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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 888 matches for " Tomoko Shima "
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Clinicopathological Characteristics of Basal Type Breast Cancer in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer  [PDF]
Goro Kutomi, Tousei Ohmura, Yasuyo Suzuki, Hidekazu Kameshima, Hiroaki Shima, Tomoko Takamaru, Fukino Satomi, Seiko Otokozawa, Mitsuru Mori, Koichi Hirata
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2012.325106
Abstract: Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined by the absence of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) expression. Patients with TNBC derive no benefit from molecularly targeted treatments, such as endocrine therapy or trastuzumab, as they lack the appropriate targets for these drugs. TNBC is characterized by its biological aggressiveness and poor prognosis, and consists of two subtypes, basal and nonbasal. The purpose of our study is to differentiate the clinicopathological characteristics of the two subtypes. Methods: 367 patients with primary breast cancer were recruited from April 2004 to December 2010 at 1st Department of Surgery, Sapporo Medical University. ER, PgR, and HER2 status were evaluated in all cases. Moreover, we classified TNBC into basal, nonbasal subtypes on the basis of immunohistochemical staining of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cytokeratin (CK) 5/6. Basal type was defined as CK5/6-positive and/or EGFR-positive, and nonbasal type was defined as no expression of these two markers. Results: Breast cancer subtypes by molecular classification were Hormone receptor (HR)-positive/HER2-negative (61%), HR-positive/HER2-positive (10%), HR-negative/HER2-positive (14%), and HR-negative/HER2-negative (15%). There was no difference between the basal type and the nonbasal type in clinicopathological factors. But, the basal type was significantly associated with Ki67 labeling index (p=0.0002), p53 expression (p=0.047), and BRCA1 expression (p=0.03). Further, patients with the basal type TNBC showed a shorter overall survival (p=0.032) than did patients with the nonbasal type. Conclusion: Classification of TNBC subtypes by EGFR, CK5/6 is a very useful prognostic factor, and highlights the need for the development of an adequate new strategy for the basal type TNBC.
Systemic Lymphadenectomy Cannot Be Recommended for Low-Risk Corpus Cancer
Takao Hidaka,Akitoshi Nakashima,Tomoko Shima,Toru Hasegawa,Shigeru Saito
Obstetrics and Gynecology International , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/490219
Abstract: Objective. The objective of this study is to ascertain whether omission of lymphadenectomy could be possible when uterine corpus cancer is considered low-risk based on intraoperative pathologic indicators. Patient and Methods. Between 1998 and 2007, a total of 83 patients with low risk corpus cancer (endometrioid type, grade 1 or 2, myometrial invasion 50%, and no intraoperative evidence of macroscopic extrauterine spread, including pelvic and paraaortic lymph node swelling and adnexal metastasis) underwent the total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy without lymphadenectomy. A retrospective review of the medical records was performed, and the disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), peri- and postoperative morbidities and complications were evaluated. Results. The 5-year DFS rates and the 5-year OS rates were 97.6% and 98.8%, respectively. No patient presented postoperative leg lymphedema and deep venous thrombosis. Conclusion. Omission of lymphadenectomy did not worsen the DFS or OS. The present findings suggest that systemic lymphadenectomy could be omitted in low-risk endometrial carcinoma. 1. Introduction Endometrial cancer is the most frequently occurring gynecologic malignancy. It accounts for 6% of all cancers in women, and causes approximately 42,000 deaths annually, which represents 3% of cancer deaths in women in the United States [1]. Most of the cancers are detected at an early stage by common symptom such as postmenopausal bleeding, with the tumor confined to the uterine corpus, so the prognosis is generally favorable and surgery alone may result in a cure. The five-year survival rate for stage IA or IB disease is reported to be over 90% [2, 3]. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) recommended in 1988 that adequate surgical staging requires a total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH-BSO) including pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy [4], and according to this recommendation, some surgeons believe that lymphadenectomy should be performed in all cases to enable the accurate staging and to assess the necessity for postoperative treatment. However, there are some risks to lymphadenectomy such as postoperative deep vein thrombosis or leg lymphedema which may impair the patients' quality of life. Mariani et al. reported that low-risk corpus cancer (endometrioid type, grade 1 or 2 tumor, myometrial invasion 50%, and no intraoperative evidence of macroscopic extrauterine spread) could be treated optimally with hysterectomy only [5]. We retrospectively
