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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 736 matches for " Toshiro Koike "
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Expression of CD133 and Extracellular Matrix Molecules in Malignant Brain Tumors  [PDF]
Seiichi Yoshida, Toshiro Koike
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2011.24052
Abstract: Background: CD133 could be characterized as a “stem-like” cell subpopulation and an invasive tumor phenotype. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship of CD133 and other remodeling factors such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in the brain tumors. Methods: Tumors from 13 patients with brain tumors (8 lung cancer metastasis, 3 breast cancer metastasis, 2 gliomas) were studied to investigate the expression-patterns of CD133, EGFR, MT1-MMP, and MMP7 using the immunostaining and RT-PCR analysis. Results: EGFR immunostaining was detected in 75% (6/8) and 67% (1/3) of brain metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma and breast cancer, respectively. MT1-MMP immunostaining was also detected in 73% (8/11) of these brain metastasis. CD133 was not detected in these 13 patients. EGFR immunostaining was detected in 75% (6/8) and 67% (1/3) of brain metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma and breast cancer, respectively. MT1-MMP immunostaining was also detected in 73% (8/11) of these brain metastasis. CD133 was not detected in these 13 patients. Conclusions: The expression of CD133 indicates a marker for brain tumor initiating.
Insulin Resistance, Obesity, Hypertension, and Renal Sodium Transport
Shoko Horita,George Seki,Hideomi Yamada,Masashi Suzuki,Kazuhiko Koike,Toshiro Fujita
International Journal of Hypertension , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/391762
Abstract: Sodium transport through various nephron segments is quite important in regulating sodium reabsorption and blood pressure. Among several regulators of this process, insulin acts on almost all the nephron segments and is a strong enhancer of sodium reabsorption. Sodium-proton exchanger type 3 (NHE3) is a main regulator of sodium reabsorption in the luminal side of proximal tubule. In the basolateral side of the proximal tubule, sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe1) mediates sodium and bicarbonate exit from tubular cells. In the distal nephron and the connecting tubule, epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is of great importance to sodium reabsorption. NHE3, NBCe1, and ENaC are all regulated by insulin. Recently with-no-lysine (WNK) kinases, responsible for familial hypertension, stimulating sodium reabsorption in the distal nephron, have been found to be also regulated by insulin. We will discuss the regulation of renal sodium transport by insulin and its roles in the pathogenesis of hypertension in insulin resistance.
Insulin Resistance, Obesity, Hypertension, and Renal Sodium Transport
Shoko Horita,George Seki,Hideomi Yamada,Masashi Suzuki,Kazuhiko Koike,Toshiro Fujita
International Journal of Hypertension , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/391762
Abstract: Sodium transport through various nephron segments is quite important in regulating sodium reabsorption and blood pressure. Among several regulators of this process, insulin acts on almost all the nephron segments and is a strong enhancer of sodium reabsorption. Sodium-proton exchanger type 3 (NHE3) is a main regulator of sodium reabsorption in the luminal side of proximal tubule. In the basolateral side of the proximal tubule, sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe1) mediates sodium and bicarbonate exit from tubular cells. In the distal nephron and the connecting tubule, epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is of great importance to sodium reabsorption. NHE3, NBCe1, and ENaC are all regulated by insulin. Recently with-no-lysine (WNK) kinases, responsible for familial hypertension, stimulating sodium reabsorption in the distal nephron, have been found to be also regulated by insulin. We will discuss the regulation of renal sodium transport by insulin and its roles in the pathogenesis of hypertension in insulin resistance. 