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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4555 matches for " Toshihiro Tanaka "
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Strong Convergence for Euler-Maruyama and Milstein Schemes with Asymptotic Method
Hideyuki Tanaka,Toshihiro Yamada
Quantitative Finance , 2012,
Abstract: Motivated by weak convergence results in the paper of Takahashi and Yoshida (2005), we show strong convergence for an accelerated Euler-Maruyama scheme applied to perturbed stochastic differential equations. The Milstein scheme with the same acceleration is also discussed as an extended result. The theoretical results can be applied to analyzing the multi-level Monte Carlo method originally developed by M.B. Giles. Several numerical experiments for the SABR stochastic volatility model are presented in order to confirm the efficiency of the schemes.
Thermodynamic study of semiconducting related materials by use of EMF method with solid electrolyte
Katayama Iwao,Tanaka Toshihiro,Iida Takamichi
Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, Section B : Metallurgy , 2003, DOI: 10.2298/jmmb0304453k
Abstract: Electromotive force method with solid electrolyte is briefly explained, and a thermodynamic study of semi conducting compound solid solution ZnTe-CdTe is picked up to show the way how thermodynamic functions of this system are obtained by several experimental methods based on our published papers and recently published data are added for comparison.
Appropriate Needle Lengths Determined Using Ultrasonic Echograms for Intramuscular Injections in Japanese Infants  [PDF]
Tetsuo Nakayama, Urara Kohdera, Motoko Fujino, Toshihiro Tanaka, Keitaro Yatabe, Tomoyuki Hashiguchi, Tomohide Sato, Minoru Kino
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2016.62024
Abstract: Adjuvanted vaccines are recommended for administration through an intramuscular route. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has recommended the anterolateral thigh using a 22 - 25-G 25-mm (1 inch) needle for infants, injected at a 90°?into the skin surface, and using a 16 mm (5/8 inch) for newborns. Appropriate needle lengths may differ depending on racial backgrounds. In the present study, the thickness of the epidermis and lengths from the skin surface to the muscle fascia and bone were measured using ultrasonic echograms in order to determine suitable needle lengths for Japanese infants aged 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 12 - 15 months old. The thickness of the epidermis was 1.44 - 1.54 mm (95% CI), and the lengths from the skin surface to the muscle fascia and bone were 11.52 - 12.28 mm (95% CI), and 25.66 - 26.93 mm (95% CI), respectively, at the anterolateral thigh. At the center of the deltoid muscle, skin thickness was similar to that at the thigh, furthermore the lengths from the skin surface to the muscle fascia and bone were 8.49 - 9.10 mm (95% CI), and 17.38 - 18.31 mm (95% CI), respectively. The lengths from the skin surface to the muscle fascia and bone were 1 - 2 mm shorter in 2-month-old infants than those in older generations. Therefore, the appropriate needle length for intramuscular injections in Japanese infants was 16 mm (5/8 inch) at any age and sites, and with 25 mm (1 inch) needles at a 90°?angle being associated with the risk of over-penetration.
Change of Subcutaneous Tissue Mass at the Deltoid and Thigh Areas in Japanese Infants Followed from 2 to 15 Months  [PDF]
Tetsuo Nakayama, Toshihiro Tanaka, Motoko Fujino, Minoru Kino, Yuka Kunitomi, Keitaro Yatabe
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2018.84033
Abstract: We previously investigated the thickness of the epidermis and lengths from the skin surface to the muscle fascia and bone based on measurements taken from the ultrasonic echograms of Japanese infants aged 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 12 - 15 months. The appropriate needle length for intramuscular injection was 16 mm (5/8 inch) in Japanese infants at any age and site. In the present study, we examined these lengths in 21 infants with physical growth from 2 to 15 months. Average height increased from 58.5 to 73.6 cm and average body weight from 5835 to 9226 g until 15 months. The circumference of the thigh increased from 22.3 cm at 2 months to a maximum of 25.9 cm at 6 months, while that of the deltoid area was 15.2 cm at 2 months and 15.9 cm at 6 months. Subcutaneous mass (length from the skin surface to the muscle fascia) at the thigh increased between 3 and 4 months and decreased at 12 - 15 months and showed good relationship to the circumference of the thigh. Subcutaneous mass at the center of the deltoid area showed the same size until 6 months. Muscle mass (lengths from the muscle fascia to the bone) at thigh and deltoid areas remained the same until 6 months. Ultrasonic echogram is an effective tool for evaluating subcutaneous and muscle mass in young infants.
