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Role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of COPD and pulmonary emphysema
Ingel K Demedts, Tine Demoor, Ken R Bracke, Guy F Joos, Guy G Brusselle
Respiratory Research , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-7-53
Abstract: In this review, recent data on the role of apoptosis in COPD from both animal models as well as from studies on human subjects will be discussed. The aim is to provide an up to date summary on the increasing knowledge on the role of apoptosis in COPD and pulmonary emphysema.Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a chronic respiratory disease that is associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles or gases (mainly cigarette smoke). This leads to chronic bronchitis-bronchiolitis (small airways disease) and/or emphysema that cause airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. [1]. COPD is the fifth leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for more than 2 500 000 deaths every year (WHO world health report 2002). Moreover, the prevalence and mortality of COPD are expected to increase in the coming decades [2].Several mechanisms contribute to the pathogenesis of COPD [3]. First, the inhalation of noxious particles such as cigarette smoke causes the influx of inflammatory cells into the airways and lungs, leading to chronic inflammation. Different kinds of inflammatory cells (macrophages, neutrophils, CD8+ T lymphocytes) have been described to participate in the inflammatory response in the airways of COPD patients.Second, there is a disruption of the balance between proteolytic and anti-proteolytic molecules in the lungs of COPD patients, resulting in an increased proteolytic activity [4]. This causes the destruction of healthy lung parenchyma, which leads to the development of emphysema. This increase in proteolytic activity may be a consequence of inflammation (release of proteolytic enzymes by inflammatory cells such as macrophages and neutrophils) or may arise from genetic factors (eg alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency).A third mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of COPD is oxidative stress, which occurs when reactive oxygen species are produced in excess of the antioxidant defence mechanisms [3]. Oxidants are generat
Role of the tachykinin NK1 receptor in a murine model of cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary inflammation
Katelijne O De Swert, Ken R Bracke, Tine Demoor, Guy G Brusselle, Guy F Joos
Respiratory Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-10-37
Abstract: Tachykinin NK1 receptor knockout (NK1-R-/-) mice and their wild type controls (all in a mixed 129/sv-C57BL/6 background) were subjected to sub acute (4 weeks) or chronic (24 weeks) exposure to air or CS. 24 hours after the last exposure, pulmonary inflammation and development of emphysema were evaluated.Sub acute and chronic exposure to CS resulted in a substantial accumulation of inflammatory cells in the airways of both WT and NK1-R-/- mice. However, the CS-induced increase in macrophages and dendritic cells was significantly impaired in NK1-R-/- mice, compared to WT controls, and correlated with an attenuated release of MIP-3α/CCL20 and TGF-β1. Chronic exposure to CS resulted in development of pulmonary emphysema in WT mice. NK1-R-/- mice showed already enlarged airspaces upon air-exposure. Upon CS-exposure, the NK1-R-/- mice did not develop additional destruction of the lung parenchyma. Moreover, an impaired production of MMP-12 by alveolar macrophages upon CS-exposure was observed in these KO mice. In a pharmacological validation experiment using the NK1 receptor antagonist RP 67580, we confirmed the protective effect of absence of the NK1 receptor on CS-induced pulmonary inflammation.These data suggest that the tachykinin NK1 receptor is involved in the accumulation of macrophages and dendritic cells in the airways upon CS-exposure and in the development of smoking-induced emphysema. As both inflammation of the airways and parenchymal destruction are important characteristics of COPD, these findings may have implications in the future treatment of this devastating disease.Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide and a major burden on healthcare systems. Moreover, its prevalence and mortality are expected to escalate in the coming decades [1]. COPD is a chronic respiratory disease that is characterized by an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles and gases. This leads to obstruction of
Doncellas medievales en la poesía de Lord Alfred Tennyson: retratos del pasado como espejos del presente
Revista signos , 2003, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-09342003005400003
Abstract: in this essay the author wants to examine the early poetry of lord alfred tennyson, and especially celebrated poems such as "the lady of shalott" and "the princess" which, on the one hand, feature beautiful medieval maidens but, on the other hand, problematised gender. the author wants to find out what fed the medievalist strain in tennyson's poetry, and why he seemed to opt for these attractive medieval maidens as narrative personae. eventually, the analysis should elucidate tennyson's views on the function of poetry in a victorian society.
Doncellas medievales en la poesía de Lord Alfred Tennyson: retratos del pasado como espejos del presente Medieval maidens in the poetry of Lord Alfred Tennyson: portraits of the past as mirrors of the past
Marysa Demoor
Revista Signos , 2003,
Abstract: En este ensayo la autora quiere examinar la poesía temprana de Lord Alfred Tennyson y, en particular, poemas suyos muy celebrados como "The Lady of Shalott" y "The Princess", los que por una parte presentan hermosas doncellas medievales y, por otra, problematizaban el género sexual. La autora quiere investigar en los elementos que alimentaron la vena medievalista en la poesía de Tennyson y en las causas que lo llevaron a optar por estas atractivas damas medievales como sus 'personae' narrativas. Este análisis debería ayudar a aclarar la visión de Tennyson sobre la función de la poesía en una sociedad como la victoriana. In this essay the author wants to examine the early poetry of Lord Alfred Tennyson, and especially celebrated poems such as "The Lady of Shalott" and "The Princess" which, on the one hand, feature beautiful medieval maidens but, on the other hand, problematised gender. The author wants to find out what fed the medievalist strain in Tennyson's poetry, and why he seemed to opt for these attractive medieval maidens as narrative personae. Eventually, the analysis should elucidate Tennyson's views on the function of poetry in a Victorian society.