1. Introduction Obesity is frequently accompanied with hypertension [1]. Obesity is, at the same time, closely related to hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance [2]. While the precise mechanism of hypertension in insulin resistance remains to be clarified, the activation of sympathetic nerve system, the disorders dysregulation of central nerve system including leptin, and the activation of renin-angiotensin system are generally thought to be involved [1]. Although insulin has powerful stimulatory effects on renal sodium transport, it remains controversial whether hyperinsulinemia itself is a cause of hypertension. Acute studies suggest that hyperinsulinemia may cause sodium retention and increased sympathetic activity, which will be an important cause of hypertension [3]. On the other hand, hyperinsulinemia due to insulinoma or chronic insulin infusion into animals do not significantly elevate blood pressure [4, 5]. Moreover, insulin itself has vasodilatory actions [6], which is dependent on nitric oxide [7]. Thus, the relationship between hyperinsulinemia and hypertension is not obvious. However, the influence of insulin on blood pressure may be altered in insulin resistance. For example, the insulin-induced vasodilation is impaired due to defects in PI3-kinase signaling in insulin resistance [8, 9]. Moreover, several recent data suggest that the insulin-induced enhancement of renal sodium reabsorption is preserved or even enhanced in insulin resistance [10–12]. For example, Rocchini et al. showed that, in obese subjects with insulin
Ultra-High-Speed Image Signal Accumulation Sensor
Takeharu Goji Etoh,Dao Vu Truong Son,Toshiaki Koike Akino,Toshiro Akino,Kenji Nishi,Masatoshi Kureta,Masatoshi Arai
Sensors , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/s100404100
Abstract: Averaging of accumulated data is a standard technique applied to processing data with low signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), such as image signals captured in ultra-high-speed imaging. The authors propose an architecture layout of an ultra-high-speed image sensor capable of on-chip signal accumulation. The very high frame rate is enabled by employing an image sensor structure with a multi-folded CCD in each pixel, which serves as an in situ image signal storage. The signal accumulation function is achieved by direct connection of the first and the last storage elements of the in situ storage CCD. It has been thought that the multi-folding is achievable only by driving electrodes with complicated and impractical layouts. Simple configurations of the driving electrodes to overcome the difficulty are presented for two-phase and four-phase transfer CCD systems. The in situ storage image sensor with the signal accumulation function is named Image Signal Accumulation Sensor (ISAS).
Affect-Loaded Questions in Japanese Storytelling: An Analysis of Grammar, Prosody, and Body Movements of Story Recipients’ Questions  [PDF]
Chisato Koike
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2015.55043
Abstract: The present study explores affective stance in conversational storytelling by investigating the ways in which unknowing story recipients display affective stances toward a teller’s story through questions that deploy multimodal resources. The data are based on videotaped natural face-to-face conversations between native Japanese speakers. While unknowing story recipients ask questions of the storyteller only to elicit factual information (“neutral questions”), they also ask questions layered with affect (“affect-loaded questions”). Building on studies on affect and stance, assessment, questions, and alignment and affiliation in storytelling, I demonstrate how unknowing story recipients ask affect-loaded questions to elicit and display affective stances toward story contents by exploiting linguistic and non-linguistic resources. First, I explicate how unknowing story recipients employ not only linguistic devices (e.g., emotion words, wh-questions, and deictic expressions such as sonna “like that”), but also prosody, facial expressions, body movements, and pre-/concurrent-laughter in order to load questions with affective stance that display, for example, disgust, humor, sarcasm, criticism, or surprise. Secondly, I show how unknowing story recipients use rhetorical questions to express their affect (rather than to elicit information from the storyteller). Thirdly, I demonstrate how affiliation of affective stance between storyteller and unknowing story recipients influences the trajectory of storytelling and how the participants negotiate their affective stances. This study sheds light on the interactional process of how participants in talk-in-interaction display affective stance through a range of multimodal resources, by examining how unknowing story recipients ask affect-loaded questions of the storyteller. It illuminates the social practice of story recipients’ active participation in storytelling activity that is embedded in social interaction, through their use of questions that dynamically co-construct and negotiate affective stance.
