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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1466 matches for " Tsuyoshi Miki "
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Outer Membrane Permeabilization Is an Essential Step in the Killing of Gram-Negative Bacteria by the Lectin RegIIIβ
Tsuyoshi Miki, Wolf-Dietrich Hardt
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069901
Abstract: The C-type lectin RegIIIβ can kill certain Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The susceptibility of S. Typhimurium depends on the bacterial growth phase, i.e., bacteria from the logarithmic growth phase do bind RegIIIβ and are subsequently killed. Lipid A is one of the bacterial targets for RegIIIβ. However, at the molecular level, it is not understood how RegIIIβ interacts with and kills Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we show that RegIIIβ interacts with Gram-negative bacteria in two distinct steps. Initially, it binds to surface-exposed lipid A. The lipid A can be shielded by the O-antigen of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as indicated by the exquisite susceptibility of wbaP mutants to RegIIIβ-mediated killing. Increased cell viability after incubation with an anti-lipid A antibody also supports this conclusion. This RegIIIβ-binding permeabilizes the outer membrane to hydrophobic dyes like Ethidium bromide or to bulky bacteriolytic enzymes like lysozyme. Conversely, compromising the outer membrane integrity by the mild detergent Triton X-100 enhances the antibacterial effect of RegIIIβ. Based on our observations, we conclude that RegIIIβ interacts with Gram-negative bacteria in two subsequent steps. Initially, it binds to the outer membrane thus leading to outer membrane permeabilization. This initial step is necessary for RegIIIβ to reach a second, still not well understood target site (presumably localized in the periplasm or the cytoplasmic membrane), thereby triggering bacterial death. This provides novel insights into the outer membrane-step of the bactericidal mechanism of RegIIIβ.
Genetics of Endometrial Cancers
Tsuyoshi Okuda,Akihiko Sekizawa,Yuditiya Purwosunu,Masaaki Nagatsuka,Miki Morioka,Masaki Hayashi,Takashi Okai
Obstetrics and Gynecology International , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/984013
Abstract: Endometrial cancers exhibit a different mechanism of tumorigenesis and progression depending on histopathological and clinical types. The most frequently altered gene in estrogen-dependent endometrioid endometrial carcinoma tumors is PTEN. Microsatellite instability is another important genetic event in this type of tumor. In contrast, p53 mutations or Her2/neu overexpression are more frequent in non-endometrioid tumors. On the other hand, it is possible that the clear cell type may arise from a unique pathway which appears similar to the ovarian clear cell carcinoma. K-ras mutations are detected in approximately 15%–30% of endometrioid carcinomas, are unrelated to the existence of endometrial hyperplasia. A -catenin mutation was detected in about 20% of endometrioid carcinomas, but is rare in serous carcinoma. Telomere shortening is another important type of genomic instability observed in endometrial cancer. Only non-endometrioid endometrial carcinoma tumors were significantly associated with critical telomere shortening in the adjacent morphologically normal epithelium. Lynch syndrome, which is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder of cancer susceptibility and is characterized by a MSH2/MSH6 protein complex deficiency, is associated with the development of non-endometrioid carcinomas. 1. Introduction Endometrial cancer is the most common cancer of the female reproductive tract with 150,000 new cases diagnosed annually worldwide. Approximately 90% of endometrial cancers are sporadic, and the remaining 10% are hereditary. Bokhman have generally categorized endometrial cancer into two broad groups of tumors using both clinical and histopathological variables: estrogen-dependent endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (EECs), or type I, and non-endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (NEECs), or type II tumors (Table 1) [1]. It should be noted that this model is not strict, and only a minority of endometrial cancer may exhibit shared characteristics. For example, mixed serous and endometrioid tumors are being increasingly recognized. Approximately 70% to 80% of new cases are classified as EECs, and other 10% to 20% are designated as NEEC tumors [1]. EECs are strongly associated with the estrogen-related pathway and arise in association with unopposed estrogen stimulation [2]. In contrast, NEECs are unrelated to the estrogen pathways and arise in the background of atrophic endometrium [3]. EECs typically occur in premenopausal and younger postmenopausal women and are usually low-grade and have a favorable outcome, whereas NEECs occur in older postmenopausal
Plasma MicroRNA Profiles in Rat Models of Hepatocellular Injury, Cholestasis, and Steatosis
Yu Yamaura, Miki Nakajima, Shingo Takagi, Tatsuki Fukami, Koichi Tsuneyama, Tsuyoshi Yokoi
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030250
Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules that function to modulate the expression of target genes, playing important roles in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. The miRNAs in body fluids have received considerable attention as potential biomarkers of various diseases. In this study, we compared the changes of the plasma miRNA expressions by acute liver injury (hepatocellular injury or cholestasis) and chronic liver injury (steatosis, steatohepatitis and fibrosis) using rat models made by the administration of chemicals or special diets. Using miRNA array analysis, we found that the levels of a large number of miRNAs (121–317 miRNAs) were increased over 2-fold and the levels of a small number of miRNAs (6–35 miRNAs) were decreased below 0.5-fold in all models except in a model of cholestasis caused by bile duct ligation. Interestingly, the expression profiles were different between the models, and the hierarchical clustering analysis discriminated between the acute and chronic liver injuries. In addition, miRNAs whose expressions were typically changed in each type of liver injury could be specified. It is notable that, in acute liver injury models, the plasma level of miR-122, the most abundant miRNA in the liver, was more quickly and dramatically increased than the plasma aminotransferase level, reflecting the extent of hepatocellular injury. This study demonstrated that the plasma miRNA profiles could reflect the types of liver injury (e.g. acute/chronic liver injury or hepatocellular injury/cholestasis/steatosis/steatohepat?itis/fibrosis)and identified the miRNAs that could be specific and sensitive biomarkers of liver injury.
Functional Characterization of the Type III Secretion ATPase SsaN Encoded by Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2
Yukie Yoshida, Tsuyoshi Miki, Sayaka Ono, Takeshi Haneda, Masahiro Ito, Nobuhiko Okada
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094347
Abstract: A type III secretion system (T3SS) is utilized by a large number of gram-negative bacteria to deliver effectors directly into the cytosol of eukaryotic host cells. One essential component of a T3SS is an ATPase that catalyzes the unfolding of proteins, which is followed by the translocation of effectors through an injectisome. Here we demonstrate a functional role of the ATPase SsaN, a component of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 T3SS (T3SS-2) in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. SsaN hydrolyzed ATP in vitro and was essential for T3SS function and Salmonella virulence in vivo. Protein-protein interaction analyses revealed that SsaN interacted with SsaK and SsaQ to form the C ring complex. SsaN and its complex co-localized to the membrane fraction under T3SS-2 inducing conditions. In addition, SsaN bound to Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2) specific chaperones, including SsaE, SseA, SscA, and SscB that facilitated translocator/effector secretion. Using an in vitro chaperone release assay, we demonstrated that SsaN dissociated a chaperone-effector complex, SsaE and SseB, in an ATP-dependent manner. Effector release was dependent on a conserved arginine residue at position 192 of SsaN, and this was essential for its enzymatic activity. These results strongly suggest that the T3SS-2-associated ATPase SsaN contributes to T3SS-2 effector translocation efficiency.
Effect of Individual Differences in Construal Level on Procrastination: Moderating Role of Intelligence Theories  [PDF]
Miki Terada
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.84032
Abstract: The relationship between individual differences in construal level and self-control, including procrastination was investigated by examining the following hypotheses. 1) People with high level of construal would procrastinate less when learning a task than those with low level of construal; and 2) theories of intelligence would moderate the effect of construal level on procrastination. These hypotheses were tested by using survey data. Results indicated that people with a low construal level procrastinated more. Results also indicated the moderating role of intelligence theories on the relationship between Behavior Identification Form (BIF) score and procrastination. This study is expected to expand our understanding of construal level theory and individual differences. The findings are also expected to clarify the relationship between construal level and procrastination.
Minocycline for Schizophrenia: A critical review  [PDF]
Tsuyoshi Miyaoka
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2012.224056
Abstract: Minocycline, an antibiotic of the tetracycline family, has been shown to display neurorestoractive or neuroprotective properties in various models of neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, it has been shown to delay motor alterations, inflammation and apoptosis in models of Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease. Despite controversies about its efficacy, the relative safety and tolerability of minocycline have led to the launching of various clinical trials. Previously, we reported the antipsychotic effects of minocycline in patients with schizophrenia. In a pilot investigation, we administered minocycline as an open-label adjunct to antipsychotic medication to patients with schizophrenia. The results of this trial suggested that minocycline might be a safe and effective adjunct to antipsychotic medications, and that augmentation with minocycline may prove to be a viable strategy for “boosting” antipsychotic efficacy and for treating schizophrenia. Recently, in randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials, the addition of minocycline to treatment as usual early in the course of schizophrenia predominantly improves negative symptoms. The present review summarizes the available data supporting the clinical testing of minocycline for patients with schizophrenia. In addition, we extend our discussion to the potential applications of minocycline for combining this treatment with cellular and molecular therapy.