Autophagy Induced by HIF1α Overexpression Supports Trophoblast Invasion by Supplying Cellular Energy
Mikiko Yamanaka-Tatematsu, Akitoshi Nakashima, Naonobu Fujita, Tomoko Shima, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Shigeru Saito
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076605
Abstract: Extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) characterize the invasion of the maternal decidua under low oxygen and poor nutrition at the early feto-maternal interface to establish a successful pregnancy. We previously reported that autophagy in EVTs was activated under 2% O2 in vitro, and autophagy activation was also observed in EVTs at the early feto-maternal interface in vivo. Here, we show that autophagy is an energy source for the invasion of EVTs. Cobalt chloride (CoCl2), which induces hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) overexpression, activated autophagy in HTR8/SVneo cells, an EVT cell line. The number of invading HTR8-ATG4BC74A cells, an autophagy-deficient EVT cell line, was markedly reduced by 81 percent with the CoCl2 treatment through the suppression of MMP9 level, although CoCl2 did not affect the cellular invasion of HTR8-mStrawberry cells, a control cell line. HTR8-ATG4BC74A cells treated with CoCl2 showed a decrease in cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels and a compensatory increase in the expression of purinergic receptor P2X ligand-gated ion channel 7 (P2RX7), which is stimulated with ATP, whereas HTR8-mStrawberry cells maintained cellular ATP levels and did not affect P2RX7 expression. Furthermore, the decreased invasiveness of HTR8-ATG4BC74A cells treated with CoCl2 was neutralized by ATP supplementation to the level of HTR8-ATG4BC74A cells treated without CoCl2. These results suggest that autophagy plays a role in maintaining homeostasis by countervailing HIF1α-mediated cellular energy consumption in EVTs.
Results of Dating Violence Prevention Education for Japanese High School Boys  [PDF]
Tomoko Suga
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.512013
We conducted a class on domestic violence (DV) prevention for 234 high school boys (intervention group: 154 boys, non-intervention group: 80 boys) and verified its effect on the boys. The program dealt with respect, relationships and types of violence. The factor analysis of a questionnaire survey conducted before the class on DV prevention revealed that the high school boys’ understanding of “a relationship” and “a coercive behavior” was weak. Therefore, after conducting the class on DV prevention, we tested whether there was an improvement in their understanding of the terms “relationship” and “coercive behavior”. To understand whether boys’ understanding of “relationships” showed any change after the class, a comparison of the intervention and the non-intervention groups was carried out at four different time points—before the class on DV prevention, after the class, after a month, and after six months. A 2-factorial analysis of variance (repeated measures) was conducted. The results revealed that no mutual points of interaction were seen with the different measurement times based on the presence or absence of intervention (F (3,696) = 0.995, n.s.). To understand whether the term “coercive behaviors” changed boys’ understanding of the term after the class, the comparison from the results before the class till six months later showed significant mutual interactions with the measurement times based on the presence or absence of intervention (F (3,696) = 4.48, p < 0.01). From this study, it is clear that interventions such as a single class on DV prevention can help boys understand the term “coercive acts” and have an impact on their minds for a long time. However, the same may not be true in their understanding of “relationships”.
Japanese Educators’ Knowledge of DV  [PDF]
Tomoko Suga
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.62002
In the present research, a survey of the Domestic Violence (DV) related experience, knowledge, understanding of characteristics, and opinions on prevention of 244 Japanese educators was conducted. It cannot be overlooked that 8.0% of the 244 educators had experience suffering from DV. Additionally, 28.8% of the educators had experience taking a training or class on DV, and 34.0% had experience studying DV through books, etc. It was revealed from the present survey that roughly 30% of the educators had educational experience related to DV. Also it was revealed that 90.7% of female educators and 85.9% of male educators who were subjects of the present study thought that “It’s best if DV prevention is implemented during middle school and high school classes.” Educators who had studied DV through books, etc. understood six out of seven items about the characteristics of DV, which was more than those who had not studied DV. Additionally, those who had experience taking a training or class understood in detail three questions out of seven, which was more than those without experience. It is important to provide opportunities for training that would lead to learn the correct knowledge about DV for educators.
