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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 777 matches for " Tomoko Amano "
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Work function measurements of vanadium doped diamond-like carbon films by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy
Akihiko Shigemoto,Tomoko Amano,Ryozo Yamamoto
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: Vanadium doped diamond-like carbon films prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering have been investigated by X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements for the purpose of revealing electronic structures including values of work function on the surfaces. In addition to these photoelectron measurements, X-ray diffraction measurements have been performed to characterize the crystal structures.
A Crucial Role of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling in the Wound Healing Response in Acute Liver Injury Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride
Nao Oumi,Kumiko Amano Taniguchi,Ayumi Miyashita Kanai,Mayu Yasunaga,Tomoko Nakanishi,Kenzo Sato
International Journal of Hepatology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/476820
Abstract: Background. Acute liver injury induced by administration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has used a model of wound repair in the rat liver. Previously, we reported transient expression of bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) 2 or Bmp4 at 6–24 h after CCl4 treatment, suggesting a role of BMP signaling in the wound healing response in the injured liver. In the present study, we investigated the biological meaning of the transient Bmp expression in liver injury. Methods. Using conditional knockout mice carrying a floxed exon in the BMP receptor 1A gene, we determined the hepatic gene expressions and proliferative activity following CCl4-treated liver. Results. We observed retardation of the healing response in the knockout mice treated with CCl4, including aggravated histological feature and reduced expressions of the albumin and Tdo2 genes, and a particular decrease in the proliferative activity shown by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry. Conclusion. Our findings suggest a crucial role of BMP signaling in the amelioration of acute liver injury.
Identification and targeted disruption of the mouse gene encoding ESG1 (PH34/ECAT2/DPPA5)
Hisayuki Amano, Ken Itakura, Masayoshi Maruyama, Tomoko Ichisaka, Masato Nakagawa, Shinya Yamanaka
BMC Developmental Biology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-213x-6-11
Abstract: A Blast search of mouse genomic databases failed to locate the ESG1 gene. We identified several bacterial artificial clones containing the mouse ESG1 gene and an additional ESG1-like sequence with a similar gene structure from chromosome 9. The ESG1-like sequence contained a multiple critical mutations, indicating that it was a duplicated pseudogene. The 5' flanking region of the ESG1 gene, but not that of the pseudogene, exhibited strong enhancer and promoter activity in undifferentiated ES cells by luciferase reporter assay. To study the physiological functions of the ESG1 gene, we replaced this sequence in ES cells with a β-geo cassette by homologous recombination. Despite specific expression in early embryos and germ cells, ESG1-/- mice developed normally and were fertile. We also generated ESG1-/- ES cells both by a second independent homologous recombination and directly from blastocysts derived from heterozygous intercrosses. Northern blot and western blot analyses confirmed the absence of ESG1 in these cells. These ES cells demonstrated normal morphology, proliferation, and differentiation.The mouse ESG1 gene, together with a duplicated pseudogene, is located on chromosome 9. Despite its specific expression in pluripotent cells and germ cells, ESG1 is dispensable for self-renewal of ES cells and establishment of germcells.Embryonic stem (ES) cells were first derived from the blastocysts of mice in 1981 [1,2] and humans in 1998 [3]. ES cells have two important properties: theability to maintain pluripotency, which is the ability to differentiate into a wide variety of cells, and rapid proliferation. These characteristics make mouse ES cells an essential component of gene targeting technology. These qualitiesalso make human ES cells attractive sources for cell transplantation therapy to treat various diseases, including spinal cord injuries and juvenile diabetes. The molecular mechanisms underlying the pluripotency and rapid proliferation of ES cells are curre
Generation and Characterization of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Aid-Deficient Mice
Ren Shimamoto, Naoki Amano, Tomoko Ichisaka, Akira Watanabe, Shinya Yamanaka, Keisuke Okita
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094735
Abstract: It has been shown that DNA demethylation plays a pivotal role in the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. However, the underlying mechanism of this action is still unclear. Previous reports indicated that activation-induced cytidine deaminase (Aid, also known as Aicda) is involved in DNA demethylation in several developmental processes, as well as cell fusion-mediated reprogramming. Based on these reports, we hypothesized that Aid may be involved in the DNA demethylation that occurs during the generation of iPS cells. In this study, we examined the function of Aid in iPS cell generation using Aid knockout (Aid?/?) mice expressing a GFP reporter under the control of a pluripotent stem cell marker, Nanog. By introducing Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc, Nanog-GFP-positive iPS cells could be generated from the fibroblasts and primary B cells of Aid?/? mice. Their induction efficiency was similar to that of wild-type (Aid+/+) iPS cells. The Aid?/? iPS cells showed normal proliferation and gave rise to chimeras, indicating their capacity for self-renewal and pluripotency. A comprehensive DNA methylation analysis showed only a few differences between Aid+/+ and Aid?/? iPS cells. These data suggest that Aid does not have crucial functions in DNA demethylation during iPS cell generation.
