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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 689 matches for " Tomoko Obara "
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The Welfare Comparison of Ad-Valorem Tax and Specific Tax with Both Quality and Quantity Choice of a Consumer  [PDF]
Takuya Obara, Shuichi Tsugawa
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2017.76122
Abstract: This paper compares ad-valorem and specific taxation in models where a representative consumer with an exogenous income has both a quality and a quantity choice under perfect competition. In the setting, while ad-valorem tax causes income effect only, specific tax causes both income effect and substitution effect. Therefore, ad-valorem tax decreases consumer demand for both quality and quantity; on the other hand, specific tax decreases consumer demand for quantity. However, the sign of consumer demand for quality is ambiguous and is determined by the curvature of marginal utility on quantity. Additionally, using a constant elasticity of substitution (CES) utility function and a linear price function, we show that ad-valorem tax is superior to specific tax except for the Leontief preference under which the two forms of commodity taxes generate the same tax revenue. The substitution effect caused by specific tax disappears if the elasticity of substitution converges to zero.
Results of Dating Violence Prevention Education for Japanese High School Boys  [PDF]
Tomoko Suga
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.512013
We conducted a class on domestic violence (DV) prevention for 234 high school boys (intervention group: 154 boys, non-intervention group: 80 boys) and verified its effect on the boys. The program dealt with respect, relationships and types of violence. The factor analysis of a questionnaire survey conducted before the class on DV prevention revealed that the high school boys’ understanding of “a relationship” and “a coercive behavior” was weak. Therefore, after conducting the class on DV prevention, we tested whether there was an improvement in their understanding of the terms “relationship” and “coercive behavior”. To understand whether boys’ understanding of “relationships” showed any change after the class, a comparison of the intervention and the non-intervention groups was carried out at four different time points—before the class on DV prevention, after the class, after a month, and after six months. A 2-factorial analysis of variance (repeated measures) was conducted. The results revealed that no mutual points of interaction were seen with the different measurement times based on the presence or absence of intervention (F (3,696) = 0.995, n.s.). To understand whether the term “coercive behaviors” changed boys’ understanding of the term after the class, the comparison from the results before the class till six months later showed significant mutual interactions with the measurement times based on the presence or absence of intervention (F (3,696) = 4.48, p < 0.01). From this study, it is clear that interventions such as a single class on DV prevention can help boys understand the term “coercive acts” and have an impact on their minds for a long time. However, the same may not be true in their understanding of “relationships”.
Japanese Educators’ Knowledge of DV  [PDF]
Tomoko Suga
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.62002
In the present research, a survey of the Domestic Violence (DV) related experience, knowledge, understanding of characteristics, and opinions on prevention of 244 Japanese educators was conducted. It cannot be overlooked that 8.0% of the 244 educators had experience suffering from DV. Additionally, 28.8% of the educators had experience taking a training or class on DV, and 34.0% had experience studying DV through books, etc. It was revealed from the present survey that roughly 30% of the educators had educational experience related to DV. Also it was revealed that 90.7% of female educators and 85.9% of male educators who were subjects of the present study thought that “It’s best if DV prevention is implemented during middle school and high school classes.” Educators who had studied DV through books, etc. understood six out of seven items about the characteristics of DV, which was more than those who had not studied DV. Additionally, those who had experience taking a training or class understood in detail three questions out of seven, which was more than those without experience. It is important to provide opportunities for training that would lead to learn the correct knowledge about DV for educators.
An Analysis of Surveys on Domestic Violence by Japan’s Cabinet Office (1999-2017)  [PDF]
Tomoko Suga
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.67005
Abstract: Japan’s Cabinet Office conducted surveys on DV seven times (1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017). As a secondary source, we used the data on the Cabinet Offices website. In 2001, the first DV law, the Act on the Prevention of Spousal Violence was passed, after which the Japanese public began to recognize DV. Based on the question item on “domestic violence from a spouse” the data of the Cabinet Office’s survey from 2005 to 2017 indicated that on average, just over 30% of women experienced DV, while just under 20% of men did. These figures have not changed much. The proportions of victims who use advisory services have increased with every survey due to political movements and Japanese policy. In 2017, the data showed that a little less than 58% of women and almost 27% of men used advisory services. The most recent survey conducted in 2017, showed that people who do not separate from their spouse experience DV. In terms of the reasons that they do not separate, “children” weighed high on the list.
