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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1786 matches for " Tony Kariri "
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Diversity and Frequencies of HLA Class I and Class II Genes of an East African Population  [PDF]
Trevor A. Peterson, Thomas Bielawny, Philip Lacap, Rae-Anne Hardie, Christina Daniuk, Lillian Mendoza, Subotheni Thavaneswaran, Tony Kariri, Joshua Kimani, Charles Wachihi, Maboku Kimani, Terry Blake Ball, Francis A. Plummer, Ma Luo
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2014.42013

Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLAs) play an important role in host immune responses to infectious pathogens, and influence organ transplantation, cancer and autoimmune diseases. In this study we conducted a high resolution, sequence-based genotyping of HLA class I and class II genes of more than 2000 women from Kenya, eastern Tanzania and southern Uganda around Lake Victoria and analyzed their allele, phenotype and haplotype frequencies. A considerable genetic diversity was observed at both class I and II loci. A total of 79 HLA-A, 113 HLA-B, 53 HLA-C, 25 HLA-DPA1, 60 HLA-DPB1, 15 HLA-DQA1, 44 HLA-DQB1 and 38 HLA-DRB1 alleles have been identified. The most common class I alleles were A * 02:01:01 (10.90%), B * 58:02 (8.79%), and C * 06:02:01 (16.98%). The most common class II alleles were DPA1*01:03:01 (40.60%), DPB1 * 01:01:01 (23.45%), DQA1 * 01:02:01 (31.03%), DQB1 * 03:01:01 (21.79%), DRB1 * 11:01:02 (11.65%), DRB3 * 02:02:01 (31.65%), DRB4 * 01:01:01 (10.50%), and DRB5 * 01:01:01 (10.50%). Higher than expected homozygosity was observed at HLA-B (P = 0.022), DQA1 (P = 0.004), DQB1 (P = 0.023), and DRB1 (P = 0.0006) loci. The allele frequency distribution of this population is very similar to the ones observed in other sub-Saharan populations with the exception of lower frequencies of A * 23 (5.55% versus 11.21%) and DQA1 * 03 (4.79% versus 11.72%), and higher frequencies of DPB1 * 30 (2.26% versus 0.37%) and DRB1 * 11 (21.51% versus 15.89%). The knowledge of the diversity and allele/ phenotype frequencies of the HLA alleles of this east African population, can contribute to the understanding of how host genetic factors influence disease susceptibility and effective anti-retroviral treatment of HIV infections and future vaccine trials.

Family Background and Environment, Psychological Distress, and Juvenile Delinquency  [PDF]
Tony Cassidy
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.29142
Abstract: The relationship between youth offending and family background is still unclear in the literature. This study explored the role of family factors and psychological distress in relation to delinquency and youth offending to try and explicate the relative importance of family structure, family relations, and psychological distress. The study used the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Family Environment Scale, and the Delinquency Scale in a structured interview format to measure psychological distress, family structure and relations, and levels of youth offending, in 219 older children and adolescents aged between 12-17 years living in areas associated with high levels of youth offending in the UK. Analysis involved correlations, hierarchical multiple regression and analysis of variance. Family relations were the best predictors of delinquency and were also correlated with psychological distress. The relationship between delinquency and psychological distress indicated that participants with more psychological distress were less likely to be involved in criminal behaviour. The study supports the conclusion that youth offending and psychological distress are both influenced by a range of factors in the family, but may be unrelated to each other.
Digital Renaissance: The Creative Potential of Narrative Technology in Education  [PDF]
Tony Hall
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.31016
Abstract: This paper outlines research which explores the potential of narrative technology: the synergy of storytelling and computing to enhance creativity and creative education. The paper outlines the theoretical basis of the research: n?ogenic narrative, which is informed by contemporary debates and themes in the educational sciences. These include narrativity and storytelling in education; and positive and humanistic psychology. Furthermore, from an empirical/practical perspective, a number of examples of narrative technology are presented and discussed. These exemplify the principal ways in which narrative technology has been deployed in the research-enhanced teaching outlined in this paper: as both a pedagogical, and as a reflective methodology. The paper concludes with insights regarding the deployment of narrative technology to enhance creativity and creative education; and how the synergy of storytelling and computing is potentially affording new possibilities for a digital renaissance in education and educational technology.
The Spirit of Motivational Interviewing as an Apparatus of Governmentality. An Analysis of Reading Materials Used in the Training of Substance Abuse Clinicians  [PDF]
Tony Carton
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2014.42019

