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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 367 matches for " Toshihiko Yamaka "
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Effect of erythropoietin-stimulating agent on uremic inflammation
Yuri Tanaka, Nobihiko Joki, Hiroki Hase, Masaki Iwasaki, Masato Ikeda, Ryoichi Ando, Toshio Shinoda, Daijyo Inaguma, Toshifumi Sakaguchi, Yasuhiro Komatsu, Fumihiko Koiwa, Toshihiko Yamaka, Takashi Shigematsu
Journal of Inflammation , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-9255-9-17
Abstract: This was a cross-sectional study. From January 2006 to October 2009, 1,623 patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) commenced hemodialysis (HD) at the 9 participating hospitals. The criteria for exclusion from the database were 1) serum C-reactive protein (CRP)?>?3?mg/dL, 2) WBC count?>?9,000/mm3 or <4,000/mm3, and 3) patients with cancer, immune complex disease, or vasculitis. A total of 900 patients were entered into the final database. We explored the association of serum CRP just before the first HD session with clinical characteristics, laboratory data, and medications for CKD in the predialysis period.On univariate analysis, age, CTR, eGFR, and WBC were significantly correlated with CRP. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum albumin, LDL-C, HDL-C, Hb, Cr, and Ca were inversely associated with CRP. Use of erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESA) using (r?=??0.111, p?=?0.0015), renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (r?=??0.083, p?=?0.0154), and calcium channel blockers (r?=??0.1, p?=?0.0039) was also negatively correlated with CRP. However, only use of ESA showed a significant negative correlation with CRP that was independent of other clinical factors and CKD medications on multiple regression analysis.ESA may strongly reduce uremic inflammation in addition to improving anemia. To confirm this potential effect, a large-scale longitudinal study would be required.
Treating Depression with the Mephenesin Analog Skeletal Muscle Relaxant Methocarbamol  [PDF]
Toshihiko Numazawa
Open Journal of Depression (OJD) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojd.2016.54005
Abstract: It is difficult to treat depression because there is no established method for treatment. Many drugs have been developed by Pharmaceutical companies to treat depression. Depression affects many patients. It was necessary to focus on “meprobamate” which was once said to be a magic drug. It was found that “methocarbamol” is more suitable for treating depression than “meprobamate”.
Desalination of Seawater by Liquid Columns and Decompression Boiling (Recovery of Condensation Latent Heat)  [PDF]
Toshihiko Shakouchi
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2018.108046
Abstract: In this study, the concept of a new seawater desalination method and equipment using liquid columns of seawater and desalinated fresh water, decompression boiling and evaporation, condensation, and recovery of condensation latent heat are proposed. The equipment consists of seawater and freshwater columns approximately 10 m high with top spaces. The pressure of the top space, the evaporation and condensation area, of the seawater column, for example, is reduced approximately 30 mmHg (abs.) using the seawater column, after which it is heated from the general seawater temperature of 25°C to 30°C to boil and evaporate the seawater. The vapor is cooled by the seawater at approximately 25°C in a heat exchanger, and then, it is condensed and sent to the fresh water column. At this time, the condensation latent heat is recovered to preheat the newly flowing seawater. The evaporation or condensation rate, namely, the production rate of freshwater, by the new desalination equipment is also estimated by the results of the existing quadruplex effect vacuum evaporator used in the salt production industry. This new desalination method and its associated equipment also can be used to purify polluted water and waste water.
Effects of the inhibition of weed communities by winter-flooding  [PDF]
Korehisa Kaneko, Toshihiko Nakamura
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/as.2011.24050
Abstract: Winter-flooded paddy field is an agricultural method which putting a water among the winter, it is paid attention as an environmental friendly agriculture. Especially, it is said, winter-flooding is control paddy weeds and there is the farming potential that the annual rice yield is high. However, there is no detailed research about the effects of weed communities by winter-flooding, as the purpose of this study, we investigated the effects of the inhibition of weed communities (life cycle, harmful weed) by winter-flooding at a shore of Inba Lake, Chiba Prefecture, Japan, and compared them to paddy weeds in a dry paddy field. Methods examined the plant height (cm) and the cover degree class of all appearance species in each quadrant frame (1 m2). Quadrant in the two type paddies were 10 frames (D1-D10) at the control, and were 10 frames (W1-W10) at the treatment (Figure 1). In a winter-flooded paddy field, species number and plant volume of winter-annual plants decreased in the third winter after winter-flooding, In particular, the plant volume of Alopecurus aequalis, Cardamine flexuosa decreased significantly. We considered that the cause of this decrease was due to the depth of flooding (more than 10 cm). Eleocharis kuroguwai and Echinochloa oryzoides, which are perennial plants, Sagittaria trifolia, which is an annual plant, increased in a winter-flooded paddy field in the third summer after winter-flooding. We considered that these species grew thicker at places where the seeds germinated, and grew easily, because the conservation situation of the seeds fitted well under the winter-flooding conditions. They started to grow immediately after the drainage of water. The period of drainage coincided with increasing light intensity and temperature. In addition, the annual rice yield of the third year after winter-flooding was higher than that of the habitual practice rice field.
