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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2249 matches for " Trade "
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Bert Koene, De Caeskopers. Een Zaanse koopmansfamilie in de Gouden Eeuw
Herman Kaptein
BMGN : Low Countries Historical Review , 2012,
An Economic Analysis of Development and Structure of the Foreign Total Intra-Arab Trade  [PDF]
Tarek T. El Khateeb, Sarhan A. A. Soliman, Roshdy S. Eladawy
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/as.2016.71003
Abstract: The foreign intra-Arab trade is an essential tool and important input in order to achieve an important Arab economic integration. However, in spite of the efforts for the Liberation of the Arab Trade and Development, the fact indicates the modest rate of the foreign intra-Arab trade to the foreign total Arab trade with the world, as it does not exceed that percentage to 10.9% in year 2013. The present research is aimed at measuring the efficiency of the total foreign intra-Arab trade during the period (1990-2010). Where, it has been increased sharply, as value of the total foreign intra-Arab trade increases annually by about 12.6%. Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates are considered the most important contributors of the total foreign intra-Arab trade, and a category of manufacturing has dominated the largest relative importance in average value of total Arab trade, which has accounted to 50.8%. Followed by category, metal fuel and other metals are accounted by about 25.3% and there is lower overall contribution to the foreign intra-Arab trade in the total foreign trade of Arab and its amount has increased by 10.58%. Therefore, it is recommended to further coordination among the Arab States in the areas of production and specialization in economic production. This is also recommended to establish the specialized department for greater Arab free trade area in every Arab country in addition to accelerate the establishment of a customs union.
Research on China and the US Service Trade Structures Based on Technical Value Added  [PDF]
Xinying Liu, Xiawei Shen
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.29017

China and the United States have been important partners in service trade. Much research has been done on the traditional indexes which reflect the two countries’ service trade structure, indicating that technology is playing an increasingly significant role in international trade. We use a new index of technical value added to analyze the service trade structure of the two countries. As a result, we can calculate tradable technical value added based on the Technical Value Added theory. We also introduce the method to calculate and measure the service trade’s category according to the classification of the International Trade Center in China and the US. Finally we figure out the structures of the service trade in both countries as well as some proposals to optimize the structure.

Technical Barriers to Trade and China’s Trade  [PDF]
Hong Gu
Modern Economy (ME) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/me.2017.88072
Abstract: China’s foreign trade volume is growing due to the increasingly globalized economy and the improvement in China’s international status. With China’s accession to the WTO and the rapid expansion of foreign economic and trade and economic rise, technical barriers to trade are widely used as a measure. In recent years, many Chinese export enterprises have encountered some of the world’s major developed countries. The impact of TBT reaches the ultra-billion dollars each year. Therefore, this paper focuses on the impact on technical trade barriers (TBT) on China’s export trade, from the perspective of government and enterprises to study countermeasures. Technical barrier to trade is a trade import control. It has a duality, broadness, compliance and hidden. China is affected by internal and external causes. External causes are the protection for national interests, trade barriers, and so on. Internal factors are China’s trade pattern, industrial pattern imbalance and export order disorder. For these reasons, the government should establish a good system mechanism and the enterprises should improve product quality.
Export Promotion, Import Substitution and Economic Integration in Nigeria  [PDF]
Tunde G. Monogbe, O. John Okah
iBusiness (IB) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2017.94010

This paper empirically integrates the interplay between import substitution and export promote on the Nigerian economy in conjunction with the theoretical position of the protectionist and the free trade activist and how this has helped in promoting the Nigerian economy over the years. A disaggregate analysis of importation and exportation is conducted using a time series data between the periods 1981 to 2016. Series of econometric estimation tools were adopted in this study. Findings reveal that Non-oil export and Non-oil import seems to significantly promote economic integration in Nigeria. This report further gave in a support to trade protectionist and the trade liberalize advocates. The result of the causality test shows that before any nation could attract foreign inflows, the economy must be in good form as foreign investor only invests in an economy whose receiving capacity can sustain their investment. The study therefore concludes that before any nation could embrace liberalization, there must have been a level of threshold of industrial development in such nation.

