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Profitability of Contractual Bread Wheat Seed Production in Mecha District of Amhara Region, Ethiopia
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2012, DOI: 10.5513/jcea01/13.1.1026
Abstract: The study was undertaken to examine the profitability of contractual bread wheat seed production in Kudmi village of Mecha district in Amhara region, Ethiopia. Primary data were collected from fourteen seed growers using structured questionnaire. The analytical tools employed include descriptive statistics and average net farm income. Results revealed that the average total cost of production per hectare is Br 8,478.82 ($ 493.82); the average gross revenue per hectare is Br 17,783.72 ($ 1,035.74); and hence the average net profit per hectare is Br 9,304.90 ($ 541.93). The findings also showed that an index of 1.10 economic efficiency of certified bread wheat seed production indicating that contractual bread what seed production is a profitable venture in the study area. The study identified non- application or improper application of inputs (fertilizers and seed) and not exercising the recommended management practices were the major problems in seed production. It is necessary to provide adequate extension service for farmers to promote better seed management technologies and efficient use of agricultural inputs.
The making and legitimacy of the Ethiopian constitution: towards bridging the gap between constitutional design and constitutional practice
Regassa, Tsegaye
Afrika Focus , 2010,
Abstract: This article describes the making of the 1995 constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE) and analyzes its implications for legitimacy. It contends that legitimacy of the constitution, which fosters fidelity to it, can –as one among other factors– help bridge the gapbetween constitutional design and constitutional practice. By making a process-content-context analysis of the constitution, it argues that the Ethiopian constitution which had a weak original legitimacy, can earn a derivative legitimacy through aggressive implementation. Aggressive implementation, it is maintained, demands fidelity to the constitution. Fidelity and other components of a redemptive constitutional practice (such as creative constitutional interpretation, constitutionally informed legislation, positive constitutional amendment, and constitutionally responsible voting) help deal with the perennial question of how to bridge the gap between constitutional design and constitutional practice in Ethiopia and beyond.
Effects of Repetitive Transplanting and Leaf Pruning on Growth and Dry Matter Partitioning of Enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman)
Admasu Tsegaye
Journal of Agronomy , 2007,
Abstract: The practices of repetitive transplanting and leaf pruning methods of enset (Ensete ventricosum) plants are not consistent over enset growing areas. Current yield levels in enset production are relatively low and vary between growing areas depending on the different repetitive transplanting and leaf pruning practices. Patterns of enset plant growth over the entire growing season and relative distribution and accumulation of dry matter to the harvestable parts of the crop as influenced by the different practices are important parameters to understand and modify the management practices in an effort to increase the yield of the plant. Influence of repetitive transplanting and leaf pruning methods on growth, dry matter partitioning and dry matter production were studied at the Areka Research Centre, North Omo, Southern Ethiopia. Transplanting treatments significantly affected height, circumference of pseudostem and dry matter yield of corm and pseudostem at all harvest dates. Increase in dry matter was earlier in once (T1) compared to twice (T2) and thrice (T3) treatments. Maximum total plant dry matter yield per unit space of T1 and T2 transplanted enset suckers was obtained at flowering at 104 and 234 weeks after first transplanting, respectively. Repetitive transplanting reduced the fitted maximum rate of increase (g m-2 week-1) compared to direct transplanting. The dry matter partitioning to the harvestable parts however, were increased as a result of repetitive transplanting. Partitioning of dry matter to the harvestable organs of the plant seems more important than total dry matter production for determining kocho yield of enset plants. For early yield, livestock feed and other purposes however direct transplanting might be practical. Leaf pruning alone or the interaction between leaf pruning and transplanting did not significantly affect dry matter production and partitioning. Circumference of the pseudostem seems a good indicator for high yield of kocho.
Numerical Solution of the Coupled Viscous Burgers’ Equation Using Differential Quadrature Method Based on Fourier Expansion Basis  [PDF]
Masho Jima, Alemayehu Shiferaw, Ali Tsegaye
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/am.2018.97057
The differential quadrature method based on Fourier expansion basis is applied in this work to solve coupled viscous Burgers’ equation with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. In the first step for the given problem we have discretized the interval and replaced the differential equation by the Differential quadrature method based on Fourier expansion basis to obtain a system of ordinary differential equation (ODE) then we implement the numerical scheme by computer programing and perform numerical solution. Finally the validation of the present scheme is demonstrated by numerical example and compared with some existing numerical methods in literature. The method is analyzed for stability and convergence. It is found that the proposed numerical scheme produces a good result as compared to other researcher’s result and even generates a value at the nodes or mesh points that the results have not seen yet.
