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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 495 matches for " Toshihiro Ansai "
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Salivary levels of cortisol and chromogranin A in patients with burning mouth syndrome: A case-control study  [PDF]
Chieko Shigeyama-Haruna, Inho Soh, Akihiro Yoshida, Shuji Awano, Hisashi Anan, Toshihiro Ansai
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2013.31008
Abstract: Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a poorly understood oral pain disorder characterized by a painful burning sensation in the oral cavity without any mucosal abnormalities. In this study, we evaluated the salivary cortisol and chromogranin A (CgA) levels of patients with BMS in comparison with age-matched controls. Subjects (n = 114) included 81 BMS patients and 33 controls. Patients with BMS were further classified into a subgroup of subjects who occasionally feel a burning sensation (BMS 1), and a subgroup of subjects who always feel a burning sensation (BMS 2). Salivary cortisol and CgA levels were measured using ELISA kits. All individuals with BMS had significantly higher cortisol and CgA levels than the controls did. Furthermore, when comparing the controls with each BMS subgroup, salivary levels of cortisol were significantly higher in both subgroups than controls. In contrast, the level of CgA was significantly higher in the BMS 2 subgroup only. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant independent association between salivary levels of cortisol and BMS even after adjustment for gender, antidepressant or antianxiety drug use and hypertension (drug-treated). The study revealed that a significant association was observed between salivary cortisol levels and BMS.
Problems and Future Approaches for Assessment of Periodontal Disease
Toshihiro Ansai,Shuji Awano,Inho Soh
Frontiers in Public Health , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2014.00054
Abstract:
Associations among hair loss, oral sulfur-containing gases, and gastrointestinal and metabolic linked diseases in Japanese elderly men: pilot study
Toshihiro Ansai, Shuji Awano, Inho Soh, Yutaka Takata, Akihiro Yoshida, Tomoko Hamasaki, Tadamichi Takehara
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-82
Abstract: We studied 170 male subjects aged either 60 or 65 years old. The degree of MPB was assessed using the Norwood-Hamilton Baldness scale. Oral sulfur-containing gases were measured using a compact-designed device. All subjects completed physical and laboratory blood examinations, a face-to-face medical questionnaire, and an oral examination.There were significant differences between the levels of CH3SCH3 and baldness patterns, independent of age. When we analyzed whether the association was linked to systemic health condition, a strong significant association was observed between the level of CH3SCH3 and severe MPB in subjects with gastrointestinal diseases, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia.These results suggest that MPB is associated with the level of CH3SCH3, a sulfur-containing gas that causes oral malodor, in elderly Japanese males. Further, the association was intensified by the existence of gastrointestinal tract and metabolic disorders.It has been reported that for diagnosis of systemic diseases, male pattern baldness (MPB), a clearly observable trait, can be used [1,2]. It was also noted that MPB appeared to be a risk factor for some diseases, for example, clinical prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease, independent of other risk factors, including race and age [3-5]. The precise mechanisms leading to the development of MPB and such related diseases are largely unknown, however, they share some epidemiologic and biological risk factors, including age, heritable genetic factors, and androgenic metabolism [6,7].On the other hand, oral malodor is reported to be primarily associated with dental caries and periodontal disease, though involvement of other factors including systemic health conditions and lifestyle have not been ruled out. It is generally known that volatile sulfur-containing gases, which mainly consist of the three compounds hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methanethiol (CH3SH), and dimethylsulfide (CH3SCH3), are responsible for oral malodor [8]. How
Temporal activation of anti- and pro-apoptotic factors in human gingival fibroblasts infected with the periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis: potential role of bacterial proteases in host signalling
Sonya Urnowey, Toshihiro Ansai, Vira Bitko, Koji Nakayama, Tadamichi Takehara, Sailen Barik
BMC Microbiology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-6-26
Abstract: We report host-P. gingivalis interactions in primary human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cells. Quantitative immunostaining revealed the need for a high multiplicity of infection for optimal infection. Early in infection (2–12 h), P. gingivalis activated the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-kappa B, partly via the PI3 kinase/AKT pathway. This was accompanied by the induction of cellular anti-apoptotic genes, including Bfl-1, Boo, Bcl-XL, Bcl2, Mcl-1, Bcl-w and Survivin. Late in infection (24–36 h) the anti-apoptotic genes largely shut down and the pro-apoptotic genes, including Nip3, Hrk, Bak, Bik, Bok, Bax, Bad, Bim and Moap-1, were activated. Apoptosis was characterized by nuclear DNA degradation and activation of caspases-3, -6, -7 and -9 via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Use of inhibitors revealed an anti-apoptotic function of NF-kappa B and PI3 kinase in P. gingivalis-infected HGF cells. Use of a triple protease mutant P. gingivalis lacking three major gingipains (rgpA rgpB kgp) suggested a role of some or all these proteases in myriad aspects of bacteria-gingival interaction.The pathology of the gingival fibroblast in P. gingivalis infection is affected by a temporal shift from cellular survival response to apoptosis, regulated by a number of anti- and pro-apoptotic molecules. The gingipain group of proteases affects bacteria-host interactions and may directly promote apoptosis by intracellular proteolytic activation of caspase-3.Porphyromonas gingivalis, a gram-negative anaerobe, is a major colonizer of gingival tissues, causing severe forms of adult periodontitis, in which the gingival fibroblast suffers extensive damage [1]. As replication inside mammalian cells is a common strategy adopted by many pathogenic bacteria, P. gingivalis infection has served as an important study model. A flurry of recent research has unraveled various pathways of interaction between oral cells and P. gingivalis [2]. Infection of various cell types by P. gingivalis act
