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E-Commerce business models attracted a
great deal of attention in the last years. An increasing number of bargains are
realized via online transactions. However, some business models suffer
distinctly under changes of search engine algorithms while others experience
continuous stable traffic. This paper sheds light on the drivers of the
unpunished e-commerce businesses based on a case-by-case analysis of 43
business models in the German Internet market. The analysis reveals that more
stable business models are characterized by diversified customer arrivals which
are obtained by a focused product management, multiple marketing channeling,
freemium registration strategies and a subtle way to attract customer trust.
In this note, we generalize the wHSh value   for CO values.
In the present study, the herbicidal effects of
two fungicides with the active ingredients expoxiconazole, fluxapyroxad, pyraclostrobin and fenpropimorph on the
two arable weeds Lamium purpureum L.
and Chenopodium album L. were
investigated. The experiments were conducted in a climate chamber under defined
conditions. Sowing pods were prepared and plants at the cotyledon leaf stage
were pricked out in test pods. Fungicides were applied at six application
rates: 0%, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, 100% and 200% of the maximum registered dose rate
in Germany. Seven days after application, the first assessment was conducted,
regarding growth stage, quantity of plants and visible plant damage. Fourteen
days after application, the second and final assessment was conducted,
regarding growth stage, quantity of plants, visible plant damage and the fresh
weight of the plants. There were herbicidal effects of the fungicides, which were presumably due to the active ingredient
epoxiconazole. Epoxiconazole has effects on enzymes that are dependent on
cytochrome P-450 and inhibits sterol biosynthesis and probably gibberellin
synthesis. By doing so, these fungicides have similar effects to plant growth
regulators. Weed species showed differential sensitivities, contractions and
growth inhibition and ED50-values were calculated. Notwithstanding
the probably minor relevance of the present results in agricultural practice,
some effects on arable weeds might result if fungicides are applied at an early
growth stage in the field. In some cases, the crop-weed competition could be shifted to the benefit
of the crop. Nevertheless, the results are interesting for the field of weed
research and for the assessment of the ecotoxicology of fungicides.
The increasing demand on high quality optical systems with complex geometries, low tolerances and a low installation space necessitates new replicative production systems for complex optical glass elements. The technology precision blank moulding shows promising properties to comply with these demands on an industrial bulk production. Due to the required high surface quality and low surface roughness of produced optical elements, moulding dies must have comparable low roughness and defect-free surfaces. To reduce wear and chemical interaction with the hot glass, moulding dies are often coated with a thin sputtered physical vapour deposition (PVD) coating. The objective of this research work was to analyze the diffusion behaviour inside different industrially used low-Tg (transformation point) glasses and their interaction with three different noble metal coating systems during an application oriented heating test. Therefore, three different PtIr coating systems with different interlayers (50 nm nickel as reference, 20 nm chromium, without interlayer) were deposited and tested in combination with six different industrially used low-Tg glasses. Using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) a diffusion of the light alkali and alkaline earth metals (sodium, potassium, calcium) was detected. The interaction between glass and coating was analyzed by EDS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The different chemical compositions of the glasses have a significant influence on the interaction between glass and coating system. Several correlations between the chemical composition of the glasses and the amount of glass adhesion on the three coating systems were identified. The percentage of ions allocated to network modifiers lithium oxide, sodium oxide and potassium oxide correlates with the intensity of the interaction between coating and glass. The intensity of glass adhesion on the reference coating system PtIr/Ni is related with the zinc content in the glasses. Due to a diffusion process of the nickel interlayer, a direct correlation between the zinc content in the glasses and glass adhesion exists. The coating system with chromium interlayer showed comparable results to the system without interlayer.