Assessment of antiretroviral treatment outcome in public hospitals, South Nations Nationalities and Peoples Region, Ethiopia
E Tsegaye, A Worku
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2011,
Abstract: Background: The outcome of antiretroviral treatment, survival patterns and associated determining factors in public hospitals are not well known. Thus a longitudinal study is vital to understand the pattern of survival and treatment outcome. Objective: To assess the outcome of antiretroviral treatment in rural public hospitals in South Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region, Ethiopia. Method: A historical retrospective cohort study design was used for patients visiting hospitals from January 1, 2005 to January 31, 2009. A total of 5,664 patient records were examined from eight randomly selected public hospitals. Kaplan-Meier models were used to estimate mortality and Cox proportional hazards models to identify predictors of mortality. Results: The median age was 30 years and 73.6% were in the age group 25-40 while the higher HIV risk age group 14-24 covered only 12.8%. The proportion of females was 56.3%. The cumulative proportions of survivals were 92%, 90%, 88% and 86% at months 6, 12, 24 and 36 respectively. The hazard of death was higher in male (AHR: 1.632, CI: 1.309-2.034) and those who had a baseline CD4 cell count < 50 cells /ml compared to these with a count of above 200 (AHR: 3.176, CI: 2.304- 4.434). Patients with WHO stage IV at baseline had a higher risk of death compared to these with a WHO stage I (AHR: 5.603, CI: 1.753-17.905). Conclusions: There is an indication of improvement of survival in the patient population. An advanced disease stage, Low CD4 cell count, gender and timing of ARV regimen combinations had significant contribution in determining a longer survival time. Priority should thus be given to identify HIV-infected individuals and start ART earlier in the course of their illness. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2011;25(2):102-109]
Bacterial Uropathogens in Urinary Tract Infection and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia
G Beyene, W Tsegaye
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections encountered by clinicians in developing countries. Area-specific monitoring studies aimed to gain knowledge about the type of pathogens responsible for urinary tract infections and their resistance patterns may help the clinician to choose the correct empirical treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the type and antibiotic resistance pattern of the urinary pathogens isolated from patients attending Jimma University Specialized Hospital from April to June 2010. METHODS: A hospital based cross sectional stud was onducted and urine samples were collected using the mid-stream "clean catch" method from 228 clinically-suspected cases of urinary tract infections and tested bacteriologically using standard procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for the isolated pathogens using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. RESULTS: - Significant bacteria were detected from 9.2% of the total patients. The most common pathogens isolated were Escherichia coli (33.3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (19%) and S. saprophyticus (14.3%). E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae showed the highest percentage of resistance to ampicillin and amoxacillin (100%) however, all isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. S. saprophyticus and S. aureus were resistant to ampicillin (100%) and amoxicillin (66.7%). For all UTI isolates, least resistance was observed against drugs such as ceftriaxone, gentamycin and chloramphenicol. CONCLUSION: - This study finding showed that E. coli isolates were the predominant pathogens and the presence of bacterial isolates with very high resistance to the commonly prescribed drugs that in turn leaves the clinicians with very few alternative options of drugs for the treatment of UTIs. As drug resistance among bacterial pathogens is an evolving process, routine surveillance and monitoring studies should be conducted to provide physicians knowledge on the updated and most effective empirical treatment of UTIs. KEYWORDS: Urinary tract infection, antimicrobial resistance, Jimma, Ethiopia
Geology and Tectonic Evolution of the Pan-African Tulu Dimtu Belt, Western Ethiopia
Tadesse Alemu,Tsegaye Abebe
Online Journal of Earth Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The Tulu Dimtu Belt (TDB) is a NNE-SSW trending litho-tectonic unit, which forms the southwestern and wider branch of the predominantly low-grade volcano-sedimentary terrane of the Pan-African Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) and occupies a key position in understanding the geodynamic evolution of the East African Orogen (EAO). The belt can be traced for the entire length of the Precambrian basement of western Ethiopian and appears to continue to the proposed Barka ophiolitic suture in Eritrea and the Sudan. It is characterized by a variety of lithological units, including gneisses, metamorphosed volcanic, volcaniclastic and sedimentary successions with associated mafic-ultramafic rocks of probable ophiolitic origin and granitoid intrusives. The rocks in the belt are divided into five informal litho-tectonostratigraphic units separated from each other by tectonic discontinuities. From