Functionally Incremental Sentence Processing and Reanalysis Difficulty in Head-Final Agglutinative Language  [PDF]
Shingo Tokimoto, Miki Uetsuki
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2015.51003
Abstract: This paper quantitatively expresses the degrees of processing difficulties caused by syntactically different reanalyses in Japanese sentences by questionnaire and self-paced reading experiments with non-syntactic factors strictly controlled. We propose the functionally incremental processing for Japanese sentences and we demonstrate that our hypothesis is effective to explain the degree of the processing difficulty in various sentence types. The peculiarity of Japanese processing and the relevance of our results to the human sentence processing model are discussed.
Rejection Sensitivity, Self-Efficacy, and Learning Strategy: Mediating and Moderating the Role of Basic Needs Satisfaction  [PDF]
Miki Terada, Taishi Kawamoto
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.83028
Abstract: Rejection sensitive people often experience interpersonal difficulties, resulting in dissatisfaction with their need for relatedness. However, whether they are satisfied with their autonomy and competence, or experience difficulties from these factors other than in interpersonal relationships, remains largely unexplored. This study examined the influence of rejection sensitivity and need satisfaction (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) on learning strategy and self-efficacy. We found that competence satisfaction mediates the relationship between rejection sensitivity and self-efficacy. In addition, hierarchical regression analysis revealed a significant three-way interaction of rejection sensitivity, autonomy, and competence satisfaction with learning strategy. Competence satisfaction has a positive effect when individuals have low rejection sensitivity and are satisfied with autonomy need, whereas autonomy satisfaction has a positive effect when individuals have high rejection sensitivity and are dissatisfied with their competence levels. This suggests that autonomy and competence satisfaction levels are important for the understanding of psychological difficulties in rejection sensitive individuals.
The Correlation between Sexuality and Family Functioning among Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Japan  [PDF]
Yoshiko Miki, Naohiro Hohashi
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2018.810054
Abstract: Purpose: The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between the sexuality of patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and family functioning. Methods: The study took the form of a self-administered questionnaire survey, utilizing the Sexuality Satisfaction Index for IBD (SEXSI-IBD) for measuring sexuality and the Survey of Family Environment Survey of Family Environment (SFE) for measuring family functioning. SEXSI-IBD consists of 28 items and five domains, and SFE consists of 30 items and five domains. The participants were recruited at 15 self-help groups and 14 hospitals. Results: Of 146 participants, 48.6% were male and 52.4% female, with an average age of 41.1 years. A significant correlation was observed between the item average score of SEXSI-IBD and Overall Satisfaction Score (OSS) of SFE. Significant correlations were observed in two domains of the SEXSI-IBD, “Daily interaction” and “Sexual communication,” and in all five domains of the SFE. In particular, for “Daily interaction,” the strongest correlation was observed in the SFE’s “Macro system” and “Family internal environment system.” A correlation was observed between the “Physical contact importance” in SEXSI-IBD and the “Macro system” in the OSS of the SFE. Conclusions: Sexuality correlates with family functioning not only in the family internal environment system but also in the family external environment system. Through an approach aimed at elevating the degree of satisfaction for sexuality, it becomes possible to improve family functioning and realize a sense of family well-being.
Distributed Intelligent Lighting System by Performing New Model for Illuminance and Color Temperature in the Workplace  [PDF]
Mohammed Hajjaj, Mitsunori Miki
Intelligent Control and Automation (ICA) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ica.2019.101001
Abstract: A new approach has been proposed to improve the performance of the in-telligent lighting system by estimating personal illuminance and desired color temperature at the workplace. We are considering the problem of using the sensing devices manually for the intelligent lighting system. The lighting control system has not become useful without sensing devices to measure the provided illuminance and color temperature. In this paper, we have used the property of light for the color temperature to estimate the level of color temperature for each user at the workplace. The new method will give personal illuminance for each user at the workplace and decrease the power consumption of the environment as well. As a result, the proposed method of the intelligent lighting system has realized the target of illuminance and color temperature for each user at the workplace by adapting dimming levels using illuminance sensing information for each user. Thus, the energy of the workplace has reduced by using a distributed luminance to realize the target for each user.
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