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Differences in Lipid Measurements by Antiretroviral Regimen Exposure in Cohorts from Asia and Australia
Amit C. Achhra,Janaki Amin,Jennifer Hoy,Junko Tanuma,Thira Sirisanthana,David Nolan,Tuti Merati,Michelle Giles
AIDS Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/246280
Abstract: We explored the mean differences in routinely measured lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) according to exposure to different combination antiretroviral regimens in Asian ( ) and Australian (predominantly Caucasian, ) cohorts. The regimen was defined as at least 3 antiretroviral drugs with at least 2 nucleoside-reverse transcriptases (NRTIs) and either of at least one protease inhibitor (PI) or non-nucleoside-reverse transcriptases (NNRTIs). We categorised cART regimens as: NRTIs as tenofovir based or not; NNRTIs as nevirapine or efavirenz (but not both); and PI as atazanavir based or not. We found that the impact of various antiretroviral regimens on lipids in Asian and Australian cohorts was only different by cohort for total cholesterol ( for interaction between regimen and cohort: <0.001) but not in case of other lipids ( for interaction: >0.05). The differences in total cholesterol were however small and unlikely to be of clinical significance. Overall, tenofovir with nevirapine or atazanavir was associated with the most favorable lipids, while the PI regimens without tenofovir and atazanavir were associated with least favorable lipids. We conclude that the impact of various ART regimens on lipids is largely similar in Asian and Australian cohorts and that the newer drugs such as tenofovir and atazanavir are likely to provide similar benefit in terms of lipid profiles in both populations. 1. Introduction Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for HIV infection is associated with adverse changes in lipid profiles and can include elevation in total cholesterol and triglycerides, which may increase the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) [1–4]. Moreover, different classes of cART and drugs within each class have differential impacts on lipids [2]. Protease-inhibitors (PIs) are associated with more significant changes in lipid profile than nucleoside and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs and NNRTIs, resp.) [2, 3, 5]. And within NNRTI class, efavirenz (EFV) is associated with greater changes in the lipid profile than nevirapine (NVP) [2, 5, 6]. Also tenofovir (TDF) and atazanavir (ATV) are known to have a favorable impact on lipids [5, 7, 8]. Drugs such as TDF, EFV, and ATV are becoming increasingly available in low-middle-income countries, including Asia [9, 10]. However, much of our knowledge about the relative impact of different cART regimens on lipids comes mainly from clinical trials and cohort studies from European or North-American settings [2, 4, 7, 8]. The impact of cART
Comparison of Uniform and Kernel Gaussian Weight Matrix in Generalized Spatial Panel Data Model  [PDF]
Tuti Purwaningsih, Erfiani  
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2015.51011
Abstract: Panel data combine cross-section data and time series data. If the cross-section is locations, there is a need to check the correlation among locations. ρ and λ are parameters in generalized spatial model to cover effect of correlation between locations. Value of ρ or λ will influence the goodness of fit model, so it is important to make parameter estimation. The effect of another location is covered by making contiguity matrix until it gets spatial weighted matrix (W). There are some types of W—uniform W, binary W, kernel Gaussian W and some W from real case of economics condition or transportation condition from locations. This study is aimed to compare uniform W and kernel Gaussian W in spatial panel data model using RMSE value. The result of analysis showed that uniform weight had RMSE value less than kernel Gaussian model. Uniform W had stabil value for all the combinations.
Il Rigestum comunis Albe: la struttura di un liber iurium dal progetto originario alla fisionomia attuale
Patrizia Merati
Scrineum Rivista , 2006,
Abstract: The Rigestum comunis Albe is one of the earliest libri iurium in Piemonte and it has been used for a lot of papers about history and diplomatics; nevertheless, after the publication of the critical edition (1903) the codex was lost. Its founding, in 2003, allowed to analyse the book's structure, to reconstruct its original appearance, to trace the events of its life, so that the liber is not only the case of the sources for the history of the town, but also the protagonist of its own history. The first part (1215) is a faithful reproduction of the whole content of civic archive; after that, periodical updates have been added. Moreover, the scribes used to record on its pages also different kinds of documents, such as banishment lists or statutes’ articles. The form and content analysis of the unities composing the liber let us understand that, in comparison to the orginal project, both their sequence and their number have changed. The use of keeping fascicles unbound, so to make them easier to use in communal offices, was often the cause of their misplacing: because of that, they have been bound in the wrong order and material that was not part of the book has been included. It is likely that there have been some losses, but they are impossible to quantify. So we see a picture of the Rigestum which is different from today’s, but the constant element is the book’s identity: although in changed conditions, it succeedes in meeting the communal records’ conservation needs that led to its drafting.