east to west these are. High-grade (amphibolite facies) gneiss and migmatites, Sayi Chenga Group, comprising metavolcanics, mainly basic and associated metasediments, Tulu Dimtu Complex, composed of mafic and ultramafic rocks and associated volcano-sedimentary rocks of probable ophiolitic association, 2 Chochi Domain, characterized by medium to high-grade supracrustal gneiss and schist and Katta Domain, characterized by low-grade metavolcano-sedimentary and associated intrusive rocks. The TDB represents a zone of shortening and is one of the best examples of a polydeformed northwest-verging fold-and-thrust belt in the ANS. Early Deformation (D1) is a progressive shortening, which resulted in the development of northwest-verging thrusts and associated recumbent, tight to isoclinal folds with subhorizontal axes and shallowly SE-dipping and NNE-SSW trending axial planar foliations (S1). The asymmetry of D1 structures indicates an oblique (top to the northwest) sense of movement. This phase of deformation might be related the closure of the oceanic basin which resulted in the northwestward obduction of the Tulu Dimtu ophiolites. D2 deformation resulted in steepening of D1 structures into upright folds. D3 deformation represents extensive shortening, which culminated in the formation of major NW-trending sinistral strike-slip faults/shear zones and minor N and NNE-trending sinistral/dextral strike-slip faults/shear zones that are superimposed at high angle to the D1 and D2 structures. The relationships between D1, D2 and D3 is consistent with development of the TDB during a period of oblique collision in response to a NW-SE compressional stress that induced sinistral transpression.
Hydrostatic equilibrium in modeling the neutral atmosphere
Tsegaye K.,Baylie D.
Latin-American Journal of Physics Education , 2010,
Abstract: This report focuses on demonstrating the approach of hydrostatic equilibrium in modeling the neutral atmosphere and ionization intensity. We showed how the altitude variations of the neutral density can be described; altitude and density at maximum ion production and optical depth of the atmosphere can be modeled using hydrostatic equilibrium. Moreover MSIS-E-90 atmospheric model results are employed for comparison purposes to see the trends of outputs of the hydrostatic approximations. As a result, we came to conclude that hydrostatic approximations could be useful at least to explain the theoretical science behind the Earth’s atmosphere.
Effect of Intercropping of Legumes and Rates of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield and Yield Components of Maize (Zea mays L.) at Arba Minch  [PDF]
Ewnetie Takele, Zenebe Mekonnen, Dereje Tsegaye, Arega Abebe
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.89145
Abstract: Intercropping of legumes and cereals, an old practice since ancient civilization, plays pivotal role to increase land use efficiency, improve income and food production per unit area and minimize the risks of crop failure for small scale farmers. Thus, field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of intercropping of legumes and rates of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L.). The experiment consisted of 0, 23, 46, 69 and 92 kg·N·ha-1 and sole maize, maize + commom bean, maize + common bean - mung bean cropping systems with Random Complete Block Design factorial experiment in three replications using maize variety, “BH-140”, common bean variety (Hawassadume) and mung bean variety. Maximum plant heights, dry matter and grain yield, were observed from sole cropped maize and maize + common bean, when applying 92 kg·N·ha-1. Significantly higher total
Rainfall Prediction Model Improvement by Fuzzy Set Theory  [PDF]
Mahbub Hasan, Xingzhong (Frank) Shi, Teferi Tsegaye, Nesar U. Ahmed, Salam Md. Mahbubush Khan
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.51001

This paper presents the improvement of the fuzzy inference model primarily developed for predicting rainfall with data from United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) Station at the Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University (AAMU) Campus for the year 2004. The primary model was developed with Fuzzy variables selected based on the degree of association of different factors with various combinations causing rainfall. An increase in wind speed (WS) and a decrease in temperature (TP) when compared between the ith and (i-1)th day were found to have a positive relation with rainfall. Results of the model showed better performance after introducing the threshold values of 1) relative humidity (RH) of the ith day; 2) humidity increase (HI) when compared between the ith and (i-1)th day; and 3) product (P) of increase in wind speed (WS) and decrease in temperature (TP) when compared between the ith and (i-1)th day. In case of the improved model, errors between actual and calculated amount of rainfall (RF) were 1.20%, 2.19%, and 9.60% when using USDA-SCAN data from AAMU campus for years 2003, 2004 and 2005, respectively. The improved model was tested at William A. Thomas Agricultural Research Station (WTARS) and Bragg farm in Alabama to check the applicability of the model. The errors between the actual and calculated amount of rainfall (RF) were 3.20%, 5.90%, and 1.66% using USDA-SCAN data from WATARS for years 2003, 2004, and 2005,

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