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Web-based climate information resources for malaria control in Africa
Emily K Grover-Kopec, M Benno Blumenthal, Pietro Ceccato, Tufa Dinku, Judy A Omumbo, Stephen J Connor
Malaria Journal , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-5-38
Abstract: Malaria remains a major public health threat to the African continent and its control is critical to achieving the Millennium Development Goals in this region. The recently published Global Strategic Plan for Roll Back Malaria 2005–2015 has stated that "Six out of eight Millennium Development Goals can only be reached with effective malaria control in place" [1]. The greatest burden of malaria in Africa is born by populations in regions where the disease pathogen is perennially present in the community. In these regions, the environment is conducive to interactions between the Anopheles mosquito, malaria parasites and human hosts because they contain surface water in which mosquitoes can lay their eggs, humid conditions which facilitate adult mosquito life spans of adequate length, and relative warmth which allows both the mosquito and the malaria parasite to develop rapidly. In addition, housing quality is generally poor and offers little protection from human-mosquito interaction. Those most vulnerable to endemic malaria are young children (<5 years of age) who have yet to acquire disease immunity, pregnant women, whose immunity is reduced, and non-immune migrants or travelers.Epidemic malaria tends to occur along the geographical margins of the endemic regions, when the conditions supporting the equilibrium between the human, parasite and mosquito vector populations are disturbed. This leads to a sharp but temporary increase in disease incidence. More than 124 million Africans live in such areas and experience epidemics causing around 12 million malaria episodes and up to 310,000 deaths annually [2]. In these regions, an individual's exposure to malaria is infrequent and, therefore, little acquired immunity to this life threatening disease is developed. All age groups are, therefore, vulnerable to epidemic malaria [3]. The development of an online product that supports epidemic risk monitoring has been previously reported [4].While economic development has played
Closed-Loop System Identification using OBF-ARMAX Model
Lemma D. Tufa,M. Ramasamy,M. Shuhaimi
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Closed-loop identification scheme using OBF-ARMAX model structure is presented. The proposed structure can be used to identify both open-loop stable and open-loop unstable processes that are stabilized by a feedback controller. The algorithm for estimating the model parameters and the formula for the multi-step ahead prediction are derived. The proposed identification scheme is demonstrated using two simulation case studies: One for open-loop stable and another for open-loop unstable. Both case studies demonstrate that the proposed scheme can be effectively used for closed-loop identification of both open-loop stable and open-loop unstable systems that are stabilized by a feedback control system.
Analysis of Various Quality Attributes of Sunflower and Soybean Plants by Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy: Development and Validation Calibration Models  [PDF]
Uttam Saha, Dinku Endale, P. Glynn Tillman, W. Carroll Johnson, Julia Gaskin, Leticia Sonon, Harry Schomberg, Yuangen Yang
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2017.87035
Abstract: Soybean and sunflower are summer annuals that can be grown as an alternative to corn and may be particularly useful in organic production systems for forage in addition to their traditional use as protein and/or oil yielding crops. Rapid and low cost methods of analyzing plant forage quality would be helpful for nutrition management of livestock. We developed and validated calibration models using Near-infrared Reflectance Spectroscopic (NIRS) analysis for 27 different forage quality parameters of organically grown sunflower and soybean leaves or reproductive parts. Crops were managed under conventional tillage or no-till with a cover crop of wheat before soybean and rye-crimson clover before sunflower. From a population of 120 samples from both crops, covering multiple sampling dates within the treatments, calibration models were developed utilizing spectral information covering both visible and NIR region of 61 - 85 randomly chosen samples using modified partial least-squares (MPLS) regression with internal cross validation. Within MPLS protocol, we compared nine different math treatments on the quality of the calibration models. The math treatment “2,4,4,1” yielded the best quality models for all but starch and simple sugars (r2 = 0.699 - 0.999; where the 1st digit is the number of the derivative with 0 for raw spectra, 1 for first derivative, and 2 for second derivative, the 2nd digit is the gap over which the derivative is calculated, the 3rd digit is the number of data points in a running average or smoothing, and the 4th digit is the second smoothing). Prediction of an independent validation set of 28-35 samples with these models yielded excellent agreement between the NIRS predicted values and the reference values except for starch (r2 = 0.8260 - 0.9990). The results showed that the same model was able to adequately quantify a particular forage quality of both crops managed under different tillage treatments and at different stages of growth. Thus, these models can be reliably applied in the routine analysis of soybean and sunflower forage quality for the purposes of livestock nutrient management decisions.
