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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 200026 matches for " Tomas Waldén "
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Female Mice are Protected against High-Fat Diet Induced Metabolic Syndrome and Increase the Regulatory T Cell Population in Adipose Tissue
Ulrika S. Pettersson, Tomas B. Waldén, Per-Ola Carlsson, Leif Jansson, Mia Phillipson
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046057
Abstract: Sex differences in obesity-induced complications such as type 2 diabetes have been reported. The aim of the study was to pinpoint the mechanisms resulting in different outcome of female and male mice on a high-fat diet (HFD). Mice fed control or HFD were monitored for weight, blood glucose, and insulin for 14 weeks. Circulating chemokines, islet endocrine function and blood flow, as well as adipose tissue populations of macrophages and regulatory T-lymphocytes (Treg) were thereafter assessed. Despite similar weight (43.8±1.0 and 40.2±1.5 g, respectively), male but not female mice developed hyperinsulinemia on HFD as previously described (2.5±0.7 and 0.5±0.1 pmol/l, respectively) consistent with glucose intolerance. Male mice also exhibited hypertrophic islets with intact function in terms of insulin release and blood perfusion. Low-grade, systemic inflammation was absent in obese female but present in obese male mice (IL-6 and mKC, males: 77.4±17 and 1795±563; females: 14.6±4.9 and 240±22 pg/ml), and the population of inflammatory macrophages was increased in intra-abdominal adipose tissues of high-fat-fed male but not female mice. In contrast, the anti-inflammatory Treg cell population increased in the adipose tissue of female mice in response to weight gain, while the number decreased in high-fat-fed male mice. In conclusion, female mice are protected against HFD-induced metabolic changes while maintaining an anti-inflammatory environment in the intra-abdominal adipose tissue with expanded Treg cell population, whereas HFD-fed male mice develop adipose tissue inflammation, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and islet hypertrophy.
iNOS-Dependent Increase in Colonic Mucus Thickness in DSS-Colitic Rats
Olof Schreiber, Joel Petersson, Tomas Waldén, David Ahl, Stellan Sandler, Mia Phillipson, Lena Holm
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071843
Abstract: Aim To investigate colonic mucus thickness in vivo in health and during experimental inflammatory bowel disease. Methods Colitis was induced with 5% DSS in drinking water for 8 days prior to experiment, when the descending colonic mucosa of anesthetized rats was studied using intravital microscopy. Mucus thickness was measured with micropipettes attached to a micromanipulator. To assess the contributions of NOS and prostaglandins in the regulation of colonic mucus thickness, the non-selective NOS-inhibitor L-NNA (10 mg/kg bolus followed by 3 mg/kg/h), the selective iNOS-inhibitor L-NIL (10 mg/kg bolus followed by 3 mg/kg/h) and the non-selective COX-inhibitor diclofenac (5 mg/kg) were administered intravenously prior to experiment. To further investigate the role of iNOS in the regulation of colonic mucus thickness, iNOS ?/? mice were used. Results Colitic rats had a thicker firmly adherent mucus layer following 8 days of DSS treatment than untreated rats (88±2 μm vs 76±1 μm). During induction of colitis, the thickness of the colonic mucus layer initially decreased but was from day 3 significantly thicker than in untreated rats. Diclofenac reduced the mucus thickness similarly in colitic and untreated rats (?16±5 μm vs ?14±2 μm). While L-NNA had no effect on colonic mucus thickness in DSS or untreated controls (+3±2 μm vs +3±1 μm), L-NIL reduced the mucus thickness significantly more in colitic rats than in controls (?33±4 μm vs ?10±3 μm). The importance of iNOS in regulating the colonic mucus thickness was confirmed in iNOS?/? mice, which had thinner colonic mucus than wild-type mice (35±3 μm vs 50±2 μm, respectively). Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased levels of iNOS in the colonic surface epithelium following DSS treatment. Conclusion Both prostaglandins and nitric oxide regulate basal colonic mucus thickness. During onset of colitis, the thickness of the mucus layer is initially reduced followed by an iNOS mediated increase.
