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Odor Aversion and Pathogen-Removal Efficiency in Grooming Behavior of the Termite Coptotermes formosanus
Aya Yanagawa, Nao Fujiwara-Tsujii, Toshiharu Akino, Tsuyoshi Yoshimura, Takashi Yanagawa, Susumu Shimizu
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047412
Abstract: The results of biocontrol with entomopathogens in termites have been discouraging because of the strong social hygiene behavior for removing pathogens from termite colonies. However, the mechanism of pathogen detection is still unclear. For the successful application of biopesticides to termites in nature, it would be beneficial to identify substances that could disrupt the termite’s ability to perceive pathogens. We hypothesized that termites can perceive pathogens and this ability plays an important role in effective hygiene behavior. In this study, pathogen-detection in the subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus was investigated. We performed quantitative assays on conidia removal by grooming behavior using epifluoresence microscopy and Y-maze tests to examine the perception of fungal odor by termites. Three species each of high- and low-virulence entomopathogenic fungi were used in each test. The results demonstrated that termites removed conidia more effectively from a nestmate’s cuticle if its odor elicited stronger aversion. Highly virulent pathogens showed higher attachment rates to termite surfaces and their odors were more strongly avoided than those of low-virulence isolates in the same species. Moreover, termites appeared to groom each other more persistently when they had more conidia on their bodies. In brief, insect perception of pathogen-related odor seems to play a role in the mechanism of their hygiene behavior.
Ants Use Partner Specific Odors to Learn to Recognize a Mutualistic Partner
Masaru K. Hojo, Ari Yamamoto, Toshiharu Akino, Kazuki Tsuji, Ryohei Yamaoka
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086054
Abstract: Regulation via interspecific communication is an important for the maintenance of many mutualisms. However, mechanisms underlying the evolution of partner communication are poorly understood for many mutualisms. Here we show, in an ant-lycaenid butterfly mutualism, that attendant ants selectively learn to recognize and interact cooperatively with a partner. Workers of the ant Pristomyrmex punctatus learn to associate cuticular hydrocarbons of mutualistic Narathura japonica caterpillars with food rewards and, as a result, are more likely to tend the caterpillars. However, the workers do not learn to associate the cuticular hydrocarbons of caterpillars of a non-ant-associated lycaenid, Lycaena phlaeas, with artificial food rewards. Chemical analysis revealed cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of the mutualistic caterpillars were complex compared with those of non-ant-associated caterpillars. Our results suggest that partner-recognition based on partner-specific chemical signals and cognitive abilities of workers are important mechanisms underlying the evolution and maintenance of mutualism with ants.
A DNA and morphology based phylogenetic framework of the ant genus Lasius with hypotheses for the evolution of social parasitism and fungiculture
Munetoshi Maruyama, Florian M Steiner, Christian Stauffer, Toshiharu Akino, Ross H Crozier, Birgit C Schlick-Steiner
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-8-237
Abstract: We recovered two well supported major lineages. One includes Acanthomyops, Austrolasius, Chthonolasius, and Lasius pallitarsis, which we confirm to represent a seventh subgenus, the other clade contains Dendrolasius, and Lasius sensu stricto. The subgenus Cautolasius, displaying neither social parasitism nor fungiculture, probably belongs to the second clade, but its phylogenetic position is not resolved at the cutoff values of node support we apply. Possible causes for previous problems with reconstructing the Lasius phylogeny include use of other reconstruction techniques, possibly more prone to instabilities in some instances, and the inclusion of phylogenetically distorting characters.By establishing an updated phylogenetic framework, our study provides the basis for a later formal taxonomic revision of subgenera and for studying the evolution of various ecologically and sociobiologically relevant traits of Lasius, although there is need for future studies to include nuclear genes and additional samples from the