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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 526 matches for " Toshinori Kitamura "
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Gender differences in recognising depression in a case vignette in a university student population: Interaction of participant and vignette subject gender with depressive symptomatology  [PDF]
Junko Andou, Toshinori Kitamura
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2013.34041

Objective: Gender difference in depression prevalence may be explained by variation in the recognition of depression due to differences in gender identity. Method: We distributed one of four questionnaires describing fictional cases of Major Depressive Episode (MDE) (2 predominant symptom types × 2 case vignette subject genders) to 72 students. Participants were asked whether and how much they thought the subject in the case was emotionally as well as somatically ill. They were also administered the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale and the Ito Sex Role Scale. Results: Participants scoring high in gender identity communion and ideal gender roles communion and delicacy were more likely to identify the vignette subject as ill. The severity of somatic illness was rated more highly for the case of predominantly somatic symptomatology. The recognition of severity of psychological illness was influenced by two interactive terms: the gender of the vignette subjects x gender of the participants and predominant symptoms x gender of the vignette subjects. Recognition of MDE case vignettes as indicating illness, particularly psychological illness, was more likely when the participant was female, scored highly in femininity, or was of the gender as the case subject. Conclusion: These findings may be concordant with the self-schema theory.

Psychosocial Factors Affecting the Use of Mammography Testing for Breast Cancer Susceptibility: An Eight-Month Follow-Up Study in a Middle-Aged Japanese Woman Sample  [PDF]
Keiichiro Adachi, Toshinori Kitamura, Tokumi Ueno
Open Journal of Medical Psychology (OJMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2013.24024
Abstract: We examined the psychosocial factors affecting middle-aged Japanese women’s intentions to undergo mammography, as well as their actual usage of mammography by applying the Parallel Processing Model (PPM) of self regulation longitudinally. A total of 1030 middle-aged women living in all parts of Japan participated in this study through internet research from September 2010 to May 2011. The participants were evaluated on the basis of a battery of questionnaires mainly including demographics, perceived breast cancer risk, worry about breast cancer, mammography testing beliefs, intentions to use mammography, seeking information about mammography, and actual usage of mammography thrice over an eight-month period. The main results were as follows: 1) Perceived risk and cancer worry affected the intention of undergoing mammography, and this effect was mediated by beliefs about mammography testing. 2) Intention to use mammography and past mammography usage predicted future usage of mammography, with past mammography usage being the strongest predictor. 3) Information seeking about mammography was the strongest predictor of using mammography during the eight-month follow-up period of middle-aged women who had not undergone any mammography testing. PPM was a useful model to explain the mechanism behind middle-aged Japanese women’s intentions to use mammography, as well as their actual usage of mammography. In addition, past mammography experience was the strongest predictor of regular mammography usage and information seeking was a critical factor for the first-usage of mammography.
Factor Structure of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) in Japanese Workers  [PDF]
Yukihiro Takagishi, Masatsugu Sakata, Toshinori Kitamura
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.514172
Abstract: Different models of factor structure were proposed for the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) as a measure of coping style. This study confirmed psychometric properties and stability of the factor structure and differences among models for various age groups. The CISS of the Japanese version and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL) were administered to a sample of 781 Japanese workers. Using factor analysis, three-, four-, and five-factor models were examined. Simultaneous multiple-group analysis was conducted using samples of 568 workers and 507 students. The five-factor model was more robust than the original three- and four-factor models. Reliabilities and applicability for a wide age range were confirmed. In terms of predictive validity, symptoms of somatization, obsessive-compulsiveness, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, and anxiety were positively related with Rumination coping.
Depressive mood, bonding failure, and abusive parenting among mothers with three-month-old babies in a Japanese community  [PDF]
Toshinori Kitamura, Yukiko Ohashi, Sachiko Kita, Megumi Haruna, Reiko Kubo
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2013.33A001

Objective: To investigate the relationships between depressive mood, bonding failure, and abusive parenting. Method: We distributed questionnaires to 1198 mothers attending a three-month postnatal health check-up in rural areas in Japan. The questionnaires assessed these three variables along with demographics. We evaluated the causal relationships by comparing different structural equation models to the data. Results: Although all the models fit the data well, the best Akaike Information Criterion was obtained from a model where both depressive mood and bonding failure predict abusive parenting, but depressive mood and bonding failure do not predict each other directly. The determinant coefficient of child abuse in the final model was 0.13. Discussion: We found depressive mood and bonding failure during postpartum period impacted negatively on mother’s parenting behaviour. Because only 13% of the variance of abusive parenting was explainable by this model, further study should be needed to identify other risk factors of child abuse. Similarly, midwives and public health nurse in community should pay attention to not only depression but also bonding failure to prevent child abuse.

