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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 18639 matches for " U. Lohmann "
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Global anthropogenic aerosol effects on convective clouds in ECHAM5-HAM
U. Lohmann
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2007,
Abstract: Aerosols affect the climate system by changing cloud characteristics in many ways. They act as cloud condensation and ice nuclei and may have an influence on the hydrological cycle. Here we investigate aerosol effects on convective clouds by extending the double moment cloud microphysics scheme developed for stratiform clouds to convective clouds in the ECHAM5 general circulation model. This increases the liquid water path in the tropics and reduces the sensitivity of the liquid water path with increasing aerosol optical depth in better agreement with observations and large-eddy simulation studies. In simulations in which greenhouse gases and aerosols emissions are increased since pre-industrial times, accounting for microphysics in convective clouds matches most closely the observed increase in precipitation. The total anthropogenic aerosol effect since pre-industrial time is slightly reduced from 1.6 to 1.9 W m 2 when microphysics are only included in stratiform clouds to 1.5 W m 2 when microphysics are included both in stratiform and convective clouds.
Global anthropogenic aerosol effects on convective clouds in ECHAM5-HAM
U. Lohmann
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2008,
Abstract: Aerosols affect the climate system by changing cloud characteristics in many ways. They act as cloud condensation and ice nuclei and may have an influence on the hydrological cycle. Here we investigate aerosol effects on convective clouds by extending the double-moment cloud microphysics scheme developed for stratiform clouds, which is coupled to the HAM double-moment aerosol scheme, to convective clouds in the ECHAM5 general circulation model. This enables us to investigate whether more, and smaller cloud droplets suppress the warm rain formation in the lower parts of convective clouds and thus release more latent heat upon freezing, which would then result in more vigorous convection and more precipitation. In ECHAM5, including aerosol effects in large-scale and convective clouds (simulation ECHAM5-conv) reduces the sensitivity of the liquid water path increase with increasing aerosol optical depth in better agreement with observations and large-eddy simulation studies. In simulation ECHAM5-conv with increases in greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions since pre-industrial times, the geographical distribution of the changes in precipitation better matches the observed increase in precipitation than neglecting microphysics in convective clouds. In this simulation the convective precipitation increases the most suggesting that the convection has indeed become more vigorous.
Introduction of prognostic rain in ECHAM5: design and single column model simulations
R. Posselt ,U. Lohmann
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2008,
Abstract: Prognostic equations for the rain mass mixing ratio and the rain drop number concentration are introduced into the large-scale cloud microphysics parameterization of the ECHAM5 general circulation model (ECHAM5-PROG). To this end, a rain flux from one level to the next with the appropriate fall speed is introduced. This maintains rain water in the atmosphere to be available for the next time step. Rain formation in ECHAM5-PROG is, therefore, less dependent on the autoconversion rate than the standard ECHAM5 but shifts the emphasis towards the accretion rates in accordance with observations. ECHAM5-PROG is tested and evaluated with Single Column Model (SCM) simulations for two cases: the marine stratocumulus study EPIC (October 2001) and the continental mid-latitude ARM Cloud IOP (shallow frontal cloud case – March 2000). In case of heavy precipitation events, the prognostic equations for rain hardly affect the amount and timing of precipitation at the surface in different SCM simulations because heavy rain depends mainly on the large-scale forcing. In case of thin, drizzling clouds (i.e., stratocumulus), surface precipitation is sensitive to the number of sub-time steps used in the prognostic rain scheme. Cloud microphysical quantities, such as cloud liquid and rain water within the atmosphere, are sensitive to the number of sub-time steps in both considered cases. This results from the decreasing autoconversion rate and increasing accretion rate.
Impact of parametric uncertainties on the present-day climate and on the anthropogenic aerosol effect
U. Lohmann ,S. Ferrachat
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2010,
Abstract: Clouds constitute a large uncertainty in global climate modeling and climate change projections as many clouds are smaller than the size of a model grid box. Some processes, such as the rates of rain and snow formation that have a large impact on climate, cannot be observed. The uncertain parameters in the representation of these processes are therefore adjusted in order to achieve radiation balance. Here we systematically investigate the impact of key tunable parameters within the convective and stratiform cloud schemes and of the ice cloud optical properties on the present-day climate in terms of clouds, radiation and precipitation. The total anthropogenic aerosol effect between pre-industrial and present-day times amounts to 1.00 W m 2 obtained as an average over all simulations as compared to 1.02 W m 2 from those simulations where the global annual mean top-of-the atmosphere radiation balance is within ±1 W m 2. Thus tuning of the present-day climate does not seem to have an influence on the total anthropogenic aerosol effect. The parametric uncertainty regarding the above mentioned cloud parameters has an uncertainty range of 25% between the minimum and maximum value when taking all simulations into account. It is reduced to 11% when only the simulations with a balanced top-of-the atmosphere radiation are considered.