Efficacy of Para-Aortic Lymphadenectomy in Ovarian Cancer: A Retrospective Study  [PDF]
Hiromi Ugaki, Yosiko Komoto, Reisa Kakubari, Eriko Tanaka, Hisashi Konishi, Toshihiro Kitai, Saori Nakajima, Miho Muraji, Takayuki Enomoto, Masahiko Takemura
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.45A005

Objective: The prognostic impact for ovarian cancer treatment of employing a systematic para-aortic and pelvic lymphadenectomy is still poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of adding a para-aortic lymphadenectomy (PA) to the pelvic lymphadenectomy (PL), as compared with solely the pelvic lymphadenectomy. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of patient outcomes was conducted of ovarian cancer patients who underwent optimal debulking surgery, concurrent with either PA + PL or PL alone, between 2000 and 2009 at our Osaka General Medical Center. Results: One hundred twenty-one patients with ovarian cancer underwent surgery. Forty-four patients (36%) underwent optimal debulking surgery (all residual disease was <1 cm) concurrent with lymphadenectomy. Seventeen patients underwent PA + PL (PA group), and 27 patients underwent PL alone (PL group). There were no significant differences in terms of overall survival (OS; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.49; 95% CI, 0.13 to 1.82; p = 0.29) and progression-free survival (PFS; HR = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.19 to 2.00; p = 0.40) between the PA group and the PL group. Both OS and PFS also failed to show significant differences, even when comparing them among 26 cases of FIGO stage I

Amplification of Papillomavirus Oncogene Transcripts Assay for Bowenoid Papulosis  [PDF]
Takahide Kaneko, Gen Nakahishi, Koji Nakajima, Takayuki Aizu, Kayo Jin, Daiki Rokunohe, Yasushi Matsuzaki, Nakano Hajime, Toshihiro Tanaka, Daisuke Sawamura
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2013.410077

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an important causative agent of cervical carcinoma and some malignant cutaneous tumors. The integration of HPV DNA into the host genome is one of the most important risk factors for malignant transformation. Here, we report the case of a 53-year-old man with multiple, black-brown genital macules and nodules. Histological findings resembled those for Bowen’s disease, and we made a diagnosis of bowenoid papulosis. This condition is generally benign, but invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from bowenoid papulosis has been previously reported. Therefore, we took biopsy specimens from 10 lesions and tested them for the presence of HPV DNA. DNA sequencing identified HPV type 16 (HPV-16) DNA in all samples. Next, we excised 4 different relatively large lesions and performed an amplification of papillomavirus oncogene transcripts (APOT) assay. This assay showed that all samples had only episome-derived viral transcripts, indicating no integration of HPV DNA into the host genome. We have followed this case for 3 years, and no progression to Bowen’s disease or SCC has so far been observed. We conclude that the APOT assay is a feasible method for evaluating the malignant potential of bowenoid papulosis.

Splenic Vein Embolization Using Coil Anchors and Prophylactic Occlusion of a Hepatofugal Collateral for Hepatic Encephalopathy due to Splenorenal Shunt: Technical Note and Literature Review
Masayoshi Inoue,Toshihiro Tanaka,Hiroyuki Nakagawa,Tetsuya Yoshioka,Kimihiko Kichikawa
Case Reports in Radiology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/160653
Abstract: Purpose. Interventional treatment strategies for patients with encephalopathy due to splenorenal shunt remain controversial. Portosplenic blood flow separation by occluding the splenic vein could avoid the complication of severe portal hypertension, but it would require repeated reintervention due to recurrence of symptoms. This paper describes occlusion of the splenic vein using coil anchors and prophylactic embolization of a collateral hepatofugal vessel with no recurrence of hyperammonemia. Materials and Methods. A 51-year-old woman with severe cirrhosis had hepatic encephalopathy due to a large splenorenal shunt. The serum ammonia level was 132?μg/dL. Via a transileocolic approach, the splenic vein was completely embolized with 0.035-inch metallic coils using coil anchors while preserving the splenorenal shunt. In addition, one of the collateral vessels of the portal vein, the retrogastric vein, was also embolized prophylactically. Results. After this procedure, the serum ammonia level decreased immediately to 24?μg/dL. The portal venous pressure increased by only 1.5?mmHg. Hepatic encephalopathy had not been observed for 25 months after the procedure, and neither retention of ascites nor worsening of esophageal varices and liver function was observed. Conclusion. This procedure appears to be safe and effective for hepatic encephalopathy caused by a splenorenal shunt. 1. Introduction Hepatic encephalopathy due to hyperammonemia is a critical problem in patients with liver cirrhosis. Portosystemic communication through a splenorenal shunt is a common cause of hyperammonemia. For these patients, surgical shunt ligation has been conducted, but with a high mortality rate [1]. Since 1984, interventional management strategies for splenorenal shunt have been reported [2]. In these articles, shunt obliteration using ethanolamine oleate and shunt embolization using coils have been the main techniques [2–11]. However, theoretically, direct shunt occlusion could cause severe portal hypertension. In 2004, Zamora et al. first reported portosplenic blood flow separation by occluding the splenic vein [12]. They suggested that this technique was safe, avoiding severe portal hypertension, but it required repeated reintervention because hyperammonemia frequently recurred due to recanalization of the splenic vein and development of collateral hepatofugal flows. This paper describes our technique of portosplenic blood flow separation, presenting a case with hepatic encephalopathy due to a splenorenal shunt successfully treated by complete occlusion of the splenic vein
