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Infertility is often cited as one of the causes of a declining birthrate, which has become a serious social problem in recent years. Processes by which motile sperm can be safely and easily sorted are therefore important for infertility treatment. Therefore, as a new sorting method, microfluidic sperm sorter using the microfluidic system has been developed. To improve more separation efficiency of this device, it is necessary to know the behaviors of motile sperm in the microchannel where the sperm undergo shear flow. The previous study implied the necessity of the modeling of motile sperm in the shear flow. In the present study, therefore, we experimentally investigated the behavior of the motile sperm in the Taylor-Couette flow using PTV (Particle Tracking Velocimetry) method. The experimental results showed that the ascent of the shear stress led to the increase in the sperm velocity, and the direction of the sperm velocity was opposite to that of the flow.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has some unique characteristics in the digestive organ cancer. Therefore it is very important to select an appropriate treatment for recurrent HCC according to several situations such as the type of recurrence, previous treatments and conditions of patient. This article is a review of the concept of recurrent multiple HCC and its therapeutic strategies.