Effect of Ultrasonic Irradiation Conditions on Metal Surface during Multifunction Cavitation  [PDF]
Masataka Ijiri, Toshihiko Yoshimura
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2018.98050
Abstract: Processing using multifunction cavitation (MFC) has recently enabled functional characteristics to be imparted to various materials. It is possible to process a material surface in the same manner as with conventional water jet (WJ) peening; however, the cavitation bubble temperature is different. To further improve this MFC technology, we examine the surface re-forming of low alloy steel (JIS-SCM435) using MFC with various modes of ultrasonic waves. The ultrasonic equipment used for MFC processing includes dual, single, pulse and frequency modulation (FM) ultrasonic modes. Improvement of the residual stress and corrosion resistance was confirmed for all modes. The dual mode showed the maximum values of residual compressive stress and surface potential. The sound pressure at the machining spot was the highest with dual mode, and the temperature in the bubble generated by the WJ nozzle was highest and the amount of dissolved oxygen was lowest. Improvement of the residual stress and corrosion resistance was promoted because the temperature and pressure in the bubble interior during processing was higher than in the other modes.
Three-Dimensional X-ray Observation of Atmospheric Biological Samples by Linear-Array Scanning-Electron Generation X-ray Microscope System
Toshihiko Ogura
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021516
Abstract: Recently, we developed a soft X-ray microscope called the scanning-electron generation X-ray microscope (SGXM), which consists of a simple X-ray detection system that detects X-rays emitted from the interaction between a scanning electron beam (EB) and the thin film of the sample mount. We present herein a three-dimensional (3D) X-ray detection system that is based on the SGXM technology and designed for studying atmospheric biological samples. This 3D X-ray detection system contains a linear X-ray photodiode (PD) array. The specimens are placed under a CuZn-coated Si3N4 thin film, which is attached to an atmospheric sample holder. Multiple tilt X-ray images of the samples are detected simultaneously by the linear array of X-ray PDs, and the 3D structure is calculated by a new 3D reconstruction method that uses a simulated-annealing algorithm. The resulting 3D models clearly reveal the inner structure of the bacterium. In addition, the proposed method can easily be used for diverse samples in a broad range of scientific fields.
High-Contrast Observation of Unstained Proteins and Viruses by Scanning Electron Microscopy
Toshihiko Ogura
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046904
Abstract: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is an important tool for the nanometre-scale analysis of the various samples. Imaging of biological specimens can be difficult for two reasons: (1) Samples must often be left unstained to observe detail of the biological structures; however, lack of staining significantly decreases image contrast. (2) Samples are prone to serious radiation damage from electron beam. Herein we report a novel method for sample preparation involving placement on a new metal-coated insulator film. This method enables obtaining high-contrast images from unstained proteins and viruses by scanning electron microscopy with minimal electron radiation damage. These images are similar to those obtained by transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the method can be easily used to observe specimens of proteins, viruses and other organic samples by using SEM.
Disappearance of diabetic macular hard exudates after hemodialysis introduction.
Acta Medica Okayama , 2006,
Abstract: We report herein the disappearance of macular hard exudates after the introduction of hemodialysis in diabetic patients. A 62-year-old woman and a 52-year-old man with diabetes mellitus showed hard exudates in the macula of the left eyes. Both patients had previously undergone panretinal photocoagulation in both eyes. During the follow-up, hemodialysis was introduced for deteriorating chronic renal failure caused by diabetic nephropathy. Half a year later, macular hard exudates in the left eyes disappeared dramatically in both patients, but the visual acuity remained the same. No additional laser treatment was done during the observation period. Hemodialysis is considered to have accelerated the resolution of macular hard exudates in both patients. The deposition of macular hard exudates in diabetic patients is due in part to concurrent poor renal function.
Polyphenols as Natural Food Pigments: Changes During Food Processing
Toshihiko Shoji
American Journal of Food Technology , 2007,
Abstract: The colors of the foods and beverages contribute not only to their appearance but also to their agreeableness, which linked to both taste and flavor. Polyphenols, particularly flavonoids, are important pigments for determining food color, similar to carotenoids and chlorophylls. Foods and beverages contain a mixture of intact pigments, which are derived from raw materials and artificial pigments that are generated by chemical and enzymatic reactions during processing and storage. This study provides an overview of the characteristics and contributions of native polyphenol pigments from plants materials, as well as those generated by chemical and enzymatic reactions during food and beverage production.
Computational Chemical Analysis of Enantiomer Separations of Derivatized Amino Acids in Reversed-phase Liquid Chromatography
Toshihiko Hanai
Internet Electronic Journal of Molecular Design , 2004,
Abstract: A fast quantitative structure-retention relationship method is required in chromatography for rapid optimization of chromatographic separation conditions. Chromatographic data of amino acid enantiomers were analyzed using a computational chemical method to simulate chromatographic separation. Using computational chemical calculations, the direct interaction between a model-phase and an enantiomer was calculated as an energy value using the MM2 calculation. Computational chemistry using a model adsorbent is a new method for quantitative analysis of retention in reversed-phase liquid chromatography. The correlation coefficient was 0.938 (n = 14) between the retention factors of derivatized amino acids and interaction energy values of the final structure (ΔFS) between an analyte and a model pentyl-bonded phase.
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