Secoli XI e XII: l'invenzione della memoria
Patrizia Merati
Scrineum Rivista , 2006,
La diplomatique urbaine en Europe au moyen age. Actes du congrès de la Commission internationale de Diplomatique, Gand, 25-29 ao t 1998
Patrizia Merati
Scrineum Rivista , 2003,
Effect of Atmospheric Plasma Paint Removal on the Fatigue Performance of 2024-T3 Aluminium Alloy Sheet  [PDF]
Marko Yanishevsky, Ali Merati, Yan Bombardier
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2018.61002
Abstract: This article documents fatigue testing that was conducted using as-painted (baseline) and Atmospheric Plasma de-painted specimens made of 0.063 inch thick 2024-T3 aluminium alloy sheet. The intent of the test program was to determine whether AP de-painting would alter the fatigue properties of this aluminium substrate. AP de-painting process parameters were selected based on previous work that would remove the topcoat, while leaving most of the primer intact. This process was repeated five times to simulate service experience, where aircraft typically undergo five paint/de-paint cycles in their lifetime. As-painted (baseline) and five times de-painted specimens were fatigue tested under constant amplitude conditions, at two load ratios and several maximum stress levels. Ten samples per condition were used to establish statistical behaviour and repeatability. The test results and statistical analysis demonstrated that the selected AP process parameters did not have a detrimental effect on the fatigue performance of 2024-T3 aluminium alloy sheet.
Detoxification Through Fermentation By Consortium Of Aspergillus Niger And Neurospora Sitophila Towards The Degree Of Forbol Esther And Nutrition Value Of Jatropha Curcas L. For Broilers Feed
Tuti Kurniati
Journal of Asian Scientific Research , 2012,
Abstract: Seedcake of Jatropha curcas L seed is a by product of biodiesel processing. Hard fibers and tiny raw protien is potentially useful as alternative feed for Broilers. So far, the use of Jatropha as feed is restricted due to the toxin of forbo loster. To increase the quality of seedcake, detoxification through biological fermentation was carried out. The research is aimed at achieving the followings: (1) obtaining the best product of the seed of Jatropha curcas L fermented by the consortium of Aspergillus niger ; (2) obtaining the lowest degree of anti-forbol esther nutrition as the result of the first stage research., and; (3) deciding on the quality of fermented seed of Jatropha curcas L by measuring metabolical energy. The degree of forbol esthered was measured at the laboratory of Psycho-Chemistry of Bandung Institute of Technology. The experiment employed experimental design, that is, Complete Randomization Factorial design (3 X 3). The three A-factor (dosage of consortium inoculum of Aspergillus niger and Neurospora sitophila is d1 = 2 g, d2 = 3 g, d3 = 4g) and the three B- factor (the time spent for fermentation of Aspergillus niger and Neurospora sitophila is t1 = 72 hours, t2 = 96 hours, nd t3 = 120 hours). This was repeated as much as 3 times. Data analysis was carried out by using variant analysis technique. To identify the diference between the treatments, Duncan Multiple Distance Test was employed. The research reveals that Jatropha curcas L fermented by consortium of Aspergillus niger and Neurospora sitophila with the dosage: 3 g inoculum and 96 hours of fermentation could best increase the nutrition value, that is, increasing Crude Protein as much as 16.88%, decreasing raw fat as much as 63.89%, and decreasing raw fiber as much as 14.96%. The highest decrease of forbol esther was achieved by substrate fermented by Aspergillus niger and Neurospora sitophila with the dosage of inoculum: 3 g and 3 hours of fermentation, that is, 79,69% with metabolical energy as much as 3849 kkal/kg.