Fairness Norms and the Incidence of Environmental Subsidy  [PDF]
Toshihiro Uchida
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.36100
Abstract: Although fairness concerns are frequently discussed in the real world environmental politics, their effects are relatively neglected in the environmental economics literature. Using a survey method, this paper attempts to reveal how fairness norms affect the incidence of subsidy both in the short-run and long-run. The results indicate that statutory incidence (legal right to receive subsidy) affects people’s fairness norms on who should receive subsidy. In particular it is considered unfair for a firm to receive a part of the subsidy when it is legally granted to the consumer side. If firms avoid behaviors that are considered unfair, the tax and subsidy equivalence theorem may not hold under this situation. The survey results also reveal that fairness norms affect the incidence of subsidy in the long-run, in a sense that the allocation of gains that are generated due to subsidy is affected. People find it fair if allocation is made in proportion to firms’ own effort. Therefore, if an increase in profit is achieved by activities directly supported by subsidy, people find it less justifiable for firms to keep all the gains by themselves and thus firms may be forced to share the gains with consumers.
Using Patents in Promotional Activities  [PDF]
Toshihiro Tsuchihashi
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2016.65094
Abstract: A traditional view of patents and patenting shows a trade-off between the benefit of appropriation and the cost of information revelation. However, firms may benefit from information revelation to consumers because patents can provide credible information about the firms ability to develop new technologies and produce good quality products. In fact, we frequently observe that many firms use their patents for promotion in a variety of industries, including foods, cosmetics, and electronic devices. We construct a simple model to study a usage of patents in promotion activities, a promotional patent, and investigate an advantage for a firm to employ a promotional patent. We make two findings. First, we find a positive information value of a promotional patent to a high-type firm. The benefit stems from an increase in the consumers’ willingness to pay in two ways. The expected valuation to the consumers increases because i) the patented innovation directly improves the product quality and ii) the promotional patent increases a likelihood of the firm to be a high type. The firm then absorbs the increase of the expected valuation. Second, the information value to the high-type firm is non-monotonic. The information value increases (decreases) with a prior probability that a firm is a high type when the prior probability is low (high).
Usefulness of Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide-Guided Treatment in Patients with Asthma-Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Overlap  [PDF]
Taisuke Akamatsu, Toshihiro Shirai, Yuko Tanaka, Hirofumi Watanabe, Yoshinari Endo, Yukiko Shimoda, Takahito Suzuki, Rie Noguchi, Mika Saigusa, Akito Yamamoto, Yuichiro Shishido, Takefumi Akita, Satoru Morita, Kazuhiro Asada
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2018.81001
Background: Some patients present clinical features of both asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which has led to the recent proposal of asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) as a diagnosis. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a candidate biomarker to diagnose ACO. We assessed the effect of an add-on treatment with budesonide/formoterol (BUD/FM) combination in patients with ACO, which was diagnosed by FeNO. Methods: This was a prospective, single-arm, open-label, before and after comparison study. Subjects included 83 patients with COPD who attended outpatient clinics for routine checkups at Shizuoka General Hospital between June and November 2016. All patients fulfilled the GOLD definition of COPD and were receiving long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) or LAMA/long-acting β2 agonist (LABA) combinations. After an 8-week run-in period, BUD/FM was added to the patients with FeNO levels of ≥35 ppb, defined as having ACO. For patients receiving LAMA/LABA, BUD/FM was added after the discontinuation of LABA. The modified British Medical Research Council (mMRC) score, COPD assessment test (CAT) score, spirometric indices, forced oscillation parameters, and FeNO were assessed before and after 8 weeks of BUD/ FM add-on treatment. Results: Twenty-four patients (28.9%) had FeNO levels ≥ 35 ppb, and 17 patients completed the study (mean age: 73 years and GOLD I/II/III/IV, 5/10/1/1). The mean CAT scores significantly improved (9.2 to 5.4, p = 0.015) and 10 patients (58.8%) showed ≥2 points improvement, a minimal clinically important difference. The mean FeNO levels significantly decreased from 63.0 to 34.3 ppb (p < 0.006). However, there were no changes in mMRC scores, spirometric indices, or forced oscillation parameters. Conclusions: FeNO-guided treatment with BUD/FM improves symptoms in patients with ACO.
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