Substance abuse clinicians working at the coal face with clients daily are confronted with client problems that are robust and tangible. The understanding of these problems is granted epistemological and ontological legitimacy by the psy-sciences. As a result, practice in the substance abuse treatment and addiction fields are rarely subject to the scrutiny provided by post-structural analysis. Moreover, the disciplines of addiction treatment and sociology rarely collaborate in any meaningful way for numerous reasons. For the AoD clinician caught betwixt and between biological psychological and sociological discourses, there has been a tendency to opt for the perceived problem solving capabilities of psychological discourses. However, in a post-aetiological hemisphere, attention is increasingly fixated on the fiscal imperative. Clinician/Client relationships have been reconfigured in neo-liberal society. In this study, materials used to train undergraduate students Motivational Interviewing skills in an Alcohol and Drug degree programme were subject to a textual analysis deploying the Foucaultian concept of governmentality. The familiar aetiological descriptor model used in the field was transposed into the Foucaultian term discourse. One article subject to analysis is presented here. The intention was to interrogate the effects of Motivational Interviewing on client and clinician and the resultant repositioning. It was found that Motivational Interviewing technologies reposition the client as an active self-governing autonomous subject while the clinician is professionally and spiritually imprecated in the manufacture of a neo liberal subjectivity within the client. It is

Counselling: The Current Opium of the People?  [PDF]
Tony Carton
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2015.52011
Abstract: Western religion’s propensity to stultify holiness and the sacred is eclipsed in the profession of counselling. With its fundamentalist enthralment with the individual self, this poster-girl of liberalism, through its central modusoperandi, language has achieved a privileged rhetoric thereby relegating itself to the dustbin of history certainly in Western society. It is less a “sigh of the oppressed soul” (Marx, 1978) as the empowerment of an opportunistic harlotry that energises the profession in a neoliberal marketplace with discourses of social justice routinely cheapened and ideologically hijacked. The author designates a genealogy of this ascendant plummet learnt through retrospective insight. Counsellors have not only unconditionally accepted tablets of stone around truths but also binaries of truths. Interrogating several sacred cows in the profession including the concept of burnout, the should/need dichotomy and the parallel process he apprehends a trajectory chronicling nodal points and concluding that many undertakings within counselling serve increasingly to perpetuate a political-non-political conflation with marketplace morality idealised as liberalism morphs seamlessly into neoliberalism. What descends from a neoliberal paradise are reconfigurations of dichotomies not” of our choosing” (Marx, 1978) but of our own choice. Willingly with the anesthetising of any coherent Judeo-Christian impulses we opt for the sanctity of a vacuous Starbuck spirituality as liberalism or religion in its “degutted” version (Eagleton, 2009: p. 41) enacts the comfort of the afflicted but never the affliction of the comfortable.
Burnout as Alienation in the Counselling Field: The Descent from Homo-Faber to Homo-Economous  [PDF]
Tony Carton
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2016.62002
Abstract: The concepts burnout and alienation are routinely connected in a linear unproblematic trajectory (Tomei et al., 2011) perpetuating more of an ideological conflation than providing any insight into either concept. This is not due to the selection of shoddy analytic categories but to structural determinants of thinking, more systemically interesting than the entities themselves. The author attempts to problematize, politicise and polemicize the insipid commonsense under-standings of these classifications endemic in the counselling/addictions field. An informal discourse analysis was conducted on an aggregate example based on observation over several years in teaching professional practice. He concludes that the reported trajectory from alienation to burnout is more a narrative around changing ideology diffusion than a robust appraisal of social science. Furthermore, the concept of burnout serves to perpetuate, worsen and naturalise the problems it claims to remedy by a facilitation of spiritualising acts of passivity. An appreciation of alienation on the other hand enables awareness of the unnaturalness of current neo-liberal social structures. The author concludes that the quazireligious mantra of burnout invites the reader into a regime of self-care/self-blame contradictions and proves its effectiveness not by applicability but repetition. By continued use of the concept we reify the myth of burnout and grant it credence. The author also describes how clinicians enact their own informal and invisible means of resistance to power in the workplace where solidarity is enacted through humour and humanity.
The War on P (Pure, Methamphetamine) in New Zealand, a Moral-Panic?  [PDF]
Tony Carton
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2016.63008
Abstract: This article illuminates how the transfiguration from the sociological concept of moral-panic to moral-regulation replicates wider socioeconomic conditions. The author urges that the Alcohol and Other Drug (named so in order that alcohol can also be categorised as a drug) clinicians reflect on the structural and reproductive impact of their work. The sociological concept, “moral-panic” has socio-clinical efficacy in the (AOD) treatment field. It has much affinity as history in the field is littered with the phenomenon. The author, a long time Alcohol and Drug clinician, now lecturer in the AOD field, considers the phenomenon in New Zealand around the use what is known locally as P (pure) or methamphetamine. Various texts on a War on P campaign were analysed. It was found that, through various literary devices familiar themes emerged, evoking local folk devils and heroes. This analysis was carried out against a backdrop of creeping neo-liberalism, a new right-wing government committed to market liberalisation, and thereby the increased availability of a more dangerous yet licit drug, known as ethyl alcohol (Saunders, 1989). However, the concept of moral-panic can be deployed as a means to critically analyse the impact of various licit and illicit drugs under the theme of proportionality. Moreover, a sociological understanding of the prevention paradox can create a pathway to understand the role of moral-regulation and its ramifications as outlined by a governmental analysis. An appreciation of Moral-panic theory and Moral-regulation is crucial in the AoD field, as alternatives to dominant medical and psychological individualising discourses, in order to empower clinician and client alike and to politicise a discipline that traditionally eschews politicisation. The author argues that reflecting on the trajectory from moral-panic to moral-regulation creates insights into the dismantling western social state. From an ethical standpoint, it is important that clinicians become aware of the politically reproductive nature of their profession and how they are required to codify themselves and clients into ideological positions.
A Welcome Antidote to the Evangelism of Compulsory Optimism and Resilience  [PDF]
Tony Carton
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2017.72005
Abstract: This article problematizes the current western hubris around resilience and compulsory positivity that has ideologically insinuated itself into the addiction counselling treatment field. It argues that these discourses emanate less from clinical propositions but represent a virulent enactment of a neo-liberal agenda wherein language is implicated in the recreation of new subjectivities conducive to a declining social state. We also apprehend the ideological effect of verbal softeners, euphemisms and fabricated binaries and inversions routinely utilized by addiction clinicians enrolled as ground troops in this project. We also anticipate some likely challenges to this. The objective of this article is to reinstall the veracity of vulnerability and deficit appreciation, thus problematizing a prevailing Pollyanna version of resilience. It reviews the ineluctable alienating trajectory of lexicons used in the field over a few decades in various interventions, including Twelve Step Therapy, Client Centred Practice, Cognitive Behavioural Practice and Motivational Interviewing in order to show how clinicians now reproduce neo-liberal subjectivity through a language that constitutes subjectivity amenable to a declining social state. We apprehend grammatical structures that stigmatise sickness to reproduce hegemony of compulsory wellness.

