Abstract:
Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic in the southern part of Japan. Infection of the virus can cause adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), while most infected individuals remain in a carrier state for a long period of time. Although rare cases of carriers, like ATL patients, who developed opportunistic infections, have been reported, hematological changes of carriers who are prone to opportunistic infections have not been well defined. Here, we present a case of an HTLV-1 carrier who developed Mycobacterium intracellulare infection and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PcP) simultaneously. Flow cytometric analysis of bone marrow cells revealed an aberrant compositional change similar to that in ATL patients. This suggests the presence of a pre-ATL state prior to the development of ATL, which is notable in terms of underlying cellular immunodeficiency.

Abstract:
Prolinamido-glycoside catalyzed asymmetric aldol reaction in aqueous media is reported. The reactions are rapid and highly stereoselective when water is used as solvent. The stereoselectivities were under influence of configurations of a prolyl residue of the catalyst and α-chiral aldehydes. Water soluble prolinamido-glycoside catalysts are easily separable from reaction mixture and can be recycled and re-used several times.

Abstract:
We study the isospin asymmetry in the isoscalar (IS) excitations in the mirror nuclei $^{14}$O and $^{14}$C by using the Hartree-Fock(HF)+random phase approximation (RPA) linear response function theory with a Skyrme interaction to take into account the continuum effect properly. The asymmetry in the IS monopole, dipole responses is pointed out in the continuum near the particle threshold with respect to the excitation energy and the sum rule strength. On the other hand, no clear sign of the asymmetry is found in the giant resonance (GR) region. In the quadrupole case, the calculated strengths of the mirror nuclei show almost the same energy dependence from the threshold to the GR region. It is found that the transition densities of the monopole response show an extended halo structure near the threshold, while those of GR region show a typical radial dependence of the compressional collective mode without any halo effect. Contrary to the transition densities of the monopole response, those of quadrupole response do not show any sign of the extended feature of wave functions neither near the threshold nor the GR energy region. Calculated strength distributions of the IS multipole states are compared with recent experimental data obtained by the multipole decomposition analysis of $\alpha $ inelastic scattering on $^{14}$O.

Abstract:
We show that there exists, in quantum theory, a close relationship between the weak value and the correlation function, which sheds new lights on the concept of the weak value.

Abstract:
In the neutral B meson system, it is possible to measure the CKM angle alpha using the decay mode b -> u ubar d in the presence of pollution from gluonic b -> d penguin decays. Here the recent status of the measurements of CP-violating asymmetry parameters using time-dependent analyses in B -> pi+pi- and B -> rho pi decays and the perspectives of a sin2alpha measurement are presented.

Abstract:
We study the effect of tensor correlations on single-particle and collective states within Skyrme Hartree-Fock and RPA model. Firstly, We study the role of tensor interactions in Skyrme effective interaction on the spin-orbit splittings of N=82 isotones and Z=50 isotope. The isospin dependence of the shell structure is well described as the results of the tensor interactions without destroying good properties of the binding energy and the rms charge radii of the heavy nuclei. Secondly, We performed self-consistent HF+RPA calculations for charge exchange 1$^+$ states in $^{90}$Zr and $^{208}$Pb to elucidate the role of tensor interactions on spin dependent excitations. It is pointed out that Gamow-Teller(GT) states can couple strongly with the spin-quadrupole (SQ) 1$^+$ states in the high energy region above E$_x$=30 MeV due to the tensor interactions. As the result of this coupling, more than 10% of the GT strength is shifted to the energy region above 30 MeV, and the main GT peak is moved 2 MeV downward.

Abstract:
In the presence of feedback control by "Maxwell's demon," the second law of thermodynamics and the nonequilibrium equalities such as the Jarzynski equality need to be generalized. In this paper, we derive the generalized Jarzynski equalities for classical Hamiltonian dynamics based on the Liouville's theorem, which is the same approach as the original proof of the Jarzynski equality [Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2690 (1997)]. The obtained equalities lead to the generalizations of the second law of thermodynamics for the Hamiltonian systems in the presence of feedback control.

Abstract:
We review the fundamental properties of the quantum relative entropy for finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. In particular, we focus on several inequalities that are related to the second law of thermodynamics, where the positivity and the monotonicity of the quantum relative entropy play key roles; these properties are directly applicable to derivations of the second law (e.g., the Clausius inequality). Moreover, the positivity is closely related to the quantum fluctuation theorem, while the monotonicity leads to a quantum version of the Hatano-Sasa inequality for nonequilibrium steady states. Based on the monotonicity, we also discuss the data processing inequality for the quantum mutual information, which has a similar mathematical structure to that of the second law. Moreover, we derive a generalized second law with quantum feedback control. In addition, we review a proof of the monotonicity in line with Petz.

Abstract:
We review and investigate the general theory of thermodynamics of computation, and derive the fundamental inequalities that set the lower bounds of the work requirement and the heat emission during a computation. These inequalities constitute the generalized Landauer principle, where the information contents are involved in the second law of thermodynamics. We discuss in detail the relationship between the thermodynamic and logical reversibilities; the former is related to the entropy production in the total system including a heat bath, while the latter is related to the entropy change only in the logical states of the memory. In particular, we clarify that any logically irreversible computation can be performed in a thermodynamically reversible manner in the quasi-static limit, which does not contradict the conventional Landauer principle. Our arguments would serve as the theoretical foundation of thermodynamics of computation in terms of modern statistical physics.

Abstract:
Concrete is the most widely used for construction materials in the world. Water content of concrete is an important parameter in terms durability of concrete structures. Terahertz (THz) waves, for which concrete is a porous and absorbable material, have been studied in order to establish a new non-contact inspection technology for maintenance of concrete structures. In this study, THz transmittance and reflectance of concrete in drying process were measured with a 60 GHz GUNN diode and absorption coefficient is analyzed for concrete with various water contents. It is shown that quantitative detection below 10% is possible for the water content at surface area of concrete.