Nearctic. Both social parasitism and fungiculture evolved twice in Lasius, once in each major lineage, which opens up new opportunities for comparative analyses. The repeated evolution of social parasitism has been established for other groups of ants, though not for temporary social parasitism as found in Lasius. For fungiculture, the independent emergence twice in a monophyletic group marks a novel scenario in ants. We present alternative hypotheses for the evolution of both traits, with one of each involving loss of the trait. Though less likely for both traits than later evolution without reversal, we consider reversal as sufficiently plausible to merit independent testing.Ants of the Northern-hemispheric, temperate genus Lasius (Formicinae) are scientifically significant, in terms of relative abundance and ecological impact [1,2]. Because of the diversity of their signal and defense chemistry, Lasius ants are organisms widely used in chemical ecolog
A Role of Chaotic Phenomenon and the Central Place System in a Firm’s Location Selections  [PDF]
Toshiharu Ishikawa
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.21019
Abstract: When a manufacturing firm has a plan to build a factory, the determination of the factory’s location site is one of the most important elements in the plan. Since the manufacturer does not have enough information of economic conditions of all potential location sites, the manufacturer cannot determine immediately its location site. A series of steps are taken to determine the location place. The firm makes range of searching area small step by step toward the site deter-mination; 1) Determination of a prospective region in a large space, 2) Selection of a potential area in that region, 3) Choice of an urban district in that area, 4) Decision of a site in the district. This paper proposes that chaotic phenome-non, which is appeared in the calculation processes to specify the optimal location site, may be used to identify a pro-spective region. And then, it is shown in the paper that the central place systems laid in the region play a role in the se-lection of a potential area for the factory location. This paper elucidates how a firm searches step by step an appropriate factory’s location within a large geographical area.
Fixed Point Theorem and Fractional Differential Equations with Multiple Delays Related with Chaos Neuron Models  [PDF]
Toshiharu Kawasaki, Masashi Toyoda
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.613192
Abstract: In this paper, we show a fixed point theorem which deduces to both of Lou’s fixed point theorem and de Pascale and de Pascale’s fixed point theorem. Moreover, our result can be applied to show the existence and uniqueness of solutions for fractional differential equations with multiple delays. Using the theorem, we discuss the fractional chaos neuron model.
Long-term morphological evaluation of porous poly-DL-lactic acid for soft tissue augmentation  [PDF]
Yukawa Ken, Tachikawa Noriko, Munakata Motohiro, Akino Norio, Kasugai Shohei
Open Journal of Regenerative Medicine (OJRM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojrm.2013.24015

Soft tissues are important for aesthetic considerations in implant therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate soft tissue augmentation by using porous poly-DL-lactic acid (PDLLA)shaped as a tablet, with a diameter of5.0 mmand a height of2.0 mm. Porous PDLLA was implanted between the periosteal and epithelial tissues in 25 rats that were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 12, and 24 weeks. The average height of the PDLLA scaffolds at approximately 24 weeks was 1.85 ±0.08 mm, and the molecular weight decreased with time. Sinusoidal capillaries at 1 week, connective tissues at 4 weeks, and necrotic tissues at 24 weeks were observed more than other periods. At 24 weeks, the connective tissue surviving in the pores was confirmed to contain blood vessels; therefore, blood vessels are considered to be critical for the survival of soft tissue in scaffold pores. In this study, PDLLA was found to be useful for soft tissue augmentation in the long term. Although the molecular weight of PDLLA decreased with time, the height of the PDLLA scaffolds was preserved. The connective tissue surviving in the pores of the scaffolds at 24 weeks were associated with blood vessels. Further studies are necessary to investigate the optimal scaffold shape and surface characteristics to improve the penetration of blood vessels.