The Principal of Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI, the Method of Pharmacokinetic Analysis, and Its Application in the Head and Neck Region
Toru Chikui,Makoto Obara,Arjan W. Simonetti,Masahiro Ohga,Shoichi Koga,Shintaro Kawano,Yoshio Matsuo,Takeshi Kamintani,Tomoko Shiraishi,Erina Kitamoto,Katsumasa Nakamura,Kazunori Yoshiura
International Journal of Dentistry , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/480659
Abstract: Many researchers have established the utility of the dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in the differential diagnosis in the head and neck region, especially in the salivary gland tumors. The subjective assessment of the pattern of the time-intensity curve (TIC) or the simple quantification of the TIC, such as the time to peak enhancement ( ) and the wash-out ratio (WR), is commonly used. Although the semiquantitative evaluations described above have been widely applied, they do not provide information on the underlying pharmacokinetic analysis in tissue. The quantification of DCE-MRI is preferable; therefore, many compartment model analyses have been proposed. The Toft and Kermode (TK) model is one of the most popular compartment models, which provide information about the influx forward volume transfer constant from plasma into the extravascular-extracellular space (EES) and the fractional volume of EES per unit volume of tissue is used in many clinical studies. This paper will introduce the method of pharmacokinetic analysis and also describe the clinical application of this technique in the head and neck region. 1. Introduction The technique of dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in which multiphase MRI scans are taken following the intravenous injection of a contrast agent, has been widely used in clinical practice. Many researchers have established the utility of the DCE-MRI in the differential diagnosis of salivary gland tumors [1–3]. DCE-MRI can successfully demonstrate the nature of a lymphoma and is helpful for making a differential diagnosis from other lesions [4]. Some researcher have also attempted to utilize DCE-MRI for lesions in the jaw bone [5–7]. The most conventional assessment using DCE-MRI may, therefore, be to use the characteristics of the time-intensity curve (TIC) regarding the regions of interest (ROIs), which are delineated by the observers. The subjective assessment of the pattern of the TIC or the simple quantification of the TIC, such as the time to peak enhancement ( ) and the wash-out ratio (WR), is also commonly used.  Although the semiquantitative evaluations described above have been widely applied, they do not provide information on the underlying pharmacokinetic nature in the tissue. Moreover, an analysis based on the signal intensity (SI) is predominantly affected by the scan parameters. Therefore, it is difficult to compare the results obtained at different institutes. Conversely, a pharmacokinetic analysis enables the quantification of contrast agent
A Comparative Analysis of Glomerulus Development in the Pronephros of Medaka and Zebrafish
Koichiro Ichimura, Ekaterina Bubenshchikova, Rebecca Powell, Yayoi Fukuyo, Tomomi Nakamura, Uyen Tran, Shoji Oda, Minoru Tanaka, Oliver Wessely, Hidetake Kurihara, Tatsuo Sakai, Tomoko Obara
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045286
Abstract: The glomerulus of the vertebrate kidney links the vasculature to the excretory system and produces the primary urine. It is a component of every single nephron in the complex mammalian metanephros and also in the primitive pronephros of fish and amphibian larvae. This systematic work highlights the benefits of using teleost models to understand the pronephric glomerulus development. The morphological processes forming the pronephric glomerulus are astoundingly different between medaka and zebrafish. (1) The glomerular primordium of medaka - unlike the one of zebrafish - exhibits a C-shaped epithelial layer. (2) The C-shaped primordium contains a characteristic balloon-like capillary, which is subsequently divided into several smaller capillaries. (3) In zebrafish, the bilateral pair of pronephric glomeruli is fused at the midline to form a glomerulus, while in medaka the two parts remain unmerged due to the interposition of the interglomerular mesangium. (4) Throughout pronephric development the interglomerular mesangial cells exhibit numerous cytoplasmic granules, which are reminiscent of renin-producing (juxtaglomerular) cells in the mammalian afferent arterioles. Our systematic analysis of medaka and zebrafish demonstrates that in fish, the morphogenesis of the pronephric glomerulus is not stereotypical. These differences need be taken into account in future analyses of medaka mutants with glomerulus defects.
