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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 84676 matches for " Troy W. Grovenburg "
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Disease and Predation: Sorting out Causes of a Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) Decline
Joshua B. Smith, Jonathan A. Jenks, Troy W. Grovenburg, Robert W. Klaver
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088271
Abstract: Estimating survival and documenting causes and timing of mortality events in neonate bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) improves understanding of population ecology and factors influencing recruitment. During 2010–2012, we captured and radiocollared 74 neonates in the Black Hills, South Dakota, of which 95% (70) died before 52 weeks of age. Pneumonia (36%) was the leading cause of mortality followed by predation (30%). We used known fate analysis in Program MARK to estimate weekly survival rates and investigate the influence of intrinsic variables on 52-week survival. Model {S1 wk, 2–8 wks, >8 wks} had the lowest AICc (Akaike’s Information Criterion corrected for small sample size) value, indicating that age (3-stage age-interval: 1 week, 2–8 weeks, and >8 weeks) best explained survival. Weekly survival estimates for 1 week, 2–8 weeks, and >8 weeks were 0.81 (95% CI = 0.70–0.88), 0.86 (95% CI = 0.81–0.90), and 0.94 (95% CI = 0.91–0.96), respectively. Overall probability of surviving 52 weeks was 0.02 (95% CI = 0.01–0.07). Of 70 documented mortalities, 21% occurred during the first week, 55% during weeks 2–8, and 23% occurred >8 weeks of age. We found pneumonia and predation were temporally heterogeneous with lambs most susceptible to predation during the first 2–3 weeks of life, while the greatest risk from pneumonia occurred from weeks 4–8. Our results indicated pneumonia was the major factor limiting recruitment followed by predation. Mortality from predation may have been partly compensatory to pneumonia and its effects were less pronounced as alternative prey became available. Given the high rates of pneumonia-caused mortality we observed, and the apparent lack of pneumonia-causing pathogens in bighorn populations in the western Black Hills, management activities should be geared towards eliminating contact between diseased and healthy populations.
Evidence for Deficits in the Temporal Attention Span of Poor Readers
Troy A. W. Visser
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091278
Abstract: Background While poor reading is often associated with phonological deficits, many studies suggest that visual processing might also be impaired. In particular, recent research has indicated that poor readers show impaired spatial visual attention spans in partial and whole report tasks. Given the similarities between competition-based accounts for reduced visual attention span and similar explanations for impairments in sequential object processing, the present work examined whether poor readers show deficits in their “temporal attention span” – that is, their ability to rapidly and accurately process sequences of consecutive target items. Methodology/Principal Findings Poor and normal readers monitored a sequential stream of visual items for two (TT condition) or three (TTT condition) consecutive target digits. Target identification was examined using both unconditional and conditional measures of accuracy in order to gauge the overall likelihood of identifying a target and the likelihood of identifying a target given successful identification of previous items. Compared to normal readers, poor readers showed small but consistent deficits in identification across targets whether unconditional or conditional accuracy was used. Additionally, in the TTT condition, final-target conditional accuracy was poorer than unconditional accuracy, particularly for poor readers, suggesting a substantial cost arising from processing the previous two targets that was not present in normal readers. Conclusions/Significance Mirroring the differences found between poor and normal readers in spatial visual attention span, the present findings suggest two principal differences between the temporal attention spans of poor and normal readers. First, the consistent pattern of reduced performance across targets suggests increased competition amongst items within the same span for poor readers. Second, the steeper decline in final target performance amongst poor readers in the TTT condition suggests a reduction in the extent of their temporal attention span.
How Does Information Processing Speed Relate to the Attentional Blink?
Troy A. W. Visser, Jeneva L. Ohan
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033265
Abstract: Background When observers are asked to identify two targets in rapid sequence, they often suffer profound performance deficits for the second target, even when the spatial location of the targets is known. This attentional blink (AB) is usually attributed to the time required to process a previous target, implying that a link should exist between individual differences in information processing speed and the AB. Methodology/Principal Findings The present work investigated this question by examining the relationship between a rapid automatized naming task typically used to assess information-processing speed and the magnitude of the AB. The results indicated that faster processing actually resulted in a greater AB, but only when targets were presented amongst high similarity distractors. When target-distractor similarity was minimal, processing speed was unrelated to the AB. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that information-processing speed is unrelated to target processing efficiency per se, but rather to individual differences in observers' ability to suppress distractors. This is consistent with evidence that individuals who are able to avoid distraction are more efficient at deploying temporal attention, but argues against a direct link between general processing speed and efficient information selection.