An Analysis of Surveys on Domestic Violence by Japan’s Cabinet Office (1999-2017)  [PDF]
Tomoko Suga
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.67005
Abstract: Japan’s Cabinet Office conducted surveys on DV seven times (1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017). As a secondary source, we used the data on the Cabinet Offices website. In 2001, the first DV law, the Act on the Prevention of Spousal Violence was passed, after which the Japanese public began to recognize DV. Based on the question item on “domestic violence from a spouse” the data of the Cabinet Office’s survey from 2005 to 2017 indicated that on average, just over 30% of women experienced DV, while just under 20% of men did. These figures have not changed much. The proportions of victims who use advisory services have increased with every survey due to political movements and Japanese policy. In 2017, the data showed that a little less than 58% of women and almost 27% of men used advisory services. The most recent survey conducted in 2017, showed that people who do not separate from their spouse experience DV. In terms of the reasons that they do not separate, “children” weighed high on the list.
An implantable electrical stimulator for phrenic nerve stimulation  [PDF]
Shima Sardarzadeh, Mohammad Pooyan
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2012.53018
Abstract: Phrenic nerve stimulation is a technique whereby a nerve stimulator provides electrical stimulation of the phrenic nerve to cause diaphragmatic contraction in patients with respiratory failure due to cervical spinal cord injury. This paper presents an eigth-channel stimulator circuit with an output stage (electrode driving circuit) that doesn’t need off-chip blocking-capacitors and is used for phrenic nerve stimulation. This stimulator circuit utilizes only 1 output stage for 8 channels. The proposed current generator circuit in this stimulator reducing to a single step the translation of the digital input bits into the stimulus current, thus minimizing silicon area and power consumption. An 8 bit implementation is utilized for this current generator circuit. The average pulse width for this eight- channel stimulator with 1 mA current, 20 Hz frequency and 8 bits resolution, is 150 - 300 μs. The average power consumption for a single-channel stimulation is 38 mW from a 1.2 V power supply. This implantable stimulator system was simulated in HSPICE using 90 nm CMOS technology.
FeCl3 Catalyzed One Pot Synthesis of 1-Substituted 1H-1,2,3,4-Tetrazoles under Solvent-Free Conditions  [PDF]
Fatemeh Darvish, Shima Khazraee
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2015.52009
Abstract: An efficient procedure for the preparation of 1-substituted-1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazoles via a three-component condensation of triethyl orthoformate, amine, and trimethylsilyl azide using inexpensive and environment-friendly FeCl3 as catalyst under solvent-free conditions has been reported. The reaction generates the corresponding 1-substituted tetrazole in excellent yields.
Investigating the Effect of Relative Width on Momentum Transfer between Main Channel and Floodplain in Rough Rectangular Compound Channel Sunder Varius Relative Depth Condition  [PDF]
Shima Bahadori, Mehdi Behdarvandi Askar
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2016.64020
Abstract: Compound section is referred to a section the surface of which is made of several sub-sections with different flow characteristics. The difference in the hydraulic and geometry characteristics causes a complexity in flow hydraulic and creates an interaction between the main channel and floodplains, resulting in an apparent shear stress and a transverse momentum transfer. The amount of such a stress plays an important role in many river engineering measures[1]. Due to the flow complexity, the common approximate analytical methods are not enough to identify the flow profile. The FLOW3D Software with its great features in three-dimensional analysis of flow field is used as a tool to investigate the shear stress in a direct symmetrical compound rectangular channel. After the simulation of models, it is found that an increase in the relative width and relative depth parameters decreases the percentage of apparent shear stress and an increase in the relative roughness causes it to be increased[2].
Economic and Social Impact of Tourism on a Small Town: Peterborough New Hampshire  [PDF]
Tomoko Tsundoda, Samuel Mendlinger
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2009.22009
Abstract: This study examined the perceived impacts of tourism on the lives of people from a small New England town. Twenty seven in-depth unstructured interviews were conducted. The study found that most people perceive both positive and negative impacts of tourism and do not want to change their town for increased tourism development even if it results in increased revenue. People recognized tourism’s benefit to the town’s economy but less so to their economic situation. Working locals expressed worry regarding the town’s gradually polarized economy and divided social classes and regard tourism as one of the causes. Wealthier members generally view tourism at its present level as beneficial. For further tourism development Peterborough’ population will need to solve this dilemma.
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