A Study through Zhouli on the Rites of Choosing Date for the Emperors Ancestral Shrine Sacrifice Ceremony

Wu Tufa,Qin Jiahui,

浙江大学学报(人文社会科学版) , 2009,
Abstract: 《周礼》中庙享"前期十日……卜日"的仪制,与西周金文及《仪礼》等文献中的记载吻合,关于主持卜日的职官,则《大宰职》和《大宗伯职》二经所述重复龃龉。从《周礼》中可以钩稽出取龟、选龟、衅龟、攻龟、开龟五项整治卜龟的工序以及陈龟、贞龟、定龟、视高、命龟、作龟、占龟、系币八项天子庙享卜日的礼事,其中取龟、选龟、衅龟、攻龟、开龟、命龟、作龟、占龟、系币九项均能从地下出土实物和出土文献中找到可靠的依据;陈龟、贞龟、定龟、视高四项可以在《仪礼》、《礼记》等载籍中得到佐证;衅龟、开龟、占龟诸项与殷礼有着明显的不同,与周礼则彼此契合。这不仅证实了《周礼》中有关龟卜事宜的具体材料基本上是可信的,而且还说明了龟卜礼仪当属周礼内容。
Ciprofloxacin Sensitivity of Staphylococcus Strains Isolated at the Sylvanus Olympio University Hospital, Togo  [PDF]
Mounerou Salou, Degninou Yehadji, Koumavi Ekouevi, Sika Dossim, Chantal Tsogou, Yawo Tufa Nyasenu, Fiali Lack, Mireille Prince-David, Anoumou Y. Dagnra
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.513124
Abstract: Background: Staphylococcal infections are managed by hygiene measures and usage of antibiotics. The first-line treatment refers to beta-lactamins. However, the emergence of beta-lactamin resistant staphylococcal strains has been reported, as demonstrated by a study conducted in Lomé University Teaching Hospital, Bacteriology Laboratory (2001) on 742 Staphylococcus aureus strains which revealed 67.00% of them where methicillin resistant. In this setting of emergent methicillin-resistant strains, the second-line treatments are prescribed by clinicians without antibiograms. Fluoroquinolones are the first preference molecules used for second-line treatment because of their efficacy and affordability. We want to contribute to setting monitoring and alert-making tools for drug prescribers. Thus we conducted this study, aiming to determine the frequency of S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) strains isolation in different types of biologic samples, and to investigate the link between methicillin resistance and ciprofloxacin resistance. Methods: We conducted this study from January 2006 through Jun 2010. The Microbiology Laboratory Service collected and analyzed samples for diagnostic purpose from inpatients and outpatients consulted in the hospital. We collected and analyzed de-identified data on these patients to form laboratory records. Bacteriological analyses in which ciprofloxacin have not been tested were excluded. Results: Over the 1108 staphylococal strains isolated from various biological samples processed, 751 were Staphylococcus aureus and 357 were coagulase-negative staphylococci. The strains sensitivity profile is for all isolates. The majority of germs were S. aureus and 20% of them were ciprofloxacin-resistant. The probability of a patient who has an infection caused by S. aureus increases his stay in high-risk settings such as intensive care unit, surgical intervention, extended hospitalization, use of a catheter. The use of broad-spectrum antibiotics increases the risk of multidrug-resistant strains. Conclusion: This study highlights the recurring issue of over consumption of antibiotics in nowadays medical treatments. There is a need to raise awareness about the rational use of antibiotics in general and fluoroquinolones particularly.
Trends in HIV-2 Seroprevalence at the National Reference Center of HIV from 2005 to 2014 in Lome, Togo  [PDF]
Amivi Amenyah- Ehlan, Mounerou Salou, Malewe Kolou, Komlan Ali- Edje, Tufa Nyasenu, Sika Dossim, Alassane Ouro- Medeli, Mensah Douffan, Anoumou Dagnra, Mireille Prince- David
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2017.74020
Background: In Togo, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is characterized by the circulation of the 2 subtypes of HIV. Thus, patients infected with HIV-2 are diagnosed and monitored in the care centers. Objective: To document the trend of HIV-2 prevalence over a decade of activities of the National Reference Center for HIV tests and screening (CNR-VIH). Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out from the screening data archived from January 2005 to December 2014 at the CNR-VIH, a laboratory located in the Sylvanus Olympio University Hospital (CHU SO) Lome. The sampling consisted of adults and children outpatients or those who were hospitalized in CHU SO, subjects presenting for voluntary testing, pregnant women and patients or samples referred for HIV confirmation. All samples were tested for HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections by combining ELISA and rapid diagnostic tests. Result: During the decade, 34,077 subjects were screened for HIV infection. The overall prevalence of HIV infection was 20.70% (7055/34077). In 10 years, the prevalence of HIV infection in CNR-VIH decreased significantly from 35.40% CI95% [34.50% - 36.20%] in 2005 to 14.20% CI95% [13.60% - 14.70%] in 2014 (p = 0.03). The prevalence of HIV-1, HIV-2 and dual HIV1&HIV-2 was respectively 20.40%, 0.23% and 0.07%, with annual prevalence of HIV-2 between 0.07% and 0.39%. The differences between the HIV-2 prevalence over the decade were not statistically significant (p > 0.15). A 4-year-old child from mother-to-child HIV-2 transmission was diagnosed. Sixty-five percent of adult patients were over 40 years of age with an average age of 43.5 ± 11.3 years. Conclusion: Data from the National Reference Center for HIV Tests in Togo over the last ten years confirm the existence of a weak epidemic of HIV- 2 infection with a tendency towards stability.