Immunolocalization of Influenza A Virus and Markers of Inflammation in the Human Parkinson's Disease Brain
Troy T. Rohn, Lindsey W. Catlin
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020495
Abstract: Although much is known regarding the molecular mechanisms leading to neuronal cell loss in Parkinson's disease (PD), the initiating event has not been identified. Prevailing theories including a chemical insult or infectious agent have been postulated as possible triggers, leading to neuroinflammation. We present immunohistochemical data indicating the presence of influenza A virus within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) from postmortem PD brain sections. Influenza A virus labeling was identified within neuromelanin granules as well as on tissue macrophages in the SNpc. Further supporting a role for neuroinflammation in PD was the identification of T-lymphocytes that colocalized with an antibody to caspase-cleaved Beclin-1 within the SNpc. The presence of influenza A virus together with macrophages and T-lymphocytes may contribute to the neuroinflammation associated with this disease.
Psychophysical properties of odor processing can be quantitatively described by relative action potential latency patterns in mitral and tufted cells
Andreas T. Schaefer,Troy W. Margrie
Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fnsys.2012.00030
Abstract: Electrophysiological and population imaging data in rodents show that olfactory bulb (OB) activity is profoundly modulated by the odor sampling process while behavioral experiments indicate that odor discrimination can occur within a single sniff. This paper addresses the question of whether action potential (AP) latencies occurring across the mitral and tufted cell (M/TC) population within an individual sampling cycle could account for the psychophysical properties of odor processing. To determine this we created an OB model (50,000 M/TCs) exhibiting hallmarks of published in vivo properties and used a template-matching algorithm to assess stimulus separation. Such an AP latency-based scheme showed high reproducibility and sensitivity such that odor stimuli could be reliably separated independent of concentration. As in behavioral experiments we found that very dissimilar odors (“A vs. B”) were accurately and rapidly discerned while very similar odors (binary mixtures, 0.4A/0.6B vs. 0.6A/0.4B) required up to 90 ms longer. As in lesion studies we find that AP latency-based representation is rather insensitive to disruption of large regions of the OB. The AP latency-based scheme described here, therefore, captures both temporal and psychophysical properties of olfactory processing and suggests that the onset patterns of M/TC activity in the OB represent stimulus specific features of olfactory stimuli.
There are Asymmetric Minimizers for the One-Dimensional Ginzburg-Landau Model of Superconductivity
S. P. Hastings,W. C. Troy
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: We study a boundary value problem associated with a system of two second order differential equations with cubic nonlinearity which model a film of superconductor material subjected to a tangential magnetic field. We show that for an appropriate range of parameters there are {\it asymmetric} solutions, and only trivial {\it symmetric} solutions. We then show that the associated energy function is negative for the asymmetric solutions, and zero for the trivial symmetric solution. It follows that a global minimizer of the energy is asymmetric.
Mechanical Stimulation Induces mTOR Signaling via an ERK-Independent Mechanism: Implications for a Direct Activation of mTOR by Phosphatidic Acid
Jae Sung You, John W. Frey, Troy A. Hornberger
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047258
Abstract: Signaling by mTOR is a well-recognized component of the pathway through which mechanical signals regulate protein synthesis and muscle mass. However, the mechanisms involved in the mechanical regulation of mTOR signaling have not been defined. Nevertheless, recent studies suggest that a mechanically-induced increase in phosphatidic acid (PA) may be involved. There is also evidence which suggests that mechanical stimuli, and PA, utilize ERK to induce mTOR signaling. Hence, we reasoned that a mechanically-induced increase in PA might promote mTOR signaling via an ERK-dependent mechanism. To test this, we subjected mouse skeletal muscles to mechanical stimulation in the presence or absence of a MEK/ERK inhibitor, and then measured several commonly used markers of mTOR signaling. Transgenic mice expressing a rapamycin-resistant mutant of mTOR were also used to confirm the validity of these markers. The results demonstrated that mechanically-induced increases in p70s6k T389 and 4E-BP1 S64 phosphorylation, and unexpectedly, a loss in total 4E-BP1, were fully mTOR-dependent signaling events. Furthermore, we determined that mechanical stimulation induced these mTOR-dependent events, and protein synthesis, through an ERK-independent mechanism. Similar to mechanical stimulation, exogenous PA also induced mTOR-dependent signaling via an ERK-independent mechanism. Moreover, PA was able to directly activate mTOR signaling in vitro. Combined, these results demonstrate that mechanical stimulation induces mTOR signaling, and protein synthesis, via an ERK-independent mechanism that potentially involves a direct interaction of PA with mTOR. Furthermore, it appears that a decrease in total 4E-BP1 may be part of the mTOR-dependent mechanism through which mechanical stimuli activate protein synthesis.