Determination of Cortisol and Dehydroepiandrosterone Levels in Saliva for Screening of Periodontitis in Older Japanese Adults
Toshihiro Ansai,Inho Soh,Aiko Ishisaka,Akihiro Yoshida,Shuji Awano,Tomoko Hamasaki,Kazuo Sonoki,Yutaka Takata,Tadamichi Takehara
International Journal of Dentistry , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/280737
Abstract: Background. Recent reports have found a positive relationship between periodontitis and the hormones cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). We investigated the associations between those levels and periodontitis in never-smokers and smokers of elderly subjects. Subjects and Methods. Cortisol and DHEA levels in saliva were determined in 171 subjects (85 males, 86 females), with clinical examinations including probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) also performed. Results. Smoking had effects on cortisol and DHEA levels, and those were significantly associated with severe PD and CAL in never-smokers. According to ROC analysis, the cutoff values of cortisol and DHEA to obtain the optimal sensitivity and specificity for detecting severe periodontitis were 2.06 ng/mL and 60.24 pg/mL, respectively, for PD, and 2.12 ng/mL and 61.78 pg/mL, respectively, for CAL. Conclusions. Assessment of hormone levels may be a useful screening method for periodontitis, though limited to never-smokers.
Relationship between tooth loss and mortality in 80-year-old Japanese community-dwelling subjects
Toshihiro Ansai, Yutaka Takata, Inho Soh, Shuji Awano, Akihiro Yoshida, Kazuo Sonoki, Tomoko Hamasaki, Takehiro Torisu, Akira Sogame, Naoko Shimada, Tadamichi Takehara
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-386
Abstract: We initially contacted 1282 80-year-old community-dwelling individuals born in 1917, of whom 697 responded and participated in a baseline study, with follow-up examinations conducted 4 and 5.5 years later. Data from interviews and medical and oral examinations were obtained, and oral health was determined according to the number of teeth remaining in the oral cavity.A total of 108 and 157 subjects died in 4 years and 5.5 years, respectively, after the baseline study. Tooth loss was significantly associated with mortality at age 85.5, but not at age 84, after adjusting for potential confounders. When the analysis was stratified by sex, we found a stronger association in females in follow-up examinations conducted at both 4- and 5.5 years. On the other hand, the effect of tooth loss on mortality was not significantly different between smokers and non-smokers.Tooth loss is a significant predictor of mortality independent of health factors, socio-economic status, and lifestyle in octogenarians, with a stronger association in females.Associations between tooth loss and mortality have been reported, though issues related to important confounding factors such as age, gender, and smoking status, which may be related to oral health and are also risk factors for mortality, remain to be clarified. In a number of studies, the age range of the subjects is broad [1-3], while there is a limited number of reports regarding the association of tooth loss and mortality in subjects who are the same age. An important merit of limiting a study population to the same age is that there is no need to consider the effects of age on changes that may potentially confound factors related to systemic condition. Thus, results obtained with such a study design would be expected to reveal a much higher level of scientific evidence. In a search of published studies regarding the association between tooth loss and mortality in a single age group, we found 3 reports: a 10-year cohort study of 80-year-
Fairness Norms and the Incidence of Environmental Subsidy  [PDF]
Toshihiro Uchida
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.36100
Abstract: Although fairness concerns are frequently discussed in the real world environmental politics, their effects are relatively neglected in the environmental economics literature. Using a survey method, this paper attempts to reveal how fairness norms affect the incidence of subsidy both in the short-run and long-run. The results indicate that statutory incidence (legal right to receive subsidy) affects people’s fairness norms on who should receive subsidy. In particular it is considered unfair for a firm to receive a part of the subsidy when it is legally granted to the consumer side. If firms avoid behaviors that are considered unfair, the tax and subsidy equivalence theorem may not hold under this situation. The survey results also reveal that fairness norms affect the incidence of subsidy in the long-run, in a sense that the allocation of gains that are generated due to subsidy is affected. People find it fair if allocation is made in proportion to firms’ own effort. Therefore, if an increase in profit is achieved by activities directly supported by subsidy, people find it less justifiable for firms to keep all the gains by themselves and thus firms may be forced to share the gains with consumers.