Linaclotide: evidence for its potential use in irritable bowel syndrome and chronic constipation
Lee N, Wald A
Core Evidence , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CE.S25240
Abstract: aclotide: evidence for its potential use in irritable bowel syndrome and chronic constipation Review (2445) Total Article Views Authors: Lee N, Wald A Published Date June 2012 Volume 2012:7 Pages 39 - 47 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CE.S25240 Received: 13 April 2012 Accepted: 01 May 2012 Published: 25 June 2012 Noel Lee, Arnold Wald Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Both irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), characterized by chronic and recurrent abdominal pain and altered bowel habits, and functional constipation are highly prevalent gastrointestinal problems for which many patients seek medical advice. A diverse number of treatment approaches are currently recommended to treat persons with chronic constipation as well as patients with IBS in which constipation is the main gastrointestinal symptom (IBS-C). These approaches have had somewhat limited success, and many patients remain dissatisfied with available therapy. Recently, linaclotide, a novel intestinal secretagogue, which works by activating the guanylate cyclase C receptor on the luminal surface of the intestinal epithelium, has been demonstrated to be efficacious in patients with both chronic functional constipation and with IBS-C in a series of randomized, placebo-controlled studies in these populations. Evidence for this assertion is provided in this systematic review of the pharmacologic properties of this novel agent and the published pivotal studies which support the efficacy of this agent in targeted populations.
Linaclotide: evidence for its potential use in irritable bowel syndrome and chronic constipation
Lee N,Wald A
Core Evidence , 2012,
Abstract: Noel Lee, Arnold WaldDivision of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USAAbstract: Both irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), characterized by chronic and recurrent abdominal pain and altered bowel habits, and functional constipation are highly prevalent gastrointestinal problems for which many patients seek medical advice. A diverse number of treatment approaches are currently recommended to treat persons with chronic constipation as well as patients with IBS in which constipation is the main gastrointestinal symptom (IBS-C). These approaches have had somewhat limited success, and many patients remain dissatisfied with available therapy. Recently, linaclotide, a novel intestinal secretagogue, which works by activating the guanylate cyclase C receptor on the luminal surface of the intestinal epithelium, has been demonstrated to be efficacious in patients with both chronic functional constipation and with IBS-C in a series of randomized, placebo-controlled studies in these populations. Evidence for this assertion is provided in this systematic review of the pharmacologic properties of this novel agent and the published pivotal studies which support the efficacy of this agent in targeted populations.Keywords: linaclotide, constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, safety, efficacy
Using near infra-red spectroscopy for characterization of transiting exoplanets
Erik Aronson,Pierre Waldén,Nikolai Piskunov
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201424058
Abstract: We propose a method for observing transiting exoplanets with near-infrared high-resolution spectrometers. We aim to create a robust data analysis method for recovering atmospheric transmission spectra from transiting exoplanets over a wide wavelength range in the near infrared. By using an inverse method approach, combined with stellar models and telluric transmission spectra, the method recovers the transiting exoplanet's atmospheric transmittance at high precision over a wide wavelength range. We describe our method and have tested it by simulating observations. This method is capable of recovering transmission spectra of high enough accuracy to identify absorption features from molecules such as O2, CH4, CO2, and H2O. This accuracy is achievable for Jupiter-size exoplanetsat S/N that can be reached for 8m class telescopes using high-resolution spectrometers (R>20 000) during a single transit, and for Earth-size planets and super-Earths transiting late K or M dwarf stars at S/N reachable during observations of less than 10 transits. We also analyse potential error sources to show the robustness of the method. Detection and characterization of atmospheres of both Jupiter-size planets and smaller rocky planets looks promising using this set-up.
Identification of Bacteria Utilizing Biphenyl, Benzoate, and Naphthalene in Long-Term Contaminated Soil
Ondrej Uhlik, Jiri Wald, Michal Strejcek, Lucie Musilova, Jakub Ridl, Miluse Hroudova, Cestmir Vlcek, Erick Cardenas, Martina Mackova, Tomas Macek
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040653
Abstract: Bacteria were identified associated with biodegradation of aromatic pollutants biphenyl, benzoate, and naphthalene in a long-term polychlorinated biphenyl- and polyaromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. In order to avoid biases of culture-based approaches, stable isotope probing was applied in combination with sequence analysis of 16 S rRNA gene pyrotags amplified from 13C-enriched DNA fractions. Special attention was paid to pyrosequencing data analysis in order to eliminate the errors caused by either generation of amplicons (random errors caused by DNA polymerase, formation of chimeric sequences) or sequencing itself. Therefore, sample DNA was amplified, sequenced, and analyzed along with the DNA of a mock community constructed out of 8 bacterial strains. This warranted that appropriate tools and parameters were chosen for sequence data processing. 13C-labeled metagenomes isolated after the incubation of soil samples with all three studied aromatics were largely dominated by Proteobacteria, namely sequences clustering with the genera Rhodanobacter Burkholderia, Pandoraea, Dyella as well as some Rudaea- and Skermanella-related ones. Pseudomonads were mostly labeled by 13C from naphthalene and benzoate. The results of this study show that many biphenyl/benzoate-assimilating bacteria derive carbon also from naphthalene, pointing out broader biodegradation abilities of some soil microbiota. The results also demonstrate that, in addition to traditionally isolated genera of degradative bacteria, yet-to-be cultured bacteria are important players in bioremediation. Overall, the study contributes to our understanding of biodegradation processes in contaminated soil. At the same time our results show the importance of sequencing and analyzing a mock community in order to more correctly process and analyze sequence data.