Exacerbation of cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary inflammation by Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxin B in mice
Wouter Huvenne, Ellen A Lanckacker, Olga Krysko, Ken R Bracke, Tine Demoor, Peter W Hellings, Guy G Brusselle, Guy F Joos, Claus Bachert, Tania Maes
Respiratory Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-12-69
Abstract: To study the effect of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB) on CS-induced inflammation, in a mouse model of COPD.C57/Bl6 mice were exposed to CS or air for 4 weeks (5 cigarettes/exposure, 4x/day, 5 days/week). Endonasal SEB (10 μg/ml) or saline was concomitantly applied starting from week 3, on alternate days. 24 h after the last CS and SEB exposure, mice were sacrificed and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissue were collected.Combined exposure to CS and SEB resulted in a raised number of lymphocytes and neutrophils in BAL, as well as increased numbers of CD8+ T lymphocytes and granulocytes in lung tissue, compared to sole CS or SEB exposure. Moreover, concomitant CS/SEB exposure induced both IL-13 mRNA expression in lungs and goblet cell hyperplasia in the airway wall. In addition, combined CS/SEB exposure stimulated the formation of dense, organized aggregates of B- and T- lymphocytes in lungs, as well as significant higher CXCL-13 (protein, mRNA) and CCL19 (mRNA) levels in lungs.Combined CS and SEB exposure aggravates CS-induced inflammation in mice, suggesting that Staphylococcus aureus could influence the pathogenesis of COPD.Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of bacterial colonization and respiratory tract infection, because of suppressed antibacterial activities of the immune system and delayed clearance of microbial agents from the lungs [1]. This is particularly relevant in COPD patients, where bacterial colonization in the lower respiratory tract has been shown [2]. These bacteria are implicated both in stable COPD and during exacerbations, where most commonly pneumococci, Haemophilus influenza, Moraxella catarrhalis and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) are found [3]. Interestingly, colonization with S. aureus may embody a major source of superantigens as a set of toxins are being produced including S. aureus enterotoxins (SAEs) [4]. These toxins activate up to 20% of all T cells in the body by binding the human leuko
It Takes Two to Tango: How Moscow's Influence on the United Nations was Shaped by Washington
Tine Destrooper
Opticon1826 , 2008, DOI: 10.5334/opt.040805
Abstract: To get a more profound insight into Gorbachev’s motivations for introducing the New Political Thinking, a better insight into the political situation of the U.S.S.R. is crucial. In 1985, the U.S.S.R. had been involved in the dead-end war in Afghanistan; in Eastern Europe, there was a significant politicaleconomic stagnation and the relations with the West were depressing (Sakwa, 1990). Foreign policy lacked all direction after four years of inaction, and the prestige of the U.S.S.R. was quickly eroding.
Til kulturhistoriens genealogi
Tine Damsholt
Kulturstudier , 2010,
Abstract: Hvad er kulturhistorie? Dette retoriske sp rgsm l stillede en af dansk kulturhistories faddere Troels Troels-Lund allerede p t rsklen til det 20. rhundrede og gav sit eget veloplagte og polemiske svar, hvor han hyldede dagliglivets historie frem for staternes og krigenes historie. Men er dette svar - s vel som sp rgsm let - stadig relevant i det 21. rhundrede? I det f lgende skal vi se lidt n rmere p , hvad det s rligt er kulturhistorie kan, og hvorvidt og hvordan den adskiller sig fra den almindelige historie. Abstract: The Genealogy of Cultural History What is cultural history? The paper discusses whether cultural history still should be defined by having a specific empirical object such as the history of everyday life. Taking the point of departure in the current mainstreaming of cultural history and topics outside political history within the discipline of history after the cultural turn, it is argued that cultural history should rather be a specific analytical strategy. The paper investigates the Foucauldian notion of genealogy or "history of the present" and proposes an understanding of cultural history as an analytical strategy that seeks to destabilize a present that has forgotten its contingency and the time-bound questions that gave rise to its beliefs and practices. Genealogy is therefore about tracing the heterogeneous pathways that led to the apparent solidity of the present. A first sketch to a genealogy of cultural history in Denmark is given through a discussion of the canonized text by T. Troels- Lund, On Cultural History from 1894. The idea of everyday life as the analytical and defining object of cultural history is constituted in this text as well as in the disciplinary battles that formed the situational background for Troels-Lunds argument. Instead of taking this situated definition for a given fact cultural history is - in the tradition from Foucault - understood as a critical, destabilizing and thus self-reflective analytical strategy.
Nekaj ekonomskih problemov v zvezi s stanovanji v Sloveniji
Tine Stanovnik
Urbani Izziv , 1995,
Abstract: Podan je kratek prikaz stanovanjske politike na Slovenskem ter najpomembnej i problemi, ki so danes prisotni na stanovanjskem podro ju. Zagovarjamo tezo, da je osnovna naloga stanovanjske politike razvoj neprofitnega najemni kega sektorja.
The economics of housing: Some relevant issues in Slovenia
Tine Stanovnik
Urbani Izziv , 1995,
Abstract: A brief overview of the past housing policy in Slovenia is given, together with the most pressing problems facing the housing sector. Arguments in favour of the development of an economically and financially viable non-profit rental sector are presented.
Makar Devushkin and the Ordeal of Artistic Manhood
Tine Roesen
Nordlit : Tidsskrift i litteratur og kultur , 1998,
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