Effect of Some Environmental Factors on Incidence and Severity of Angular Leaf Spot of Cotton in Yola and Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria  [PDF]
N. Z. Tuti, H. Nahunnaro, K. Ayuba
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2015.33B004

Environmental factors such as relative humidity and rainfall generally have been found to increase the incidence, rate of spread and severity of diseases thereby reducing yield of crops. Study was conducted on five cotton varieties, which were artificially inoculated with bacterial blight pathogen to determine the effects of rainfall and relative humidity on incidence and severity of angular leaf spot (ALS) and yield of seed cotton in Yola and Mubi. Results showed that the severity of ALS was higher in Yola (58.65%) at 13 WAS assumed to be due to higher relative humidity range of 76% - 87% and low rainfall of 2 - 40.6 mm. This is assumed to have favoured disease development as against that of Mubi location which recorded lower severity (51.11%) due to lower relative humidity (42% - 55%) and rainfall (37 - 73 mm). Results further revealed that at 13 WAS, SAMCOT-8 had low incidence (66%) and severity (39%) in Yola. This was against the much higher corresponding incidence and severity of 82% and 42% respectively that was observed in Mubi during the same period. SAMCOT-10 and SAMCOT-9 varieties were found to be highly susceptible to the disease at the same period. SAMCOT-8 recorded the highest yield of 390.00 kg?ha?1 in Yola and 868.09 kg?ha?1 in Mubi while the lowest yields of 227.17 kg?ha?1 was observed on SAMCOT-10 in Yola while 461.61 kg?ha?1 was obtained on SAMCOT-9 in Mubi. The variation in yield among these varieties might be due to the differences in their reactions to the disease. There is a need to conduct further trials in these locations to confirm the level of resistance or other aspects of these varieties to the disease.

Role of Microstructural Features in Toughness Improvement of Zirconia Toughened Alumina  [PDF]
Olaniyi Fakolujo, Ali Merati, Mariusz Bielawski, Manon Bolduc, Michel Nganbe
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2016.41009
Abstract: Ceramics constitute an integral part of highly efficient armours due to their low density, high hardness, strength and stiffness. However, they lack toughness and multi-hit capability. Therefore, zirconia toughened alumina is investigated. The hardness is evaluated using Vickers, Knoop and instrumented indentations, while the fracture toughness is evaluated using the indentation technique and Charpy tests. The strength is evaluated using ring-on-ring, four point bend and drop weight tests. The Young’s modulus is evaluated using the unloading instrumented indentation curves. Microstructure, porosity and density are characterised using ultrasonic scanning, Archimedes principle, optical and scanning electron microscopy. Results show an indentation size effect on all mechanical properties. A substantial improvement in toughness is achieved through retardation of crack initiation by tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation in zirconia particles, crack deviation thanks to appropriate grain structure, as well as energy absorption by densification due to remaining porosity. This improved toughness is expected to promote multi-hit capability.
The Effect of Atmospheric Plasma Paint Stripping on the Fatigue Crack Growth Properties of Aluminium Substrates  [PDF]
Ali Merati, Marko Yanishevsky, Tessa Despinic, Philip Lo
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2017.54014
Abstract: Paint removal is a common maintenance requirement for aircraft as well as naval and land vehicles, since external paint gets damaged and loses much of its corrosion protection effectiveness with time. Paint removal is also conducted when metallic aircraft structures are inspected periodically for fatigue cracks and corrosion. The conventional methods of removing paint employed throughout the Canadian Forces mainly include chemical stripping and abrasive media blasting. Chemical stripping involves the use of hazardous chemicals, which are high in Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) and Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP). Abrasive media blasting typically results in a substantial quantity of solid waste consisting of paint and blast residues. Such waste is subject to control under increasingly stringent environmental and safety regulations and its disposal is costly. The new Atmospheric Plasma (AP) paint removal process purports to be a high chemical energy, low thermal energy (cold plasma process), that should not damage temperature sensitive substructures, such as heat treated aerospace aluminium alloys. Fatigue strength is one of the key properties in aircraft structures. In order for AP paint stripping to be accepted as an aerospace industry standard paint removal process, it must be thoroughly tested to demonstrate that it does not adversely affect the fatigue properties of the substrate. This paper investigates effect of the paint removal process on fatigue crack growth of 7075-T6 and 2024-T3 aluminium panels.
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