Therapeutic Strategies for SLE Involving Cytokines: Mechanism-Oriented Therapies Especially IFN- Targeting Gene Therapy
Toshiharu Hayashi
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/461641
Abstract: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE: lupus) is a chronic complicated autoimmune disease and pathogenesis is still unclear. However, key cytokines have been recognized. Interferon (IFN)- and also IFN/ are of particular importance. Depending on the concept that lupus is a helper T(Th)1 disease and that dendritic cells (DCs) determine the direction of lupus, balance shift of Th1/Th2 and immunogenic/tolerogenic DCs is reviewed for therapy. (IFN)-- and IFN-/-targeted (gene) therapies are introduced. These consist of Th1/Th2 balance shift and elimination of IFN- and IFN--related cytokines such as (interleukin)IL-12 and IL-18. Other approaches include suppression of immunocompetent cells, normalization of abnormal T-cell function, costimulation blockade, B lymphocyte stimulator (Blys) blockade, and suppression of nephritic kidney inflammation. Moreover, balance shift of IFN-/ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- together with regulatory T(Treg) cells are briefely introduced. Clinical application will be discussed.
Dysfunction of Lacrimal and Salivary Glands in Sj?gren's Syndrome: Nonimmunologic Injury in Preinflammatory Phase and Mouse Model
Toshiharu Hayashi
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/407031
Abstract: Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) is a chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by dry eyes and dry mouth due to dacryoadenitis and sialoadenitis with SS-A/Ro and/or SS-B/La autoantibodies in genetically predisposed individuals. Destruction of lacrimal and salivary glands by autoimmune reactions may lead to clinical manifestation. However, the mechanisms behind the decreased volume of secretions in tears and saliva are complex and are not fully understood. Exocrine gland dysfunction may precede autoimmunity (acquired immunity) or represent a process independent from inflammation in the pathogenesis of SjS. The preceded functional and morphologic changes of those tissues by nonimmunologic injury before the development of inflammation at the sites of target organs have been implicated. This paper focuses on the several factors and components relating to glandular dysfunction and morphologic changes by nonimmunologic injury during the preinflammatory phase in mouse model, including the factors which link between innate immunity and adaptive immunity.
Poincaré gauge theory of gravity
Toshiharu Kawai
Physics , 1993, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.49.2862
Abstract: A Poincar\'{e} gauge theory of (2+1)-dimensional gravity is developed. Fundamental gravitational field variables are dreibein fields and Lorentz gauge potentials, and the theory is underlain with the Riemann-Cartan space-time. The most general gravitational Lagrangian density, which is at most quadratic in curvature and torsion tensors and invariant under local Lorentz transformations and under general coordinate transformations, is given. Gravitational field equations are studied in detail, and solutions of the equations for weak gravitational fields are examined for the case with a static, \lq \lq spin"less point like source. We find, among other things, the following: (1)Solutions of the vacuum Einstein equation satisfy gravitational field equations in the vacuum in this theory. (2)For a class of the parameters in the gravitational Lagrangian density, the torsion is \lq \lq frozen" at the place where \lq \lq spin" density of the source field is not vanishing. In this case, the field equation actually agrees with the Einstein equation, when the source field is \lq \lq spin"less. (3)A teleparallel theory developed in a previous paper is \lq \lq included as a solution" in a limiting case. (4)A Newtonian limit is obtainable, if the parameters in the Lagrangian density satisfy certain conditions.
Exotic black hole solution in teleparallel theory of (2+1)-dimensional gravity
Toshiharu Kawai
Physics , 1994, DOI: 10.1143/PTP.94.1169
Abstract: A black hole solution in a teleparallel theory of (2+1)-dimensional gravity, given in a previous paper, is examined. This solution is also a solution of the three-dimensional vacuum Einstein equation with a vanishing cosmological constant. Remarkable is the fact that this solution gives a black hole in a \lq \lq flat-land" in the Einstein theory and a Newtonian limit. Coordinate transformations to \lq \lq Minkowskian" coordinates, however, are singular not only at the origin, but also on the event horizon. {\em In the three-dimensional Einstein theory, vacuum regions of space-times can be locally non-trivial}.
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