Preventing knee injuries in adolescent female football players – design of a cluster randomized controlled trial [NCT00894595]
Martin H?gglund, Markus Waldén, Isam Atroshi
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-10-75
Abstract: In this cluster randomized trial 516 teams (309 clusters) in eight regional football districts in Sweden with female players aged 13–17 years were randomized into an intervention group (260 teams) or a control group (256 teams). The teams in the intervention group were instructed to do a structured warm-up program at two training sessions per week throughout the 2009 competitive season (April to October) and those in the control group were informed to train and play as usual. Sixty-eight sports physical therapists are assigned to the clubs to assist both groups in data collection and to examine the players' acute knee injuries during the study period. Three different forms are used in the trial: (1) baseline player data form collected at the start of the trial, (2) computer-based registration form collected every month, on which one of the coaches/team leaders documents individual player exposure, and (3) injury report form on which the study therapists report acute knee injuries resulting in time loss from training or match play. The primary outcome is the incidence of ACL injury and the secondary outcomes are the incidence of any acute knee injury (except contusion) and incidence of severe knee injury (defined as injury resulting in absence of more than 4 weeks). Outcome measures are assessed after the end of the 2009 season.Prevention of knee injury is beneficial for players, clubs, insurance companies, and society. If the warm-up program is proven to be effective in reducing the incidence of knee injury, it can have a major impact by reducing the future knee injury burden in female football as well as the negative long-term disabilities associated with knee injury.NCT00894595Football is the most popular sport worldwide. Unfortunately, football-related knee injuries are common and constitute a serious problem regardless of the playing level. The injury that draws most attention is the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. This injury usually causes long absenc
Concurrent Scheduling of Event-B Models
Pontus Bostr?m,Fredrik Degerlund,Kaisa Sere,Marina Waldén
Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science , 2011, DOI: 10.4204/eptcs.55.11
Abstract: Event-B is a refinement-based formal method that has been shown to be useful in developing concurrent and distributed programs. Large models can be decomposed into sub-models that can be refined semi-independently and executed in parallel. In this paper, we show how to introduce explicit control flow for the concurrent sub-models in the form of event schedules. We explore how schedules can be designed so that their application results in a correctness-preserving refinement step. For practical application, two patterns for schedule introduction are provided, together with their associated proof obligations. We demonstrate our method by applying it on the dining philosophers problem.
Exponential integrators for a Markov chain model of the fast sodium channel of cardiomyocytes
Tomas Stary,Vadim N. Biktashev
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: The modern Markov chain models of ionic channels in excitable membranes are numerically stiff. The popular numerical methods for these models require very small time steps to ensure stability. Our objective is to formulate and test two methods addressing this issue, so that the timestep can be chosen based on accuracy rather than stability. Both proposed methods extend Rush-Larsen technique, which was originally developed to Hogdkin-Huxley type gate models. One method, "Matrix Rush-Larsen" (MRL) uses a matrix reformulation of the Rush-Larsen scheme, where the matrix exponentials are calculated using precomputed tables of eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The other, "hybrid operator splitting" (HOS) method exploits asymptotic properties of a particular Markov chain model, allowing explicit analytical expressions for the substeps. We test both methods on the Clancy and Rudy (2002) INa Markov chain model. With precomputed tables for functions of the transmembrane voltage, both methods are comparable to the forward Euler method in accuracy and computational cost, but allow longer time steps without numerical instability. We conclude that both methods are of practical interest. MRL requires more computations than HOS, but is formulated in general terms which can be readily extended to other Markov Chain channel models, whereas the utility of HOS depends on the asymptotic properties of a particular model. The significance of the methods is that they allow a considerable speed-up of large-scale computations of cardiac excitation models by increasing the time step, while maintaining acceptable accuracy and preserving numerical stability.
Review of Survey activities 2007: New zircon ages from the Tasiusarsuaq terrane, southern West Greenland
N?raa, Tomas,Scherstén, Anders
Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin , 2008,
Abstract:
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