Influence of Giant CCN on warm rain processes in the ECHAM5 GCM
R. Posselt ,U. Lohmann
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2008,
Abstract: Increased Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) load due to anthropogenic activity might lead to non-precipitating clouds because the cloud drops become smaller (for a constant liquid water content) and, therefore, less efficient in rain formation (aerosol indirect effect). Adding giant CCN (GCCN) into such a cloud can initiate precipitation (namely, drizzle) and, therefore, might counteract the aerosol indirect effect. The effect of GCCN on global climate on warm clouds and precipitation within the ECHAM5 General Circulation Model (GCM) is investigated. Therefore, the newly introduced prognostic rain scheme (Posselt and Lohmann, 2007) is applied so that GCCN are directly activated into rain drops. The ECHAM5 simulations with incorporated GCCN show that precipitation is affected only locally. On the global scale, the precipitation amount does not change. Cloud properties like total water (liquid + rain water) and cloud drop number show a larger sensitivity to GCCN. Depending on the amount of added GCCN, the reduction of total water and cloud drops account for up to 20% compared to the control run without GCCN. Thus, the incorporation of the GCCN accelerate the hydrological cycle so that clouds precipitate faster (but not more) and less condensed water is accumulated in the atmosphere. An estimate of the anthropogenic aerosol indirect effect on the climate is obtained by comparing simulations for present-day and pre-industrial climate. The introduction of the prognostic rain scheme lowered the anthropogenic aerosol indirect effect significantly compared to the standard ECHAM5 with the diagnostic rain scheme. The incorporation of the GCCN changes the model state, especially the cloud properties like TWP and Nl. The precipitation changes only locally but globally the precipitation is unaffected because it has to equal the global mean evaporation rate. Changing the cloud properties leads to a local reduction of the aerosol indirect effect and, hence, partly compensating for the increased anthropogenic CCN concentrations in that regions. Globally, the aerosol indirect effect is nearly the same for all simulations.
Global indirect aerosol effects: a review
U. Lohmann,J. Feichter
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2005,
Abstract: Aerosols affect the climate system by changing cloud characteristics in many ways. They act as cloud condensation and ice nuclei, they may inhibit freezing and they could have an influence on the hydrological cycle. While the cloud albedo enhancement (Twomey effect) of warm clouds received most attention so far and traditionally is the only indirect aerosol forcing considered in transient climate simulations, here we discuss the multitude of effects. Different approaches how the climatic implications of these aerosol effects can be estimated globally as well as improvements that are needed in global climate models in order to better represent indirect aerosol effects are discussed in this paper.
Global indirect aerosol effects: a review
U. Lohmann,J. Feichter
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2004,
Abstract: Aerosols affect the climate system by changing cloud characteristics in many ways. They act as cloud condensation and ice nuclei, they may inhibit freezing and they could have an influence on the hydrological cycle. While the cloud albedo enhancement (Twomey effect) of warm clouds received most attention so far and traditionally is the only indirect aerosol forcing considered in transient climate simulations, here we discuss the multitude of effects. Different approaches how the climatic implications of these aerosol effects can be estimated globally as well as improvements that are needed in global climate models in order to better represent indirect aerosol effects are discussed in this paper.