Economic and Social Impact of Tourism on a Small Town: Peterborough New Hampshire  [PDF]
Tomoko Tsundoda, Samuel Mendlinger
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2009.22009
Abstract: This study examined the perceived impacts of tourism on the lives of people from a small New England town. Twenty seven in-depth unstructured interviews were conducted. The study found that most people perceive both positive and negative impacts of tourism and do not want to change their town for increased tourism development even if it results in increased revenue. People recognized tourism’s benefit to the town’s economy but less so to their economic situation. Working locals expressed worry regarding the town’s gradually polarized economy and divided social classes and regard tourism as one of the causes. Wealthier members generally view tourism at its present level as beneficial. For further tourism development Peterborough’ population will need to solve this dilemma.
A Multi-Secret Sharing Scheme with Many Keys Based on Hermite Interpolation  [PDF]
Tomoko Adachi, Chie Okazaki
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2014.213140
Abstract: A secret sharing scheme is one of cryptographies. A threshold scheme, which is introduced by Shamir in 1979, is very famous as a secret sharing scheme. We can consider that this scheme is based on Lagrange's interpolation formula. A secret sharing scheme has one key. On the other hand, a multi-secret sharing scheme has more than one keys; that is, a multi-secret sharing scheme has p (2) keys. Dealers distribute shares of keys among n participants. Gathering t (n) participants, keys can be reconstructed. In this paper, we give a scheme of a (t,n) multi-secret sharing based on Hermite interpolation, in the case of pt.
Some Sequence of Wrapped Δ-Labellings for the Complete Bipartite Graph  [PDF]
Tomoko Adachi, Daigo Kikuchi
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.61019
Abstract: The design of large disk array architectures leads to interesting combinatorial problems. Minimizing the number of disk operations when writing to consecutive disks leads to the concept of “cluttered orderings” which were introduced for the complete graph by Cohen et al. (2001). Mueller et al. (2005) adapted the concept of wrapped Δ-labellings to the complete bipartite case. In this paper, we give some sequence in order to generate wrapped Δ-labellings as cluttered orderings for the complete bipartite graph. New sequence we give is different from the sequences Mueller et al. gave, though the same graphs in which these sequences are labeled.
Development of Preparative Chromatography for Proteomic Approach of Mycorrhizal Symbiosis  [PDF]
Tomoko Matsubara, Takaaki Ishii
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2015.51002
Abstract: Although mechanism of symbiosis between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and host plants has been investigated by genetic analysis, very little knowledge has been obtained because genome analysis of AMF is not perfect yet. Thus, we tried to develop mass purification of proteins using preparative chromatography in order to accelerate roteomic analysis of proteins related to mycorrhizal symbiosis, such as 24 and 53 kDa proteins. In particular, our data showed that 53 kDa proteins would be restrictively expressed when mycorrhizal fungi and host plants were stressed. However, 24 kDa proteins, which appear to be a usable indicator for the existence of various my-corrhizal fungi, were habitually detected in not only AMF but also other mycorrhizal fungi such as ectomycorrhizal fungi (EF). Moreover, we discovered new preparative chromatographical techniques for isolation and mass purification of those proteins. We are convinced that this chromato-graphical technique will greatly contribute to proteomic approach of mycorrhizal symbiosis.
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