Interpersonal Dependency Inventory: Its Construct Validity and Prediction of Dysphoric Mood and Life Functioning via Negative Life Events  [PDF]
Masayo Uji, Yukihiro Takagishi, Keiichiro Adachi, Toshinori Kitamura
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.412134

Previous Dependency Inventory (JIDI) as well demonstrates how the interpersonal attitudes assessed by the JIDI generate interpersonal negative life events (NLEs) and therefore results in dysphoric moods and poor life functioning. The subjects of this study were 467 Japanese university students. The JIDI was administered at Time 1, and the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) was administered at Time 2 for the purpose of assessing dysphoric mood and life functioning. NLEs occurring between Times 1 and 2 were evaluated. The three-factor structure of the JIDI was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. The structural equation modeling demonstrated that of the three factors, only one, “emotional reliance”, predisposed individuals to dysphoric mood and poor life functioning, both directly and indirectly, via interpersonal NLEs. Although the other two factors did not increase vulnerability to interpersonal NLEs or dysphoric mood, “lack of social self-confidence” worsened general functioning, and “assertion of autonomy” led to poor functioning in close relationships, both directly. Furthermore, “assertion of autonomy” decreased anxiety levels. As to gender differences, simultaneous analysis of multi-groups showed that female subjects were more likely to become anxious following interpersonal NLEs.

Temperament and Character Domains of Personality and Depression
Toshinori Kitamura,C. Robert Cloninger
Depression Research and Treatment , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/765691
Temperament and Character Domains of Personality and Depression
Toshinori Kitamura,C. Robert Cloninger
Depression Research and Treatment , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/765691
Effects of Partners’ Attitudes towards Wife’s Aspirations on Depression after Childbirth  [PDF]
Eriko Shinohara, Keiko Yoshida, Kaoru Sakumoto, Katsuhiko Tada, Shoji Sato, Toshinori Kitamura, Satoru Takeda
Open Journal of Depression (OJD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojd.2017.63006
Abstract: A lack of social support for pregnant women is associated with depression after childbirth. However, few studies have examined the impact of the partners’ understanding of and support for the women’s aspirations (personal goals in life) on the severity of depression after childbirth. To examine the relationship between a partner’s attitude to his wife’s aspirations and depression after childbirth, a longitudinal study was conducted of 290 primipara women from five university hospitals between October 1997 and March 2000. Three questionnaires were administered to participant women. During their third trimester, they were asked about their aspirations (Aspiration Index) and their perception of their partners’ understanding of and support for their aspirations. At one month and three months after childbirth, they were asked about the severity of their depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). Correlation analyses and structural equation modelling showed that the partners’ poor understanding and support predicted the severity of depression after childbirth. Perinatal health professionals should be encouraged to assess the pregnant women’s aspirations and their partners’ understanding and support regarding the women’s goals in life.
The Effects of Temperament and Character on Symptoms of Depression in a Chinese Nonclinical Population
Zi Chen,Xi Lu,Toshinori Kitamura
Depression Research and Treatment , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/198591
Abstract: Objective. To examine the relations between personality traits and syndromes of depression in a nonclinical Chinese population. Method. We recruited 469 nonclinical participants in China. They completed the Chinese version temperament and character inventory (TCI) and self-rating depression scale (SDS). A structural equation model was used to rate the relation between seven TCI scales and the three SDS subscale scores (based on Shafer's meta-analysis of the SDS items factor analyses). This was based on the assumption that the three depression subscales would be predicted by the temperament and character subscales, whereas the character subscales would be predicted by the temperament subscales. Results. The positive symptoms scores were predicted by low self-directedness (SD), cooperativeness (C), reward dependence (RD), and persistence (P) as well as older age. The negative symptoms scores were predicted only by an older age. The somatic symptoms scores were predicted by high SD. Conclusion. Syndromes of depression are differentially associated with temperament and character patterns. It was mainly the positive symptoms scores that were predicted by the TCI scores. The effects of harm avoidance (HA) on the positive symptoms scores could be mediated by low SD and C. 1. Introduction Depression is the most prevalent mental disorder in many countries. Personality has been extensively studied as a risky factor of depression. One of the most promising theories to understand depression from the personality perspective is Cloninger’s biosocial personality model. This has come from behavioral genetics, neuropharmacology, and psychology, and it gives insight into the aetiology of depression [1–3]. This model posits seven personality traits: four temperament dimensions (novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD), and persistence (P)) and three character dimensions (self-directedness (SD), cooperativeness (C), and self-transcendence (ST)). Temperament is determined by genetic structure and manifests itself as a heritable component of one’s behaviour. It refers to reflective emotional reactions. Character refers to self-identity, which is acquired primarily through a socialisation process, although recent study also identified a hereditary contribution to the development of character. Character is considered to be evoked by temperament. Such interaction of the two dimensions enhances cognitive learning of an individual’s self-concept throughout the lifespan [4]. There are many reports suggesting that high HA and low SD predict depression
Effects of Intimate Marital Relationships Upon Self-Reported Rearing Styles Among Japanese Parents of Young Children
Xi Lu, Masayo Uji and Toshinori Kitamura
The Open Family Studies Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.2174/1874922400801010017]
Abstract: In order to examine the effects of intimate marital relationships upon self-reported rearing styles towards a young child, 118 Japanese couples with at least one child were administered a set of questionnaires. A path analysis showed that wives whose husbands treated them with an affectionate attitude were more likely to hold affectionate childrearing styles; wives whose husbands treated them with a controlling attitude were more likely to hold overprotective child-rearing styles; husbands whose wives acted in controlling ways towards them tended to exhibit less affectionate and more overprotective rearing child-rearing practices.
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