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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 853 matches for " Toshihiro Kudo "
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Practical Use of Gemcitabine and Cisplatin Combination Therapy as First-Line Treatment for Japanese Patients with Advanced Biliary Tract Cancer  [PDF]
Hisato Kawakami, Isamu Okamoto, Wataru Okamoto, Masayuki Takeda, Shinya Ueda, Toshihiro Kudo, Shin-ichi Nishina, Yasuhito Fujisaka, Masaki Miyazaki, Junji Tsurutani, Takayasu Kurata, Kazuhiko Nakagawa
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.46121
Abstract:

Gemcitabine and cisplatin combination therapy (GC) is accepted as a standard treatment for advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC). However, little information is available regarding such treatment in the clinical practice setting in Japan. We retrospectively examined the clinical data of patients with unresectable or recurrent BTC who received GC as first-line treatment. The regimen consisted of cisplatin (25 mg/m2) and gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2) administered intravenously on days 1 and 8 of repeated 3-week cycles. Twenty patients were analyzed. A total of 148 cycles of GC was administered, with a median of 8 and a range of 1 to 18 cycles. Treatment delay and dose reduction were noted in 35 (24%) and 41 (28%) of the 148 cycles, respectively. The major adverse events of grade 3 or 4 included neutropenia (50%), leukopenia (45%), anemia (30%), and thrombocytopenia (15%). Nonhematologic toxicities included nausea (10%), appetite loss (10%), and fatigue (10%). Median progression-free and overall survival times were 6.9 and 12.3 months, respectively. Gallbladder cancer showed a significantly higher response rate than did other types of BTC (chi-squaretest, P = 0.002). GC was thus effective and well tolerated as first-line chemotherapy for Japanese patients with advanced BTC in the clinical practice setting.

A Differentiation of Self Scale in Two Domains for Japan: A Preliminary Study on Its Development and Reliability/Validity  [PDF]
Koji Kudo
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2018.94047
Abstract: In this study, a differentiation of self scale was created applicable to two domains—intrapsychic and interpersonal, and was named the Differentiation of Self Scale in Two Domains (DSS-2D). A preliminary study was then performed on its reliability and validity. A questionnaire survey was conducted with university students (n = 273). Exploratory factor analysis results were used to divide DSS-2D into 4 subscales. The intrapsychic differentiation scale corresponded to intrapsychic differentiation, while 3 subscales—the interpersonal differentiation togetherness scale, interpersonal differentiation individuality scale, and adaptive interpersonal relationship scale—corresponded to the interpersonal domain. The reliability coefficients for each subscale were sufficient. In all subscales, there was a significant correlation with trait anxiety, as was theoretically anticipated, and criterion-related validity was confirmed. These results support the future utility of DSS-2D.
An Additional Consideration of Reliability and Validity of the Differentiation of Self Scale in Two Domains  [PDF]
Koji Kudo
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2018.910138
Abstract: This study addressed the insufficient verification of reliability and validity of the Differentiation of Self Scale in Two Domains (DSS-2D). Although the DSS-2D is the first measure in Japan that satisfies the three requirements (corresponding to two domains, applicable to a wide range of adolescents, and a moderate number of items), verification of reliability and validity of the DSS-2D has remained insufficient. Two questionnaire surveys were conducted with university students (n = 70 at T1, n = 68 at T2). The interval of the surveys was one month. The results indicate that the DSS-2D had sufficient test-retest reliability and concurrent validity in each domain of differentiation of self. These results provide support for the DSS-2D as a valid and adequate measure for use in Japan.
Fairness Norms and the Incidence of Environmental Subsidy  [PDF]
Toshihiro Uchida
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.36100
Abstract: Although fairness concerns are frequently discussed in the real world environmental politics, their effects are relatively neglected in the environmental economics literature. Using a survey method, this paper attempts to reveal how fairness norms affect the incidence of subsidy both in the short-run and long-run. The results indicate that statutory incidence (legal right to receive subsidy) affects people’s fairness norms on who should receive subsidy. In particular it is considered unfair for a firm to receive a part of the subsidy when it is legally granted to the consumer side. If firms avoid behaviors that are considered unfair, the tax and subsidy equivalence theorem may not hold under this situation. The survey results also reveal that fairness norms affect the incidence of subsidy in the long-run, in a sense that the allocation of gains that are generated due to subsidy is affected. People find it fair if allocation is made in proportion to firms’ own effort. Therefore, if an increase in profit is achieved by activities directly supported by subsidy, people find it less justifiable for firms to keep all the gains by themselves and thus firms may be forced to share the gains with consumers.
Using Patents in Promotional Activities  [PDF]
Toshihiro Tsuchihashi
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2016.65094
Abstract: A traditional view of patents and patenting shows a trade-off between the benefit of appropriation and the cost of information revelation. However, firms may benefit from information revelation to consumers because patents can provide credible information about the firms ability to develop new technologies and produce good quality products. In fact, we frequently observe that many firms use their patents for promotion in a variety of industries, including foods, cosmetics, and electronic devices. We construct a simple model to study a usage of patents in promotion activities, a promotional patent, and investigate an advantage for a firm to employ a promotional patent. We make two findings. First, we find a positive information value of a promotional patent to a high-type firm. The benefit stems from an increase in the consumers’ willingness to pay in two ways. The expected valuation to the consumers increases because i) the patented innovation directly improves the product quality and ii) the promotional patent increases a likelihood of the firm to be a high type. The firm then absorbs the increase of the expected valuation. Second, the information value to the high-type firm is non-monotonic. The information value increases (decreases) with a prior probability that a firm is a high type when the prior probability is low (high).
Reasons for the Creation of New Social Networks by the Elderly after Relocation  [PDF]
Yoshiko Kudo, Kazuko Saeki
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.512A005
Abstract:

It is important for the relocated elderly to create social networks within their new environment for their lives and their health. This research examined the reasons why the relocated elderly create social networks in the neighborhood. The research subject area is one snowfall town in Hokkaido, Japan. The subjects are 20 elderly people, who have been relocated to the town. The public health nurses individually conducted an interview and broke down the verbatim records into qualitative descriptions. The subjects ranged from 68 to 94 years old. Reasons why the elderly create social networks in their neighborhoods are to make their lives easier, to prepare for emergencies, to get rid of their loneliness, and to enjoy their lives. Community health providers should understand the need for neighboring social networks based on the elderly people’s condition, and support and create new networks in their community depending on their situations.

On an Expression of Extraction Constants without the Interfacial Equilibrium-Potential Differences for the Extraction of Univalent and Divalent Metal Picrates by Crown Ethers into 1,2-Dichloroethane and Nitrobenzene  [PDF]
Yoshihiro Kudo, Shoichi Katsuta
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2015.64034
Abstract: An idea on interfacial equilibrium-potential differences (\"\") which are generated for the extraction of univalent metal picrate (MPic) and divalent ones (MPic2) by crown ethers (L) into high-polar diluents was improved. These potentials were clarified with some experimental extraction-data reported before on the M = Ag(I), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) extraction with 18-crown-6 ether (18C6) and benzo-18C6 into 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) and nitrobenzene (NB). Consequently, it was demonstrated that the?\"\" values from the extraction-experimentally obtained logKD,Pic ones are in agreement with or close to those calculated from charge balance equations in many cases, where the symbol, KD,Pic, denotes an individual distribution constant of Pic into the DCE or NB phase. Also, it was experimentally shown that extraction constants based on the overall extraction equilibria do not virtually contain the?\"\" terms in their functional expressions.
Solvent-Induced Phase-Inversion and Electrical Actuation of Dielectric Copolymer Films  [PDF]
Yeonju Jang, Toshihiro Hirai
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2011.23023
Abstract: Block copolymers posses inherently the ability of form a variety of phase-separated microdomain structures. The lengths of block segments and the selectivity of the solvent are primary factors affecting the resultant morphology. This paper investigated the effect of casting solvents on the morphologies and electrical actuation of poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(n-butyl acrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA-PnBA-PMMA) triblock copolymer films comprising PMMA hard segment and PnBA soft segment. Transmission electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy observation revealed that PMMA and PnBA segments were assembled into various micro- and nano-sized phase structures where either of them formed continuous phase. This implies that continous phase could be inversed by used casting solvents. Solvent-dependent phase morphologies had a significant effect on the electrical actuation results. Increase of the PnBA contents and the continuous phases of PnBA soft segments improved both of electrical actuation and dielectric constant, indicating that solvent-induced phase separation modulates the electrical actuation of dielectric films. The significance of the role of solvent selectivity and the major continuous phase of the polymer in defining the morphology and electrical actuation of the self-assembled block copolymer structure are discussed.
Development of Battery-Less Wireless Current Sensor Node Utilizing Charging Time of Capacitors with Wide Measurement Range  [PDF]
Hironao Okada, Toshihiro Itoh
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2013.511026
Abstract:

We report a novel battery-less wireless current sensor node without an analog to digital converter (ADC). If a capacitor is charged using a current transformer (CT) and a rectifying circuit, the charging time depends on the current flowing through a power line. In the case that the node transmits data every time when voltage of the capacitor exceeds a threshold voltage, we can indirectly measure the current by measuring the transmission intervals. In this method, the circuit of the node can be simplified and power consumption for the wireless transmission can be decreased because the measured current data does not need to be included in the transmitted packet. However, the measurable range is about single digit because the transmission interval decreases suddenly as the current increases. In this work, we have ex- panded the range using one CT, one wireless transmission module, and two charging circuits that include different load resistors connected in series. The results indicated that the measurable range was from 0.5 A to 50 A.

M-ary FSK Modulation Using Short Packet without a Preamble and Error Detection Codes for Low Power Wireless Communication  [PDF]
Hironao Okada, Toshihiro Itoh
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2014.63005
Abstract: Since power of a wireless sensor node is limited, low power communication technology has been required. M-ary frequency shift keying (MFSK) modulation with orthogonal signals is one of the methods to decrease the power. However, if the amount of transmitted data including such as an identification number (ID) of a node and measured data is small, a ratio of the data length to the total packet length, which means transmission efficiency, becomes quite low. Because a preamble and error check codes are generally added to a packet for synchronization between a transmitter and a receiver and for decrease in reception errors, respectively. In this research, we have developed a method with digital filters which eliminates the other signals from time series frequency spectra not to use a preamble and error check codes. Although estimated synchronization loss of the method was less than 1.6 dB, it was found that the loss of the method on error packet rate was almost 0 dB at more than 0.001 of packet error rate by a simulation made by BASIC. These results indicate a possibility to realize that a packet which consists of only two symbols can be received with no error if the transmitted data is less than 14 bits using 128-FSK.
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