Using Patents in Promotional Activities  [PDF]
Toshihiro Tsuchihashi
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2016.65094
Abstract: A traditional view of patents and patenting shows a trade-off between the benefit of appropriation and the cost of information revelation. However, firms may benefit from information revelation to consumers because patents can provide credible information about the firms ability to develop new technologies and produce good quality products. In fact, we frequently observe that many firms use their patents for promotion in a variety of industries, including foods, cosmetics, and electronic devices. We construct a simple model to study a usage of patents in promotion activities, a promotional patent, and investigate an advantage for a firm to employ a promotional patent. We make two findings. First, we find a positive information value of a promotional patent to a high-type firm. The benefit stems from an increase in the consumers’ willingness to pay in two ways. The expected valuation to the consumers increases because i) the patented innovation directly improves the product quality and ii) the promotional patent increases a likelihood of the firm to be a high type. The firm then absorbs the increase of the expected valuation. Second, the information value to the high-type firm is non-monotonic. The information value increases (decreases) with a prior probability that a firm is a high type when the prior probability is low (high).
Solvent-Induced Phase-Inversion and Electrical Actuation of Dielectric Copolymer Films  [PDF]
Yeonju Jang, Toshihiro Hirai
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2011.23023
Abstract: Block copolymers posses inherently the ability of form a variety of phase-separated microdomain structures. The lengths of block segments and the selectivity of the solvent are primary factors affecting the resultant morphology. This paper investigated the effect of casting solvents on the morphologies and electrical actuation of poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(n-butyl acrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA-PnBA-PMMA) triblock copolymer films comprising PMMA hard segment and PnBA soft segment. Transmission electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy observation revealed that PMMA and PnBA segments were assembled into various micro- and nano-sized phase structures where either of them formed continuous phase. This implies that continous phase could be inversed by used casting solvents. Solvent-dependent phase morphologies had a significant effect on the electrical actuation results. Increase of the PnBA contents and the continuous phases of PnBA soft segments improved both of electrical actuation and dielectric constant, indicating that solvent-induced phase separation modulates the electrical actuation of dielectric films. The significance of the role of solvent selectivity and the major continuous phase of the polymer in defining the morphology and electrical actuation of the self-assembled block copolymer structure are discussed.
Development of Battery-Less Wireless Current Sensor Node Utilizing Charging Time of Capacitors with Wide Measurement Range  [PDF]
Hironao Okada, Toshihiro Itoh
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2013.511026
Abstract:

We report a novel battery-less wireless current sensor node without an analog to digital converter (ADC). If a capacitor is charged using a current transformer (CT) and a rectifying circuit, the charging time depends on the current flowing through a power line. In the case that the node transmits data every time when voltage of the capacitor exceeds a threshold voltage, we can indirectly measure the current by measuring the transmission intervals. In this method, the circuit of the node can be simplified and power consumption for the wireless transmission can be decreased because the measured current data does not need to be included in the transmitted packet. However, the measurable range is about single digit because the transmission interval decreases suddenly as the current increases. In this work, we have ex- panded the range using one CT, one wireless transmission module, and two charging circuits that include different load resistors connected in series. The results indicated that the measurable range was from 0.5 A to 50 A.

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