China-ASEAN Free Trade Area Development Status Quo and Trade Effect Analysis  [PDF]
Changze Wang
Modern Economy (ME) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/me.2018.94047
Abstract: From the starting of CAFTA in 2002, the economic and trade contact between China and ASEAN has become increasingly frequent. Both sides have achieved good development, which actively promoted the development of free trade area. First of all, this paper introduces the current situation of trade of China-ASEAN Free Trade Area, including the general situation of trade of China and ASEAN, the balance trade of China and ASEAN and key trade industry between China and ASEAN. And secondly, this paper analyzes the Trade Creation Effects through the share of Chinese exports to ASEAN in Chinese total export volume, which finds that the proportion of Chinese exports to ASEAN has increased steadily and that generated a certain trade creation effects. And also the paper analyzes the outside trade diversion effect through the share of Chinese imports and exports with ASEAN in China’s total trades, which shows that China has also created a certain extent Trade Diversion Effect. What’s more, this paper selects the data from China, ASEAN countries and China’s important trade partners, and establishes the panel data from 2003 to
How International Trade Affects the Spatial Pattern of China’s Economic Activities?  [PDF]
Yanling Zhu
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2019.93043
This paper has analyzed the impact of international trade mechanisms to spatial economic structure, panel data 2001-2016 China’s 30 provinces, and factors which affect Chinese economic structure of empirical research on trade openness, and found that, on the whole, trade openness has no significant direct effect on China’s economic spatial pattern, and indirectly promotes policy advantages to make economic activities more spatially agglomerate, and to make economic activities more dispersed by promoting transportation infrastructure. From the perspective of the East, Central and West regions, the trade openness directly promotes the agglomeration of the East and West regions. The regional policy advantage is the main mechanism affecting the regional economic agglomeration. The human capital mechanism and the transportation infrastructure mechanism in the eastern region respectively make dispersal and agglomeration; the transportation infrastructure in the central part makes the space more dispersed; the human capital mechanism and the transportation infrastructure mechanism in the western region respectively make the space agglomerate and decentralized. Local governments should strengthen regional cooperation and formulate differentiated trade policies to lead regional industries to drive regional innovation.
The Determinants of Trade Credit: Evidence from Indian Manufacturing Firms  [PDF]
Rajendra R. Vaidya
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.25079
Abstract: Trade credit (accounts receivable and accounts payable) is both an important source and use of funds for manufacturing firms in India. This paper empirically investigates the determinants of trade credit in the Indian context. The empirical evidence presented suggests that strong evidence exists in support of an inventory management motive for the existence of trade credit. Highly profitable firms both give and receive less trade credit. Firms with greater access to bank credit offer less trade credit to their customers. On the other hand, firms with higher bank loans receive more trade credit. Holdings of liquid assets have a positive influence on both accounts receivable and accounts payable.
U.S. red meat production from foreign-born animals  [PDF]
Michael J. McConnell, Kenneth H. Mathews Jr., Rachel J. Johnson, Keithly Jones
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.32023
Abstract: The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) propelled the integration of livestock markets among the United States, Mexico, and Canada. Along with vertical integration within the respective industries, different sectors of the cattle and hog industries have shifted their production locations based on resource efficiencies. Imports of live cattle and hogs, as well as beef and pork, in the United States have been steadily increasing since the implementation of NAFTA, except during the restrictions on cattle and beef imports from Canada due to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) discoveries there in 2003. There are limited empirical sources that relate the importation of livestock to the domestic U.S. production of meats. This paper introduces a methodology to estimate the amount of U.S. beef and pork production that can be attributed to foreign-born cattle and hogs. The procedure uses official U.S. trade data to quantify livestock imported at various weights and stages of production and projects the final production date and weight using existing data and literature.
Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in the Nigerian Telecommunication Sector  [PDF]
Omosola Arawomo, J. F. Apanisile
Modern Economy (ME) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/me.2018.95058
Abstract: This paper investigated the key determinants of FDI in the Nigerian telecommunication sector. The study made use of data from 1986 to 2014. Annual data on infrastructure, government expenditure, trade openness and market size, were sourced from the World Development Indicators (WDI) of the World Bank. FDI flow into telecommunication sector, foreign exchange rate, interest rate and inflation, were sourced from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin. Data were analyzed using graphs, t-test and Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL). The results showed that the key determinants of FDI in the sector are market size and trade openness (t = 5.75 to 9.05; p < 0.05) on positive side, as well as Inflation and real interest rate (t = -0.05 to -4.03; p < 0.05) on negative side. The study therefore concludes that the key determinants of FDI flow into the Nigerian telecommunication sector are market size, trade openness, government expenditure, inflation and interest rate.
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