Neuronal Oscillations Enhance Stimulus Discrimination by Ensuring Action Potential Precision
Andreas T. Schaefer,Kamilla Angelo,Hartwig Spors,Troy W. Margrie
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040163
Abstract: Although oscillations in membrane potential are a prominent feature of sensory, motor, and cognitive function, their precise role in signal processing remains elusive. Here we show, using a combination of in vivo, in vitro, and theoretical approaches, that both synaptically and intrinsically generated membrane potential oscillations dramatically improve action potential (AP) precision by removing the membrane potential variance associated with jitter-accumulating trains of APs. This increased AP precision occurred irrespective of cell type and—at oscillation frequencies ranging from 3 to 65 Hz—permitted accurate discernment of up to 1,000 different stimuli. At low oscillation frequencies, stimulus discrimination showed a clear phase dependence whereby inputs arriving during the trough and the early rising phase of an oscillation cycle were most robustly discriminated. Thus, by ensuring AP precision, membrane potential oscillations dramatically enhance the discriminatory capabilities of individual neurons and networks of cells and provide one attractive explanation for their abundance in neurophysiological systems.
Neuronal Oscillations Enhance Stimulus Discrimination by Ensuring Action Potential Precision
Andreas T Schaefer,Kamilla Angelo,Hartwig Spors,Troy W Margrie
PLOS Biology , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040163
Abstract: Although oscillations in membrane potential are a prominent feature of sensory, motor, and cognitive function, their precise role in signal processing remains elusive. Here we show, using a combination of in vivo, in vitro, and theoretical approaches, that both synaptically and intrinsically generated membrane potential oscillations dramatically improve action potential (AP) precision by removing the membrane potential variance associated with jitter-accumulating trains of APs. This increased AP precision occurred irrespective of cell type and—at oscillation frequencies ranging from 3 to 65 Hz—permitted accurate discernment of up to 1,000 different stimuli. At low oscillation frequencies, stimulus discrimination showed a clear phase dependence whereby inputs arriving during the trough and the early rising phase of an oscillation cycle were most robustly discriminated. Thus, by ensuring AP precision, membrane potential oscillations dramatically enhance the discriminatory capabilities of individual neurons and networks of cells and provide one attractive explanation for their abundance in neurophysiological systems.
Application of Optimal Control to CPMG Refocusing Pulse Design
Troy W. Borneman,Martin D. Hurlimann,David G. Cory
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmr.2010.09.003
Abstract: We apply optimal control theory (OCT) to the design of refocusing pulses suitable for the CPMG sequence that are robust over a wide range of B0 and B1 offsets. We also introduce a model, based on recent progress in the analysis of unitary dynamics in the field of quantum information processing (QIP), that describes the multiple refocusing dynamics of the CPMG sequence as a dephasing Pauli channel. This model provides a compact characterization of the consequences and severity of residual pulse errors. We illustrate the methods by considering a specific example of designing and analyzing broadband OCT refocusing pulses of length 10 t180 that are constrained by the maximum instantaneous pulse power. We show that with this refocusing pulse, the CPMG sequence can refocus over 98% of magnetization for resonance offsets up to 3.2 times the maximum RF amplitude, even in the presence of +/- 10% RF inhomogeneity.
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