A Crucial Role of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling in the Wound Healing Response in Acute Liver Injury Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride
Nao Oumi,Kumiko Amano Taniguchi,Ayumi Miyashita Kanai,Mayu Yasunaga,Tomoko Nakanishi,Kenzo Sato
International Journal of Hepatology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/476820
Abstract: Background. Acute liver injury induced by administration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has used a model of wound repair in the rat liver. Previously, we reported transient expression of bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) 2 or Bmp4 at 6–24?h after CCl4 treatment, suggesting a role of BMP signaling in the wound healing response in the injured liver. In the present study, we investigated the biological meaning of the transient Bmp expression in liver injury. Methods. Using conditional knockout mice carrying a floxed exon in the BMP receptor 1A gene, we determined the hepatic gene expressions and proliferative activity following CCl4-treated liver. Results. We observed retardation of the healing response in the knockout mice treated with CCl4, including aggravated histological feature and reduced expressions of the albumin and Tdo2 genes, and a particular decrease in the proliferative activity shown by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry. Conclusion. Our findings suggest a crucial role of BMP signaling in the amelioration of acute liver injury. 1. Introduction The mammalian liver is the main organ for metabolism of nutrients and drugs, as well as storage of glycogen and lipids, synthesis and secretion of serum proteins, as well as detoxification, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion [1, 2]. Moreover, the liver has a robust ability to self-regenerate from the remaining tissue after two-third partial hepatectomy [3, 4]. Chronic liver injury caused by hepatitis viruses, autoimmune responses, hepatotoxin intake, or cholestatic and metabolic diseases progresses to liver cirrhosis or fibrosis through stimulation of quiescent hepatic stellate cells to proliferate and transform into fibroblast cells [5]. However, the earliest stage of these processes is thought to consist of repeated cycles of injury and repair in liver cells [6, 7]. Acute liver injury can be caused by various pharmacological toxicants. A dynamic regeneration or tissue repair response similar to that after partial hepatectomy occurs following cell death and tissue injury caused by exposure to toxic chemicals. An intricate signal transduction network consisting of chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, and hormones has been revealed for liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy [8, 9]. Acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is widely studied as a model of liver injury in rats. CCl4 is metabolized by cytochrome P450 IIE1 [10] in mature hepatocytes and converted to trichloromethyl radicals, resulting in acute but reversible damage to the centrilobular hepatocytes that is
Glycosylation and secretion of human α-amylases  [PDF]
Shou Takashima, Junko Amano
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2012.21002
Abstract: Three human α-amylases exist: Amy1 (salivary amylase), Amy2A (pancreatic amylase), and Amy2B (expressed in various tissues). These amylases share a 97% - 99% amino acid sequence identity, and two potential N-glycosylation sites (N427 and N476) are commonly found in the C-terminal region. In general, salivary amylase is more frequently glycosylated than pancreatic amylase, and it is still uncertain why differences in the glycosylation pattern among human amylase iso-zymes occur. In this study, we found that there was no significant change of ratio of glycosylated molecules among isozymes produced by the same cultured cells, indicating that glycosylation of amylase is influenced by the type of cell producing the enzyme rather than being an inherent property of the amylase isozymes. We analyzed the glycosylation efficiency of N-glycosylation sites in recombinant Amy2A mutants produced by HEK293 cells and found that glycosylation efficiencies of N427 and N476 were 3% - 18% and 40% - 52%, respectively, indicating that the major N-glycosylation site of glycosylated Amy2A produced by HEK293 cells is N476. The difference in the glycosylation efficiency of each N-glycosylation site also seemed to contribute in part to generate different glycosylation patterns of human amylases. We also confirmed that the C-terminal region of human amylase plays a critical role in secretion, although glycosylation does not play a part in this effect.