When self-esteem, or others’ adulation,
Would cunningly persuade us we are something,
Above the common level of our kind,
The grave gainsays the smooth complexioned-flattery,
And with blunt truth acquaints us with what we are—The Grave by Robert Blair (Clymer, 1995)

Of the argument with others we make rhetoric,
Of the argument with ourselves we make poetry—W. B. Yeats (Bloom, 1970)
From Second Chance Learners and Second-Class Citizens to Competent Addiction Practitioners  [PDF]
Tony Carton
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2018.82012
Abstract: The idea that clinicians who are in recovery from addiction or substance abuse working as addiction practitioners seems deeply counter-intuitive. Compounding this is the problem that many have incurred criminal records, so the idea seems, at best nonsensical. Yet the cold hard essentialisms of professionalization and medicine gives way at times to the sophistry and serendipity of empiricism. These former sufferers know what they are talking about. The result is that there is an extremely high success rate in securing employment at practitioner, supervisor and management level as well as popularity with clients, due to them having a high affinity with lay experiences. This is an exploratory sociological article intended to raise some issues that present with the employment and training of recovering people as addiction practitioners. The tentative conclusions are that counsellors in recovery have a sophisticated awareness of the idiosyncrasies of the addiction field. However, of much more impact is the issue that they face challenges, related to matters of professionalization, stigma and the associated ongoing gentrification of the addiction field. There is a need for further research and emerging themes given the changing and reconfiguring nature of the health field and the wider neo-liberal political arena. They also possess a resilient and strength based wisdom not located in the over accessible neo-liberal vocabulary around these precepts but have experiences of the encounter with the Gethsemane understanding of deficit and purgatory; thereby the right to take back the stolen neo-liberal appropriation of resilience. They also importantly have access to alternative proven yet marginalised discourses that have stood the test of time.
Where Science Meets Art: Sociology and Social Work  [PDF]
Stephanie Kelly, Tony Stanley
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2012.24044
Abstract: The nexus of neo-liberalist influences in our current risk society has produced a crisis for both New Zealand sociology and Social Work, playing out in practice domains and in the academy. This paper argues that by co-habituating and co-operating, we may have a tangible way forward. One of the biggest challenges for Social Work practitioners is to come to terms with the role of theory in the practice of their discipline—a discipline that is often fast-paced, but increasingly focused on dealing with one client at a time, and often reduced to a dyad emphasis in practise: that of client and worker. One of the biggest challenges for the sociologist embarking on a career in research is to come to terms with sociology as methodological toolkit for social activism where knowledge of theory can be applied toward sustained societal change. Both offer a methodological approach to understanding the human condition in context. Both disciplines are at risk because of neo-liberalisation, and this, we argue must be avoided by a move toward each other.
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