Studies of transition metal complexes of herbicidal compounds. I: Transition metal complexes of 2-methylthio-4-azido-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine (aziprotryn)
Worku Dinku,Negussie Megersa,V.J.T. Raju,Theodros Solomon
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia , 2001,
Studies on transition metal complexes of herbicidal compounds. II: Transition metal complexes of derivatized 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine (atrazine)
Worku Dinku,Negussie Megersa,V.J.T. Raju,Theodros Solomon
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia , 2003,
Abstract: 2(2-Hydroxyethyl)hydrazino-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine (HEATZ), a derivative of 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine, atrazine (ATZ) – a well known herbicide has been studied for complex formation with cobalt(II), nickel(II), and copper(II). Analytical, conductance, thermal, and spectral studies suggest that HEATZ is a monobasic NNO donor and it forms binuclear octahedral metal complexes, possessing alkoxide bridging. Cobalt(II) complex exhibits thermochromism. Antimicrobial studies on E. coli and S. aureus show the absence of growth inhibitory activities for HEATZ and its metal complexes which is attributed to the combined effect of derivatization of ATZ and metal complexation.
Biological Profile of HIV-Positive Patients in Bangui, Central African Republic, in 2017  [PDF]
Yawo Tufa Nyasenu, Alain Farra, Brice Martial Yambiyo, Alexandre Manirakiza, Fernand Didier Padou, Ferdinand Yapou, Pulchérie Pelembi, Rodolphe Mambely-Nzako, Marie-Jo?lle Mandeng, Alain Berlioz-Arthaud, Pierre-Alain Rubbo, Jean-Pierre Lombart
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2018.81002
Background: The biological profile of HIV-positive patients is essential for diagnosing treatment failure and the prognosis of infection. We determined the virological and immunological profiles and biological anomalies of HIV-positive people on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Bangui, Central Afri-can Republic. Methods: We conducted an analytical, descriptive study be-tween 4 April and 30 September 2017 of all patients who had received ART for more than 12 months and who attended the Medical Analysis Laboratory of the Institut Pasteur in Bangui for a complete biological work-up, including viral load. A blood sample was taken for quantification of RNA HIV-1, CD4 lymphocytes and blood count in two tubes containing ethylenediamine te-traacetic acid, and another sample was taken in a dry tube for measurement of creatinine and transaminases. Results: The total population comprised 1748 patients, with a mean age of 38.7 years (±14.3; median, 41 years; range, 2 - 79 years); 33.3% of patients were between 40 and 49 years old. Females predo-minated (71.3%), for a sex ratio of 0.4. Immunological failure was observed in 20.2% of patients (CD4 < 200 cells/μL), and 44.5% of patients had a load of RNA HIV-1 ≥ 1000 copies/mL. The main haematological anomalies were anaemia (28.0%), leukopenia (26.7%), neutropenia (42.1%) and lymphopenia (27.2%). Blood creatinine was abnormal in 61.0% of patients, ALAT in 57.0% and ASAT in 66.9%. Conclusion: The abnormalities observed in this study concerned the haematopoietic system, the liver and the kidneys. As other or-gans and systems may be affected, periodic multidisciplinary biological and clinical follow-up is necessary for people living with HIV in order to improve their management.
Studies of transition metal complexes of herbicidal compounds. I: Transition metal complexes of 2-methylthio-4-azido-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine (aziprotryn)
Worku Dinku, Negussie Megersa, V.J.T. Raju, Theodros Solomon, Jan ke J nsson, Negussie Retta
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia , 2001,
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