dual-primal finite element tearing and interconnecting (FETI-DP) method to isogeometric analysis of scalar elliptic boundary value problems like, e.g., diffusion problems with heterogeneous diffusion coefficients. The purpose of this paper is to extent the already existing results on condition number estimates to multi-patch domains, which consist of different geometrical mappings for each patch. Another purpose is to prove a polylogarithmic condition number bound for the preconditioned system with stiffness scaling in case of $C^0$ smoothness across patch interfaces. Numerical experiments validate the presented theory.
Prospective evaluation of small bowel preparation with bisacodyl and sodium phosphate for capsule endoscopy
Andreas Franke, Frank Hummel, Phillip Knebel, Christoph Antoni, Ulrich B?cker, Manfred V Singer, Matthias L?hr
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2008,
Abstract: AIM: To determine the effect of Prepacol , a combination of sodium phosphate and bisacodyl, on transit and quality of capsule endoscopy (CE).METHODS: Fivety two consecutive patients were included in this prospective study. CE was performed following a 12 h fasting period. Twenty six patients were randomized for additional preparation with Prepacol . The quality of CE was assessed separately for the proximal and the distal small bowel by 3 experienced endoscopists on the basis of a graduation which was initially developed with 20 previous CE.RESULTS: Preparation with Prepacol accelerated small bowel transit time (262 ± 55 min vs 287 ± 97 min), but had no effect on the quality of CE. Visibility was significantly reduced in the distal compared to the proximal small bowel.CONCLUSION: The significantly reduced visibility of CE in the distal small bowel allocates the need for a good preparation. Since Prepacol has no beneficial effect on CE the modality of preparation and the ideal time of application remains unclear. Further standardized examinations are necessary to identify sufficient preparation procedures and to determine the impact of the volume of the preparation solution.
?''Globalización sostenible''? Desarrollo sostenible como pegamento para el montón de cristales trizados del neoliberalismo
Brand, Ulrich;G?rg, Christoph;
Ambiente & Sociedade , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1414-753X2003000200004
Abstract: during the world summit on sustainable development, held in johannesburg by mid 2001, it was clearly observed that our understandings and practices concerning sustainable development are on a dead end. this is due to the fact that the much more dynamic processes of neo-liberal globalization and of world restructuring had been ignored, including the new legitimacy of wars in the '90s. after september 11th, 2001, it was evident that we live in a non-hegemonic context with particular consequences. nevertheless, ?sustainable development'' did not emerge as a counter-discourse. on the contrary, its directions and practices were more and more compatible with dominant rebuilding processes. sustainable development lost its critical impact through its focus on cooperation and western modern knowledge, its technocratic concept of politics, the prevailing of environmental issues over the ones of development and nation-state as privileged areas for implementation of policies. in addition, international sustainable development organizations (in the article the biological diversity convention is given as an example) takes part in nature's economic exploitation process. finally, in a recent past, actions aiming at establishing military structure in southern cone countries _ justified by the necessity of sustainable development policies _ gained legitimacy. currently, the ?rio process'' tries to reconcile globalization processes to sustainable development and, eventually, the concept of ?sustainable globalization'' will emerge as a new paradigm for dominant trends and practices. at last, the authors argue that the most dynamic challenges to neo-liberal globalization and militarization arise in a different political background which is, until now, hardly linked to sustainable development policies: the so called movements of globalization criticism. from a theoretical perspective, the article reports on the regulation theory and critical theory of the state, as well as on concepts of
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