Treatment for Depression with Chronic Neck Pain Completely Cured in 94.2% of Patients Following Neck Muscle Treatment  [PDF]
Takayoshi Matsui, Toshiro Fujimoto
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2011.22011
Abstract: We report three patients with cervical neuromuscular syndrome (CNMS) who followed similar courses. Autonomic imbalance may occur following neck muscle pain, and a wide variety of somatic symptoms including headache and vertigo appear and a generalized poor condition may continue for long periods. If many such somatic symptoms persist for months to years, symptoms of depression are exacerbated. The patients end up in psychiatric clinics, where they are diagnosed with depression, but they do not respond to antidepressants. Thus, they continue to suffer for many years. These patients eventually were completely cured with the resolution of neck pain by neck muscle treatment, using two types of special low-frequency therapy equipment, far-infrared radiation and acupuncture. When treatment for the neck muscles is initiated, symptoms of depression are quickly relieved, and diverse somatic symptoms disappear one after another as neck muscle tension is gradually alleviated (the number of abnormal neck muscle checkpoints decreases). Such a course suggests that neck muscle tension and chronic pain are closely related to depression. Neck muscle-related depression due to CNMS clearly differs from psychiatric conditions such as major and bipolar depression. In patients with neck muscle-related depression, symptoms of depression are not accompanied by ungrounded anxiety, a sense of emptiness, apathy, or self-rejection. Neck muscle abnormalities leading to CNMS are caused by head injury, whiplash injury, and a prolonged forward-bent-posture due to using a personal computer, playing computer games, texting, and engaging in machine-paced work such as assembly-line operation.
Influence of Fine Zirconia Particle Shot Peening on Sliding Wear of Zirconia-Silicon Carbide Composites  [PDF]
Hitonobu Koike, Koji Takahashi
Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology (JSEMAT) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jsemat.2017.72004
Abstract: In this paper, the sliding contact fatigue wear performance of shot-peened zirconia-silicon carbide composite (ZrO2/SiC) plates in contact with silicon nitride balls under compressive residual stress in dry conditions was investigated in order to improve the wear resistance of ZrO2/SiC friction parts. The wear resistance of ZrO2/SiC plates after shot peening was higher than that of plates not treated with shot peening in sliding wear testing under Hertziancontact. Due to fine Zirconia particle shot peening, the tetragonal phase crystal structure in ZrO2 in the near-surface of ZrO2/SiC plates was changed, and 1100 MPa compressive residual stress could be introduced into the near-surface layer of ZrO2/SiC plates. The compressive residual stress was determined to be the main factor in the improvement of the sliding wear resistance of ZrO2/SiC plates.
Designs of Second-Order Associated Memory Networks with Threshold Logics: Winner-Take-All and Selective Voting
Toshiro Kubota
Journal of Computers , 2009, DOI: 10.4304/jcp.4.10.962-974
Abstract: The capacity of an order-d associative memory model is O(Nd/logN) where N is the memory size in bit. In contrast, the capacity of the Hopfield network is limited to O(N/logN). Among higher order associative memory models (d > 1), the second order memory (d = 2) has attractive properties: a relatively small implementation cost of O(N2), a small number of spurious states, and the presence of a diagonalization form. Due to these properties, it is of both practical and scientific interests to investigate efficient computational mechanisms of such network. One disadvantage of higher order associative memory is that it cannot be implemented with simple threshold neurons or McCulloch-Pitts neurons, thus a direct implementation of its computational mechanism on a biological substrate is questionable and its silicon implementation is expensive. In this paper, we propose two approximation models of a second order associative memory using threshold logics. Both are two-layered and employ eigenvalue decomposition of the correlation tensor. The first model uses a winner-takeall mechanism and the second uses a weighted voting by those with significant responses. Architectural-level designs of these memory models are presented. Extensive numerical simulations demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed models in retrieving contents with noisy probe vectors.
The Development of Animal Nutrition and Metabolism and the Challenges of Our Time
Toshiro Arai
Frontiers in Veterinary Science , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2014.00023
Abstract:
Symmetric coinvariant algebras and local Weyl modules at a double point
Toshiro Kuwabara
Mathematics , 2004,
Abstract: The symmetric coinvariant algebra $C[x_1, dots, x_n]_{S_n}$ is the quotient algebra of the polynomial ring by the ideal generated by symmetric polynomials vanishing at the origin. It is known that the algebra is isomorphic to the regular representation of $S_n$. Replacing $C[x]$ with $A = C[x,y]/(xy)$, we introduce another symmetric coinvariant algebra $A^{otimes n}_{S_n}$ and determine its $S_n$-module structure. As an application, we determine the $sl_{r+1}$-module structure of the local Weyl module at a double point for $sl_{r+1} otimes A$.
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