Influence of Giant CCN on warm rain processes in the ECHAM5 GCM
R. Posselt,U. Lohmann
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2007,
Abstract: Increased Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) load due to anthropogenic activity might lead to non-precipitating clouds because the cloud drops become smaller (for a constant liquid water content) and, therefore, less efficient in rain formation (aerosol indirect effect). Adding giant CCN (GCCN) into such a cloud can initiate precipitation (namely, drizzle) and, therefore, might counteract the aerosol indirect effect. The effect of GCCN on global climate, especially on clouds and precipitation, within a General Circulation Model (GCM) is investigated. GCCN are aerosol particles larger than 5–10 μm in radius that can act as cloud condensation nuclei. One prominent GCCN species is sea salt. Sea salt concentrations depend mainly on wind speed but also on relative humidity, stability and precipitation history. Natural variability is much larger than the simulated one because sea salt emissions within ECHAM5 are a function of wind speed only. Giant sea salt concentrations in ECHAM5 are determined by using the tail of the coarse mode aerosol distribution with cutoff radii of 5 μm or 10 μm. It is assumed that activated GCCN particles directly form rain drops (of 25 μm size). Thereby, the added rain water mass and number stems from the redistribution of the condensed water into cloud and rain water according to the number of activated GCCN. As the formed precipitation is most likely drizzle with rather small drops a prognostic rain scheme is applied to account for the lower fall speeds and, therefore, slower sedimentation of the drizzle drops. The ECHAM5 simulations with incorporated GCCN show that precipitation is affected only locally. Cloud properties like liquid water and cloud drop number show a larger sensitivity to GCCN. On the one hand, the increased rain water mass causes an increase in the accretion rate and, therefore, in the rain production. On the other hand, very high GCCN concentrations can lead to an artificially exaggerated transfer of cloud water to the rain class which then results in a strong decrease of the conversion rate and the rain production. The introduction of the GCCN reduces the anthropogenic increase of liquid water in the atmosphere from pre-industrial to present day because clouds are precipitating faster in the presence of the GCCN. Hence, the accumulation of liquid water in the atmosphere is reduced. According to those changes in the cloud properties, the radiative budget is also changing. The GCCN cause a reduction of the anthropogenic aerosol indirect effect of about 0.1–0.25 W m 2 which corresponds to 5–10% of the total effect.
Introduction of prognostic rain in ECHAM5: design and Single Column Model simulations
R. Posselt,U. Lohmann
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2007,
Abstract: Prognostic equations for the rain mass mixing ratio and the rain drop number concentration are introduced into the large-scale cloud microphysics parameterization of the ECHAM5 general circulation model (ECHAM5-RAIN). For this a rain flux from one level to the next with the appropriate fall speed is introduced. This maintains rain water in the atmosphere to be available for the next time step. Rain formation in ECHAM5-RAIN is, therefore, less dependent on the autoconversion rate than the standard ECHAM5 but shifts the emphasis towards the accretion rates in accordance with observations. ECHAM5-RAIN is tested and evaluated with two cases: the continental mid-latitude ARM Cloud IOP (shallow frontal cloud case – March 2000) and EPIC (a marine stratocumulus study – October 2001). The prognostic equations for rain hardly affect the amount and timing of precipitation at the surface in different Single Column Model (SCM) simulations for heavy precipitating clouds because heavy rain depends mainly on the large-scale forcing. In case of thin, drizzling clouds (i.e., stratocumulus), an increase in surface precipitation is caused by more sub-time steps used in the prognostic rain scheme until convergence is reached. Cloud microphysical quantities, such as liquid and rain water, are more sensitive to the number of sub-time steps for light precipitation. This results from the decreasing autoconversion rate and increasing accretion rate.
Sensitivity studies of different aerosol indirect effects in mixed-phase clouds
U. Lohmann,C. Hoose
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: Aerosols affect the climate system by changing cloud characteristics. Using the global climate model ECHAM5-HAM, we investigate different aerosol effects on mixed-phase clouds: The glaciation effect, which refers to a more frequent glaciation due to anthropogenic aerosols, versus the de-activation effect, which suggests that ice nuclei become less effective because of an anthropogenic sulfate coating. The glaciation effect can partly offset the indirect aerosol effect on warm clouds and thus causes the total anthropogenic aerosol effect to be smaller. It is investigated by varying the parameterization for the Bergeron-Findeisen process and the threshold coating thickness of sulfate (SO4-crit), which is required to convert an externally mixed aerosol particle into an internally mixed particle. Differences in the net radiation at the top-of-the-atmosphere due to anthropogenic aerosols between the different sensitivity studies amount up to 0.5 W m 2. This suggests that the investigated mixed-phase processes have a major effect on the total anthropogenic aerosol effect.
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