Results of Dating Violence Prevention Education for Japanese High School Boys  [PDF]
Tomoko Suga
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.512013
Abstract:
We conducted a class on domestic violence (DV) prevention for 234 high school boys (intervention group: 154 boys, non-intervention group: 80 boys) and verified its effect on the boys. The program dealt with respect, relationships and types of violence. The factor analysis of a questionnaire survey conducted before the class on DV prevention revealed that the high school boys’ understanding of “a relationship” and “a coercive behavior” was weak. Therefore, after conducting the class on DV prevention, we tested whether there was an improvement in their understanding of the terms “relationship” and “coercive behavior”. To understand whether boys’ understanding of “relationships” showed any change after the class, a comparison of the intervention and the non-intervention groups was carried out at four different time points—before the class on DV prevention, after the class, after a month, and after six months. A 2-factorial analysis of variance (repeated measures) was conducted. The results revealed that no mutual points of interaction were seen with the different measurement times based on the presence or absence of intervention (F (3,696) = 0.995, n.s.). To understand whether the term “coercive behaviors” changed boys’ understanding of the term after the class, the comparison from the results before the class till six months later showed significant mutual interactions with the measurement times based on the presence or absence of intervention (F (3,696) = 4.48, p < 0.01). From this study, it is clear that interventions such as a single class on DV prevention can help boys understand the term “coercive acts” and have an impact on their minds for a long time. However, the same may not be true in their understanding of “relationships”.
Japanese Educators’ Knowledge of DV  [PDF]
Tomoko Suga
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.62002
Abstract:
In the present research, a survey of the Domestic Violence (DV) related experience, knowledge, understanding of characteristics, and opinions on prevention of 244 Japanese educators was conducted. It cannot be overlooked that 8.0% of the 244 educators had experience suffering from DV. Additionally, 28.8% of the educators had experience taking a training or class on DV, and 34.0% had experience studying DV through books, etc. It was revealed from the present survey that roughly 30% of the educators had educational experience related to DV. Also it was revealed that 90.7% of female educators and 85.9% of male educators who were subjects of the present study thought that “It’s best if DV prevention is implemented during middle school and high school classes.” Educators who had studied DV through books, etc. understood six out of seven items about the characteristics of DV, which was more than those who had not studied DV. Additionally, those who had experience taking a training or class understood in detail three questions out of seven, which was more than those without experience. It is important to provide opportunities for training that would lead to learn the correct knowledge about DV for educators.
An Analysis of Surveys on Domestic Violence by Japan’s Cabinet Office (1999-2017)  [PDF]
Tomoko Suga
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.67005
Abstract: Japan’s Cabinet Office conducted surveys on DV seven times (1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017). As a secondary source, we used the data on the Cabinet Offices website. In 2001, the first DV law, the Act on the Prevention of Spousal Violence was passed, after which the Japanese public began to recognize DV. Based on the question item on “domestic violence from a spouse” the data of the Cabinet Office’s survey from 2005 to 2017 indicated that on average, just over 30% of women experienced DV, while just under 20% of men did. These figures have not changed much. The proportions of victims who use advisory services have increased with every survey due to political movements and Japanese policy. In 2017, the data showed that a little less than 58% of women and almost 27% of men used advisory services. The most recent survey conducted in 2017, showed that people who do not separate from their spouse experience DV. In terms of the reasons that they do not separate, “children” weighed high on the list.
GSE Is a Maternal Factor Involved in Active DNA Demethylation in Zygotes
Yuki Hatanaka, Natsumi Shimizu, Satoshi Nishikawa, Mikiko Tokoro, Seung-Wook Shin, Takuji Nishihara, Tomoko Amano, Masayuki Anzai, Hiromi Kato, Tasuku Mitani, Yoshihiko Hosoi, Satoshi Kishigami, Kazuya Matsumoto
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060205
Abstract: After fertilization, the sperm and oocyte genomes undergo extensive epigenetic reprogramming to form a totipotent zygote. The dynamic epigenetic changes during early embryo development primarily involve DNA methylation and demethylation. We have previously identified Gse (gonad-specific expression gene) to be expressed specifically in germ cells and early embryos. Its encoded protein GSE is predominantly localized in the nuclei of cells from the zygote to blastocyst stages, suggesting possible roles in the epigenetic changes occurring during early embryo development. Here, we report the involvement of GSE in epigenetic reprogramming of the paternal genome during mouse zygote development. Preferential binding of GSE to the paternal chromatin was observed from pronuclear stage 2 (PN2) onward. A knockdown of GSE by antisense RNA in oocytes produced no apparent effect on the first and second cell cycles in preimplantation embryos, but caused a significant reduction in the loss of 5-methylcytosine (5 mC) and the accumulation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5 hmC) in the paternal pronucleus. Furthermore, DNA methylation levels in CpG sites of LINE1 transposable elements, Lemd1, Nanog and the upstream regulatory region of the Oct4 (also known as Pou5f1) gene were clearly increased in GSE-knockdown zygotes at mid-pronuclear stages (PN3-4), but the imprinted H19-differential methylated region was not affected. Importantly, DNA immunoprecipitation of 5 mC and 5 hmC also indicates that knockdown of GSE in zygotes resulted in a significant reduction of the conversion of 5 mC to 5 hmC on LINE1. Therefore, our results suggest an important role of maternal GSE for mediating active DNA demethylation in the zygote.
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